25 July 2021, Volume 43 Issue 7 Previous Issue   
Research hotspots and prospects of homestead withdrawal and reuse
ZHANG Bailin, ZHANG Fengrong, QU Yanbo, JIANG Guanghui, XIE Zhen, CAI Weimin
2021, 43 (7):  1277-1292.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.01
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Exploring the separation of ownership, qualification right, and use right of homestead and promoting the withdrawal and reuse of idle homesteads is an important task for land system reform. In this study, CiteSpace and document analysis method were used for the bibliometric analysis to identify hotspots of homestead withdrawal and reuse research and analyze its progress. The results show that: (1) With the transfer of rural population to urban areas and village hollowing, the willingness and behavior of farmers’ homestead withdrawal became a hot research topic, and relevant studies gradually focus on the relationship between them and satisfaction of farmers in the process; the mechanism and models of withdrawal are the core of homestead withdrawal research. In existing research scholars have constructed the incentive and constraint mechanism of homestead withdrawal and income distribution and guarantee mechanism, and extracted and analyzed the homestead withdrawal models and their applicability in typical areas; the compensation of homestead withdrawal and farmers’ interest after withdrawal have also become the focus of research. (2) Under the background of “Separation of Three Rights”, research on the reuse of homesteads after withdrawal became the key and hotspots of reform of the homestead system, which focuses on the ways of reuse, models, and approaches. The ways of homestead reuse focus on reclamation for farmland and green land, and transfer to other farmers for the same use or as land for new industries and commercial activities; the models of homestead reuse can be divided into development model and organization mode; the approaches of homestead reuse include trading, leasing, equity, and joint operation. (3) In the future, the research of homestead withdrawal and reuse should aim at rural revitalization, focusing on homestead value evaluation, models of reuse, and benefits of reuse, promoting the reform of rural homestead “Separation of Rights”. Future research should also focus on sustainable livelihoods of farmers and rural social sustainability to improve the homestead withdrawal and reuse policy system, and promote land system reform.

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Archetype analysis of rural homestead withdrawal patterns based on the framework of “diagnosis-design-outcome”
QU Yanbo, CHAI Yifan, ZHU Weiya, PING Zongli, ZONG Haining, WANG Sen
2021, 43 (7):  1293-1306.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.02
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Rural homestead withdrawal is a breakthrough in the reform of rural land system. It is essential to scientifically design homestead withdrawal models and effectively identify its operating mechanisms, in order to stimulate the vitality of rural development and optimize the allocation of urban and rural elements. Taking Shandong Province as an example and based on system theory to design four homestead withdrawal patterns, this study initially conceptualized the action for rural homestead withdrawal as the specific process by which diagnostic attributes, design attributes, and outcomes interact with each other. Therefore, a code-book was formed based on the diagnosis-design-outcome (DDO) framework. Second, the archetype analysis method was used to identify the action logic and operating mechanisms of different homestead withdrawal patterns. Finally, the applicable conditions of different withdrawal patterns were clarified according to some elements characterized by human-land relationship. The results show that: (1) The four homestead withdrawal models of asset exchange, monetary compensation, exchanging old-age service with homestead, and equity participation with homestead comprehensively consider the improvement of the rural living environment and the multi-level demands of farming households, and are characterized by the core-periphery spatial pattern, adapting to the needs of rural development in different regions. (2) The essence of different homestead withdrawal patterns is to guide farmers to exit in an orderly manner through a diversified incentive mechanism, showing many kinds of archetypes, such as the incentive of asset exchange under the guidance of the government, economic compensation incentive under the cooperation between the government and rural collectives, the incentive for exchanging old-age service with homestead under the cooperation of the government and enterprises, as well as the incentive for equity participation with homesteads under the collaboration of rural collectives and enterprises, and so on. Different homestead withdrawal patterns have differentiated operational processes and specific applicable conditions. Affected by differences in regional environments, policy-driven transformations, and the upgrading of farming households’ demand level, the withdrawal patterns of homesteads will be more diversified. In the process of dissemination and application, the models should be adjusted properly according to the differences and changes of system conditions, so as to meet the needs of rural homestead management and rural development in different areas.

