资源科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1307-1321.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.03

• 宅基地退出模式与政策工具 • 上一篇    下一篇

县域宅基地退出的政策工具与实践比较

吕晓(), 薛萍, 牛善栋, 彭文龙   

  1. 东北大学文法学院,沈阳 110169
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-15 修回日期:2021-07-09 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-08-27
  • 作者简介:吕晓,男,山东茌平人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为土地利用与乡村发展。E-mail: lvxiao@mail.neu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务专项资金项目(N2114006);辽宁省“兴辽英才计划”项目(XLYC1807060)

Comparative study on policy tools and practice of homestead withdrawal at the county level

LV Xiao(), XUE Ping, NIU Shandong, PENG Wenlong   

  1. School of Humanities and Law, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China
  • Received:2021-04-15 Revised:2021-07-09 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27

摘要:

探索宅基地自愿有偿退出机制是深化宅基地制度改革、促进乡村全面振兴、优化城乡人地资源配置的重要举措。科学设定政策目标、合理配置政策工具是构建宅基地退出机制的关键内容。基于文本分析视角,以浙江义乌、湖北宜城、山东禹城、宁夏平罗4个宅基地制度改革试点地区为案例区,展开县域宅基地退出的政策工具与实践比较分析,并结合地方特色探究案例区宅基地退出政策的适应性,总结其特征规律。结果表明:①不同地区的政策工具选择差异较大,义乌市以供给型政策工具为主,禹城市、宜城市和平罗县以环境型政策工具为主。②各地政策目标存在差异,义乌以经济目标为主,兼顾社会目标并适当考虑生态目标;禹城和平罗以社会目标为主,兼顾经济目标;宜城主要关注社会目标。③各地宅基地退出不同实践模式中使用的主要政策工具与政策文本中使用的主要政策工具类型不完全一致,除义乌外,其他三地的主要政策工具在实践中均有变化;不同实践模式中的主要政策目标与政策文本中体现的主要政策目标均保持一致。④经济发展水平、地方财政实力、第一产业在经济发展中的重要程度、城镇化水平以及地域文化特色对宅基地退出政策工具和政策目标选择有较大影响。基于此,提出宅基地退出政策制定应考虑地方特色和现实需求科学设定宅基地退出政策工具,综合运用多种政策工具建立宅基地退出长效机制,依据宅基地功能价值论制定差异化的农民宅基地退出方案。

关键词: 宅基地退出, 文本分析, 政策工具, 政策目标, 实践模式, 比较分析, 县域

Abstract:

Exploring the mechanism of voluntary and paid withdrawal of homesteads is an important measure to deepen the reform of the homestead system, promote the overall revitalization of rural areas, and optimize the allocation of human and land resources in urban and rural areas. Setting the policy objectives scientifically and adopting policy tools appropriately are the key contents of the construction of homestead withdrawal mechanism. Using text analysis and taking Yiwu City of Zhejiang Province, Yucheng City of Shandong Province, Yicheng City of Hubei Province, and Pingluo of Ningxia the four pilot areas of homestead system reform as case areas, this study conducted a comparative analysis of policy tools and practice of homestead withdrawal at the county level. Based on the local characteristics, we explored the adaptability of the homestead exit policy in the case areas, and summarized its characteristics. The results show that: (1) The choice of policy tools is different in different regions. Yiwu mainly uses supply-oriented policy tools, while Yucheng, Yicheng, and Pingluo mainly use environmental policy tools. (2) There are differences in the specific policy objectives of different pilot areas. Yiwu mainly focuses on the realization of economic goals while taking into account social and ecological goals. Yucheng and Pingluo focus on the realization of social goals and take into account the realization of economic goals. Yicheng pays more attention to social goals. (3) The types of policy tools used in different models of homestead withdrawal are not completely consistent with the policy instruments of the policy texts. Except for Yiwu in Zhejiang Province, the main policy tools in the other three places have changed in practice, and the policy objectives of different models are consistent with the policy texts. (4) The level of economic development, local financial strength, the importance of primary industry in economic development, the level of urbanization and regional cultural characteristics have a great influence on the choice of homestead withdrawal policy tools and policy objectives. Based on this, this paper proposes that homestead withdrawal policy should be scientifically set up considering local characteristics and realistic needs, comprehensively use a variety of policy tools to establish a long-term homestead withdrawal mechanism, and make differentiated homestead withdrawal plans according to the function value of homestead.

Key words: homestead withdrawal, text analysis, policy tools, policy objectives, practice models, comparative analysis, at the county level