资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (8): 1541-1550.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.08.13

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于城市热岛格局的绿地冷岛需求评估——以北京市朝阳区为例

史芸婷1,2,张彪1,2(),高吉喜3,佟跃4,邵珊珊4   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.生态环境部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
    4.北京北林地景园林规划设计院有限责任公司,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-25 修回日期:2019-06-25 出版日期:2019-08-28 发布日期:2019-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 张彪
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503403)

Demand of urban green space cool islands based on heat island pattern: A case study of Chaoyang District of Beijing

Yunting SHI1,2,Biao ZHANG1,2(),Jixi GAO3,Yue TONG4,Shanshan SHAO4   

  1. 1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3.Ministry of Ecology and Environment Center for Satellite Application on Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100094, China
    4.Beijing Beilin Landscape Planning and Design Institute Co. Ltd. , Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2019-02-25 Revised:2019-06-25 Online:2019-08-28 Published:2019-08-21
  • Contact: Biao ZHANG

摘要:

城市绿地具有明显的冷岛效应,开展城市绿地冷岛需求评估可为绿地规划建设提供重要参考依据。本文基于北京市朝阳区的城市热岛空间格局,构建了绿地冷岛需求指数模型,并评估分析了绿地冷岛空间需求与配置要求。结果表明:2017年北京市朝阳区热岛(地表温度≥40℃的区域)面积为6522 hm 2,热岛斑块有619个,且南部斑块数量明显多于北部,斑块面积由西向东显著增大。为消除城市热岛效应,需布局绿地冷岛6154 hm 2。其中,绿地冷岛高需求区面积1054 hm 2,主要位于朝阳区南部的八里庄街道;中需求区面积2021 hm 2,集中在双井、劲松和潘家园街道;低需求区零散分布,面积约3079 hm 2。因此,位于生态空间内的冷岛需求区,绿地配置需要保证一定数量的绿地面积与绿量,并满足绿地斑块结构要求;而位于建设空间内的冷岛需求区,则需要重点提升与利用周边绿地的冷岛效率及辐射效应。

关键词: 城市热岛, 冷岛需求, 城市绿地, 格局, 配置, 北京市朝阳区

Abstract:

Urban green space is often used as an effective measure to mitigate urban heat island (UHI) effect through their cooling effect. Although abundant studies have observed the cool island phenomenon of urban green space, few studies estimated cool island demand in the context of urban heat island. This study built an empirical model of cool island demand on the basis of urban heat island spatial pattern, and estimated the demand level and configuration requirement of green space for UHI mitigation. The results indicate that in 2017, there existed about 6522 hm 2 of heat islands with land surface temperature exceeding 40℃ in Chaoyang District. The number of urban heat island patches reached 619, concentrated in the southern part of Chaoyang District. The area of heat islands greatly increased from the western to the eastern part of the city. Approximately 6154 hm 2 of cool islands were needed for the mitigation of the urban heat island effect. The area of high demand region for cool islands was 1054 hm 2, distributed in Balizhuang of Chaoyang District. The moderate demand region reached 2021 hm 2, located in Shuangjing, Jinsong, and Panjiayuan. The remaining 3079 hm 2 belonged to the low demand region for cool islands, scattered in the district. In planned ecological land, urban green space cool island demand region should meet the requirement of greening area, community structure, and vegetation configuration, whereas the cool island demand area in the planned construction land should improve and utilize the cooling effect of adjacent green spaces.

Key words: urban heat island, cool island demand, urban green space, pattern, configuration, Chaoyang District of Beijing