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Comparative study on policy tools and practice of homestead withdrawal at the county level
LV Xiao, XUE Ping, NIU Shandong, PENG Wenlong
2021, 43 (7):  1307-1321.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.03
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Exploring the mechanism of voluntary and paid withdrawal of homesteads is an important measure to deepen the reform of the homestead system, promote the overall revitalization of rural areas, and optimize the allocation of human and land resources in urban and rural areas. Setting the policy objectives scientifically and adopting policy tools appropriately are the key contents of the construction of homestead withdrawal mechanism. Using text analysis and taking Yiwu City of Zhejiang Province, Yucheng City of Shandong Province, Yicheng City of Hubei Province, and Pingluo of Ningxia the four pilot areas of homestead system reform as case areas, this study conducted a comparative analysis of policy tools and practice of homestead withdrawal at the county level. Based on the local characteristics, we explored the adaptability of the homestead exit policy in the case areas, and summarized its characteristics. The results show that: (1) The choice of policy tools is different in different regions. Yiwu mainly uses supply-oriented policy tools, while Yucheng, Yicheng, and Pingluo mainly use environmental policy tools. (2) There are differences in the specific policy objectives of different pilot areas. Yiwu mainly focuses on the realization of economic goals while taking into account social and ecological goals. Yucheng and Pingluo focus on the realization of social goals and take into account the realization of economic goals. Yicheng pays more attention to social goals. (3) The types of policy tools used in different models of homestead withdrawal are not completely consistent with the policy instruments of the policy texts. Except for Yiwu in Zhejiang Province, the main policy tools in the other three places have changed in practice, and the policy objectives of different models are consistent with the policy texts. (4) The level of economic development, local financial strength, the importance of primary industry in economic development, the level of urbanization and regional cultural characteristics have a great influence on the choice of homestead withdrawal policy tools and policy objectives. Based on this, this paper proposes that homestead withdrawal policy should be scientifically set up considering local characteristics and realistic needs, comprehensively use a variety of policy tools to establish a long-term homestead withdrawal mechanism, and make differentiated homestead withdrawal plans according to the function value of homestead.

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Spatial differentiation and hierarchical collaborative zoning of rural homestead withdrawal potential:A case study of Yicheng City, Hubei Province
KONG Xuesong, CHEN Junli, LIU Dianfeng, ZHAO Xiang
2021, 43 (7):  1322-1334.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.04
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The potential of rural homestead withdrawal, with typical characteristics of regional differentiation and spatial association, is the basis for the stratified implementation of rural homestead system reform. This study analyzed the logical relationship of rural homestead withdrawal based on the theoretical potential, willingness potential, and real potential. A hierarchical collaborative zoning method of potential of rural homestead withdrawal is proposed by combining the analysis of space combination with the coupling model. We took Yicheng City in Hubei Province as an example to carry out the empirical research. The differentiation and coupling relationship of the three types of potentials of rural homestead withdrawal were well revealed in Yicheng City. The zoning of rural homestead withdrawal and the optimization direction for different zones were identified. The results show that: (1) The theoretical potential of rural homestead withdrawal in Yicheng is widely distributed, while the willingness potential and real potential show a typical core-periphery feature, which means that the willingness potential and real potential in the central plain area is significantly higher than those in the surrounding hilly areas. The proportion of migrant workers is an important factor affecting the areal proportion of willingness to withdraw from homesteads. (2) The combination analysis of the three types of potentials shows that more than half of the villages (communities) exhibit hierarchical consistency, while the three types of potentials within the non-consistent areas of the hierarchical combination are mainly low level coupling. (3) The rural homestead withdrawal area of Yicheng City is divided into five zones, including priority withdrawal area, key withdrawal area, general withdrawal area, elastic withdrawal area, and willingness limit area. Among them, the priority withdrawal area is the key site to implement rural homestead withdrawal reform pilot projects. The government should construct a differentiated zoning withdrawal mechanism centered on farmers’ interests and a protection mechanism of farmers’ long-term benefits based on clarifying the direction of rural homestead withdrawal and transformative development.

