资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 991-1003.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.05.16

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原东部生态敏感区生境质量时空演变特征——以青海省河湟谷地为例

朱杰1, 龚健1,2(), 李靖业1   

  1. 1.中国地质大学(武汉)公共管理学院,武汉 430074;
    2.自然资源部法治研究重点实验室,武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-06 修回日期:2020-01-28 出版日期:2020-05-25 发布日期:2020-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 龚健
  • 作者简介:朱杰,男,江苏南通人,硕士研究生,研究方向为土地利用变化及模拟。E-mail: zhuj_cug@outlook.com
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(CUGL170408)

Spatiotemporal change of habitat quality in ecologically sensitive areas of eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A case study of the Hehuang Valley, Qinghai Province

ZHU Jie1, GONG Jian1,2(), LI Jingye1   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Rule of Law Research, Ministry of Natural Resources, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2019-09-06 Revised:2020-01-28 Online:2020-05-25 Published:2020-07-25
  • Contact: Jian GONG

摘要:

河湟谷地位于高原过渡地带,是青海省的经济文化中心,脆弱的生态环境与剧烈的人类活动存在冲突,因此评估其景观格局变化作用下的生境质量具有典型意义。本文通过改良的Flow转移矩阵表征了不同景观类型间的转化过程;运用InVEST模型评估了1995—2015年河湟谷地的生境质量并分析其时空演变规律与冷热分布特征;借助灰色关联度分析3个时期的生境质量与景观格局要素异质性。结果表明:①1995—2015年,河湟谷地草地、建设用地、水域景观面积持续增加,景观类型呈现破碎化、复杂化、异质化特征;②“贵德—乐都”连线是河湟谷地生境质量的分界线,总体呈“南优北劣”“南热北冷”的分布态势;③生境质量与香农多样性指数、香农均匀性指数、景观分离指数、蔓延度、最大斑块指数等景观指数以及草地、林地景观规模关联度较高,与建设用地面积关联度较低,表明在生态保护政策作用下,建设用地以侵占林地、草地等高生境类型以外的景观为主。研究结果可揭示城市化背景下的生态系统与景观联动关系,指导青藏高原东部区域生态保护与修复工作。

关键词: 生境质量, InVEST模型, Flow转移矩阵, 景观格局指数, 灰色关联度, 河湟谷地, 青藏高原

Abstract:

The Hehuang Valley is located in the transitional region between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Loess Plateau, and is the economic and cultural center of Qinghai Province. The fragile ecological environment in this region is in conflict with the intense human activities. For the assessment of habitat quality in ecologically sensitive areas under landscape pattern change, this study highlighted the transformation process among different landscape types by using the improved flow transfer matrix, and calculated the habitat quality of the Hehuang Valley from 1995 to 2015 with the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model, analyzing its spatiotemporal change and cold-hot spot distribution characteristics, along with characterizing the correlation between habitat quality and landscape pattern elements with gray relational degree. The results show that: (1) From 1995 to 2015, grassland, construction land, and water area kept increasing, and landscape types showed the characteristics of fragmentation, complexity, and heterogeneity. (2) Habitat quality of the Hehuang Valley was divided by the line connecting Guide County and Ledu County higher habitat quality and more concentrated hotspots were distributed to the south of this line. (3) Correlation between habitat quality and landscape pattern indices including Shannon’s Diversity Index (SHDI), Shannon’s Evenness Index (SHEI), Landscape Division Index (DIVISION), Contagion (CONTAG), Largest Patch Index (LPI) and the scale of forest land and grassland is higher, and is lower with construction land area, showing that under the influence of ecological protection policies, construction land increased by occupying landscape types other than high quality habitat types, such as forest land and grassland. The results can be used to guide the identification of ecologically sensitive areas and the demarcation of ecological red line in the Hehuang Valley.

Key words: habitat quality, InVEST model, Flow transfer matrix, landscape pattern index, grey relational degree, Hehuang Valley, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau