资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 859-871.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.05.01

• 资源管理 •    下一篇

面向国土空间整治修复的生态券理论解析与制度设计

韩博1,2(), 金晓斌1,2(), 孙瑞1,2, 梁鑫源1,2, 张晓琳1,2, 金志丰3, 沈春竹3   

  1. 1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2.自然资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室,南京 210023
    3.江苏省土地勘测规划院,南京 210017
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-06 修回日期:2020-07-11 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 金晓斌,男,甘肃兰州人,教授,博士,博士生导师,主要从事土地资源管理研究。E-mail: jinxb@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:韩博,男,河南新乡人,博士生,主要从事国土整治与生态修复研究。E-mail: mg1727028@smail.nju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971234);自然资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室开放基金项目(2019CZEPK02);国家社会科学重大基金项目(19ZDA096)

Theory analysis and policy design of Ecological Voucher facing land-space consolidation and restoration

HAN Bo1,2(), JIN Xiaobin1,2(), SUN Rui1,2, LIANG Xinyuan1,2, ZHANG Xiaolin1,2, JIN Zhifeng3, SHEN Chunzhu3   

  1. 1. College of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection, Ministry of Land and Resources, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    3 Jiangsu Institute of Land Survey and Planning, Nanjing 210017, China
  • Received:2020-05-06 Revised:2020-07-11 Online:2021-05-25 Published:2021-07-25

摘要:

面向自然资源统一管理和国土空间生态系统保护修复的新形势,针对当前生态补偿目标与国土整治修复不匹配、补偿标准不一致、补偿方法单一化等现实问题,本文通过政策剖析、理论解析及应用分析,提出以生态券为载体实现国土整治修复项目生态价值量化的新思路。主要研究结果:①生态券是特定生态单元生态功效变化程度的价值量化。生态券制度是对生态券生产、应用、交易、评估、监测等进行管理的政策体系;②生态券制度设计的总体思路是以国土整治为生态券实施对象、以占补平衡为需求驱动、以生态补偿为建设目标,以集成生态系统功能、投入、耗散的生态功效框架为生态券测算依据,以国土空间生态修复潜力评价引导生态券价值修正,实现对项目尺度保护修复的整体生态价值的量化;③生态券测算包括区域背景设定、项目尺度计算、区域系数修正3个步骤,衔接国土空间生态修复管理流程中区域规划、项目建设、项目评估3个环节。建议建立包括政策法规、监测体系、技术标准等的生态券制度,为完善生态补偿制度及推动国土空间生态修复实施提供支撑。

关键词: 生态券, 生态补偿, 国土空间生态修复, 生态功效, 制度建议

Abstract:

In order to innovate the ecological compensation system for adaptation to the new situation of unified management of natural resources and ecological restoration, this study analyzed and integrated three main policy dimensions including land consolidation, eco-compensation, and balancing occupation and compensation to propose a new concept of Ecological Voucher. This article explained Ecological Voucher in terms of its conceptualization, measurement framework, and policy analysis and recommendations, and the conclusions are as follows: (1) Ecological Voucher is the quantification of the degree of change of the Ecological Function-Efficiency of an ecological unit. The Ecological Function-Efficiency framework could effectively quantify the value of different land ecological restoration projects in diverse regions and periods, and could guide the transition of land ecological restoration projects from an engineering approach to low-input, low-dissipation, and naturalization; (2) Based on Ecological Function-Efficiency evaluation, regional revised coefficients, and maximum disturbance revised coefficients, the Ecological Voucher framework could optimize the layout of ecological restoration projects by taking into account top-down planning and local needs; (3) Compared with the existing eco-compensation system, the Ecological Voucher has been expanded in measurement standard, compensation subject, application scale, and application scope. Establishing an Ecological Voucher system that includes policies, regulations, monitoring systems, and technical standards can further improve the applicability and practicability of Ecological Voucher policy.

Key words: Ecological Voucher, eco-compensation, land-space ecological restoration, ecological function-efficiency, policy recommendation