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Influencing factors of farmers’ homestead withdrawal decision based on the technology acceptance model and perceived risk:Evidence from Chongqing
WANG Zhaolin, WANG Min
2021, 43 (7):  1335-1347.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.05
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Homestead withdrawal is an important method to solve the problem of inefficient use of rural homesteads, and it is an important part of rural revitalization and rural development. Based on the technology acceptance model and the theory of perceived values, this study used the data of 503 farming households from a questionnaire survey in Chongqing Municipality to reveal the decision-making mechanism of farmers’ homestead withdrawal by means of a structural equation model (SEM). The results show that: (1) The research method of technology acceptance model (TAM) integrating perceived risk (PR) is suitable for the study of the mechanism of influence of farmers’ homestead withdrawal decision making. The decision making of farmers’ homestead withdrawal is mainly affected by the positive influence of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use and the negative influence of perceived risk; (2) Among the factors affecting farmers’ behavior of exiting from their homesteads, perceived usefulness has the strongest impact, followed by perceived ease of use, and perceived risk has the weakest effect. The impact path coefficients are 0.35, 0.29, and -0.18, respectively; (3) Social environment, family environment, and homestead environment indirectly influence farmers’ homestead withdrawal decisions by affecting their perceived usefulness, ease of use, and risk. They are important factors that cannot be ignored in the process of promoting the effective implementation of homestead system reform. The formulation of compensation policy should be in keeping with the actual production and life of farmers, reflecting ease of use and operability, and should improve the relevant social security measures and ensure that the compensation for homestead withdrawal is paid timely.

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The impact of feeding resources back and institutional arrangements on the willingness of intellectual immigrants to pay for the inheritance of homesteads
LIU Ling, XU Run, GAO Xinghan
2021, 43 (7):  1348-1360.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.06
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It is of great significance to explore the willingness of intellectual immigrants to pay for the inheritance of homesteads for solving the predicament of long-term disuse of rural homesteads and promoting the reform of homestead system. Based on a survey of 612 intellectual immigrants from 6 provinces and cities in developed and underdeveloped regions, this study analyzed the willingness of intellectual immigrants to pay for the inheritance of homesteads and its influencing factors by employing statistical analysis and a disordered multi-class logistic regression model. The results show that: (1) Intellectual immigrants’ age, gender, urban household registration, residence time, and homestead inheritance rights cognition positively affect their willingness to inherit the homesteads, and the current work location has a negative impact on the willingness to inherit the homesteads; (2) In terms of resource endowment, a better personal resource endowment and a poor family resource endowment reduce the willingness to pay for homestead inheritance of intellectual immigrants, while the better the natural resource endowment, the stronger the willingness to pay for homestead inheritance; (3) In terms of the institutional arrangement, reasonable paid inheritance costs increase the willingness of intellectual immigrants to pay for inheritance, a free of compensation exiting policy will stimulate intellectual immigrants to accept paid inheritance of homesteads, and a paid exiting policy will reduce their willingness to pay for inheritance; (4) The willingness to pay for inheritance also can be enhanced by the feeding resources back behavior of intellectual immigrants, such as through direct currency input and appropriate social support. Therefore, a policy recommendation is made that the government should attract intellectual immigrants to feed resources back and reasonably set prices for compensated use or inheritance.

