资源科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 30-39.doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.04

• 专栏:中国国家公园体制试点研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

钱江源国家公园体制试点区扩源增效融资策略研究

孙琨1, 2, 钟林生2, 马向远2   

  1. 1. 常熟理工学院经济与管理学院,苏州 215500;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-10 修回日期:2016-12-05 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 钟林生,E-mail:zhongls@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:孙琨,男,甘肃白银人,博士,主要研究方向为生态旅游开发与管理。E-mail:zkydlsly@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671527); 浙江省发展和改革委员会项目(钱江源国家公园体制试点方案与总体规划编制)

Increasing the scale and efficiency of finance in constructing and running the Qianjiangyuan National Park System Pilot Area

SUN Kun1, 2, ZHONG Linsheng2, MA Xiangyuan2   

  1. 1. Economics and Management College,Changshu Institute of Technology,Suzhou 215500,China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2016-09-10 Revised:2016-12-05 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-01-20

摘要: 建立国家公园体制是生态文明建设的重要内容,制定融资方案是国家公园体制建设的关键环节。本文梳理相关文献中提及的国家公园融资渠道及办法,并以浙江省钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例,分析国家公园建设过程中各类资金需求,比较各融资渠道对各类资金筹集的重要性,在此基础上提出国家公园扩源增效融资策略。研究表明:①国际经验表明国家公园的资金渠道主要包括财政资金、社会投入、市场收益;②国内国家公园建设中所需资金主要包括建设运营基本经费、社区维持及发展资金、经营项目建设资金;③借鉴国外经验并结合国内实际,上述三类国家公园所需资金的主要来源应分别为国家财政、地方财政、社会资本投入;④为提高国家公园融资效率,需采取按需分类融资模式,并采取政府与市场双轮驱动、保护与发展融合统筹等融资途径。

关键词: 国家公园, 钱江源国家公园体制试点区, 融资方法, 融资渠道, 资金需求

Abstract: An important part in building an ecological civilization is a national park system,and an important part of any park system is financing. Here we list national park financing channels and means using published literature, from aspects of spending for establishing and protecting national parks,supporting local community and compensating local livelihoods,and investing in ecological tourism. Financing national park construction was analyzed for the Qianjiangyuan National Park System Pilot Area in Zhejiang,China. The significance of financing channels to meet different finance demands is compared and strategies for increasing the finance scale and efficiency of national parks are put forward. We found that national park financing channels mainly include the financial budget,social input and market returns. Most national parks in the world are supported by national finance,or by both national and local finance. Social input can come from social donation,issuing ecological lottery tickets,volunteer service and capital contribution. The market returns always come from remising rights and interests of the national park,ecosystem services trade and ticket income. The funds required by the national park mainly include constructing and running costs,community maintaining and developing investment,and the capital for building business projects. referring to the foreign experience and considering the reality of China, in sequence,the main finance channels for each of the above three kinds of fund demands in Chinese national park developing were the national financial budget,local financial budget,and social capita input. In order to increase the finance scale and efficiency of national parks,the mode of classifying finance according to different fund demands should be adopted,more fund should be obtained from government and markets,and funds for conservation and development should be integrated and be planned as a whole.

Key words: financing channel, financing method, fund demand, national park, Qianjiangyuan National Park System Pilot Area