资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1905-1917.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.13

• 精准扶贫 • 上一篇    下一篇

易地扶贫搬迁后续扶持政策对农户多维相对贫困的影响

黄志刚(), 黎洁()   

  1. 西安交通大学公共政策与管理学院人口与发展研究所,西安 710049
  • 收稿日期:2022-05-05 修回日期:2022-08-30 出版日期:2022-09-25 发布日期:2022-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 黎洁,女,陕西西安人,教授,研究方向为农村扶贫与发展,农户生计,易地扶贫搬迁等。E-mail: jieli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:黄志刚,男,河南新蔡人,博士生,研究方向为移民反贫困与新型城镇化。E-mail: hzhigang@stu.xjtu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重点项目(20AGL033);国家自然科学基金优秀青年项目(72022014);国家社会科学基金重大项目(21&ZD183);清华大学中国农村研究院博士论文奖学金项目(202011)

Impact of the follow-up supportive policies of relocation for poverty alleviation on multidimensional relative poverty of farming households

HUANG Zhigang(), LI Jie()   

  1. School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
  • Received:2022-05-05 Revised:2022-08-30 Online:2022-09-25 Published:2022-11-25

摘要:

在新阶段中国减贫战略从消除绝对贫困向缓解相对贫困转变的背景下,易地扶贫搬迁后续扶持政策作为巩固搬迁脱贫攻坚成果的重要举措,其对搬迁农户多维相对贫困的影响机制亟待研究。本文将风险和社会排斥同时引入可持续生计框架,构建“后续扶持政策→生计策略→多维相对贫困”分析框架,并采用形成型结构方程模型对安康市、商洛市和渭南市易地扶贫搬迁农户调查数据进行实证分析。结果表明:①总体而言,包括产业、就业、公共服务等在内的搬迁后续扶持政策有效降低了农户的多维相对贫困程度(-0.181)。其中,搬迁后续扶持政策可以直接降低农户多维相对贫困(-0.097),也可以有效改善搬迁农户生计策略进而间接缓解其多维相对贫困(-0.084)。②风险(0.150)和社会排斥(0.088)均会直接导致搬迁农户陷入多维相对贫困,当搬迁农户面临社会排斥和遭遇风险冲击时,就会出现就业困难、收入降低、社会融入困难等状态,从而陷入多维相对贫困。③搬迁后续扶持政策通过改善农户生计策略进而缓解其多维相对贫困的减贫路径会受到社会排斥和风险的制约。其中,在政府通过搬迁后续扶持政策改善农户生计策略的过程中,社会排斥具有显著的负向调节作用(-0.160);在搬迁农户通过生计策略转型缓解其多维相对贫困的过程中,风险具有显著的正向调节作用(0.096)。未来仍需要加强易地扶贫搬迁后续扶持的顶层设计,加强易地扶贫搬迁后续扶持政策对多维相对贫困治理的靶向性。

关键词: 易地扶贫搬迁, 后续扶持政策, 生计策略, 风险, 社会排斥, 多维相对贫困

Abstract:

As China’s poverty reduction strategy has changed from eliminating absolute poverty to alleviating relative poverty in the new stage, the follow-up supportive policies of relocation for poverty alleviation is an important measure to consolidate the achievements of poverty alleviation through relocation and it is necessary to examine the impact of the policy on multidimensional relative poverty alleviation of farming households. This study introduced risk and social exclusion into the framework of sustainable livelihood, and constructed the analytical framework of “follow-up supportive policies → livelihood strategies → multidimensional relative poverty”. It adopted a formative structural equation model to conduct empirical analysis of survey data of relocated farmers. The conclusions of this research are as follows. (1) The follow-up supportive policies including industrial, employment, public service, and so on have effectively alleviated multidimensional relative poverty (-0.181). Specifically, these policies can directly reduce the multidimensional relative poverty of farming households (-0.097), and effectively improve their livelihood strategies, thereby indirectly alleviating their multidimensional relative poverty (-0.084). (2) Risk (0.150) and social exclusion (0.088) directly lead to the falling of relocated farming households into multidimensional relative poverty. When the relocated farmers are faced with social exclusion and risk, they will have difficulties in employment, income, social integration, and other conditions. (3) The path that follow-up supportive policies alleviate the multidimensional relative poverty of farmers by improving their livelihood strategies will be constrained by social exclusion and risk. Specifically, social exclusion has a significant negative regulatory effect (-0.160) in the process of follow-up supportive policies promoting farming household livelihood transition, and risk has a significant positive regulatory effect (0.096) in the process. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the top-level design of follow-up supportive policies of relocation, and strengthen the precise implementation of follow-up supportive policies for the governance of multidimensional relative poverty.

Key words: relocation for poverty alleviation, follow-up supportive policy, livelihood strategy, risk, social exclusion, multidimensional relative poverty