资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (9): 1878-1889.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.17

• 资源法学 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国法律中的森林定义——兼论法律保护森林资源生态价值的迫切性

杜群()   

  1. 武汉大学 环境法研究所,武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-10 修回日期:2018-07-10 出版日期:2018-09-20 发布日期:2018-09-14
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杜群,女,浙江永康人,教授、博士生导师,研究方向为环境与资源保护法。E-mail:qdu@whu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目“生态文明语境下环境法体系化发展” ;国家社科基金重大招标项目(14ZDC030)

The definition of forest in Chinese legislation——the rationale of legal protection of the ecological values of forest resources

Qun DU   

  1. Research Institute of Environmental Law, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • Received:2018-04-10 Revised:2018-07-10 Online:2018-09-20 Published:2018-09-14

摘要:

森林的法律概念是森林立法和司法的核心,也是中国建设森林资源产权制度、推行集体林权制度改革的基础。本文系统并细致考察了中国法律、法规、政策、司法与执法解释和法律学说关于森林的法律定义,发现其存在两个层次的表达方式,即以宪法、森林法及其实施条例为核心而形成的一级森林定义体系,和以林业部门的各种规范性文件而形成的二级森林定义体系。笔者进而分析认为中国现行的森林法律定义体系存在的主要问题是:形式上,森林定义的法律文本位阶较低,正式法律规范对森林的定义过于宽泛、不够具体;实质上,现行森林法律定义缺乏对森林生态价值的关注和涵摄,现行森林立法对森林的定义过于宽泛,导致森林资源、林地和林木的法律保护在主体和权利义务上的虚化。目前,中国森林立法已从森林产业法向森林资源法、森林保护法转变,因此在《森林法》修改时应当增强森林资源的生态价值取向,构建一个价值多元的森林法律概念。

关键词: 《森林法》, 森林资源, 生态价值, 森林, 林木, 林地:司法和执法解释

Abstract:

The legal concept for forest is the core of forest legislation. It is also the precondition for building the system of forest resources property rights and carrying out the reform of collective forest rights system in China. This paper systematically teases and examines the legal definition of forest from the laws, regulations, policies, judicial interpretations, and legal doctrines in our country. It is noted that there are two levels of expressions; that is, one formed by the Constitution, the Forest Law and its implementing regulations Level forest definition system and the second-level forest definition system is formed by various normative documents of the forestry department. The main problems of forest definition system in Chinese legislation are recognized as the following: (i). The legal text of forest definition is in the lower level of the Chinese legislative system; (ii). Formal laws and regulations define the forests too broad and not specific enough; and (iii). The current forest legislation lacks attention to forest ecological value. At present, our forest legislation has changed from the forest industry law to the law both for the sustainable use of forest resource and the protection of forest ecosystems. Therefore, in the revision of the "Forest Law", it should be fully affirmed that the forest resources as a whole have various ecological functions such as water storage and soil conservation, climate regulation, and environment improvement. It is recommended to construct a forest law concept that directs to multiple values.

Key words: legislation, forest resources, ecological values, forest, trees, forest land, judicial interpretation