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Increment income sharing of rural homestead withdrawal based on alliance interest distribution: A case of typical counties and cities in Zhejiang Province
YUAN Shaofeng, GAN Xinyi, TANG Yiyu
2021, 43 (7):  1361-1374.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.07
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Developing a scientific and fair income distribution mechanism is an effective way to mobilize all parties in order to promote homestead withdrawal This study constructed a contribution-based increment income distribution model of homestead withdrawal under the alliance interest distribution mechanism. It also measured the typical counties and cities in Zhejiang Province and discussed the spatial differences of the contribution and distribution proportion of increment income of each party in homestead withdrawal. Important results are as follows: (1) Based on the opportunity cost of farmers and collective economic organizations and the capitalized cost of governments, the theoretical distribution proportions of increment income in homestead withdrawal are close to local policy standards and typical cases in practice. (2) The contribution of each party in the increment income of homestead withdrawal has significant regional differences and exhibits an urban-rural gradient. The contributions of farmers and collective economic organizations show the pattern of Cixi > Yiwu > Jiaxing > Taishun > Yunhe and a trend of village in the city > suburban village > exsuburb village > remote villages. The contributions of increment income of the governments show the pattern of Jiaxing > Cixi > Yiwu > Taishun > Yunhe. (3) Different regions and village locations correspond to different homestead withdrawal increment income distribution patterns. At the regional level, the distribution proportions of of increment income farmers are relatively high in Jiaxing, Cixi, and Yiwu, and the distribution proportions of governments and collective economic organizations are relatively high in Taishun and Yunhe. At the village level, the distribution proportions of increment income of farmers and collective economic organizations are relatively high in villages in the city and suburban villages, and the distribution proportions of governments and farmers are relatively high in exsuburb villages and remote villages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a distribution mechanism of homestead withdrawal increment income following the principle of allocation fairness and efficiency, according to the location differences and the interest loss of all parties.

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Institutional arrangement of “Three Rights Separation” of rural homestead and the capitalization path of use right
WANG Cheng, XU Shuang
2021, 43 (7):  1375-1386.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.08
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The institutional reform of “Three Rights Separation” breaks down the barriers of the old homestead system, synergizes with the strategies of rural revitalization and new urbanization, and makes the right to use homestead flexible, which helps to revitalize the unused assets of rural areas. Under the institutional arrangement of the separation of three rights, capitalization of rural residential land use right is an important means to accelerate the establishment of unified urban and rural construction land market, comprehensively enhance the function of rural settlements, and realize the benefit sharing of rural multiple subjects. With the help of the time series method, this study examined the stage of homestead reform and the subdivision process of property rights, explored the extension of homestead attributes, and deconstructed the internal mechanism of homestead from the perspectives of resource capitalization and asset capitalization. This study analyzed the institutional arrangement of the separation of three rights of rural residential land in four dimensions: the origin and connotation, external environment, multiple subjects, and performance of the system; examined the choice and practical dilemma of the capitalization of the right to use rural residential land under the separation of three rights system, and put forward the capitalization path of the right to use rural residential land. The capitalization of rural residential land use right needs to match the different stages of rural development in different regions, in order to truly enhance the social and economic benefits and development vitality of rural areas.

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Impact of risk expectation, citizenization perception, and farmers’ cognition on the relocated rural households’ homestead withdrawal
SHI Peng, YU Jin
2021, 43 (7):  1387-1402.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.09
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Funds and land are two important constraints for poverty alleviation-related relocation to continuously promote poverty reduction of the relocated rural households in the “post-relocation” period, and the key to address this issue is to withdraw from relocated households’ old homestead. This study constructed a theoretical framework of the path of impact of risk expectation, citizenization perception, and farmers’ cognition on farmers’ homestead exit based on the improved planned behavior theory, and used a hybrid structural equation model and the survey data of 1250 households from eight counties (districts) in Shaanxi Province to test the impact. We also tested the moderating effect of resettlement mode, age, and policy cognition. The results show that risk expectation and citizenization perception have a significant direct impact on exit behavior, which are -0.371 and 0.379, respectively, and they also indirectly affect exit behavior through the transmission mechanism of farmers’ cognition and exit intention. On the whole, homestead exit behavior is affected by three mechanisms: the spontaneity of farmers’ cognition, policy synergistic effect of the citizenization perception, and binding effect of risk expectation. The group test results show that in the urbanization resettlement mode, risk expectation and citizenization perception have a higher impact on exit behavior. Elderly farmers’ risk expectation has stronger constraint on behavior attitude and exit behavior, while their synergistic effect is lower. Policy cognition will increase the pulling effect of farmers’ citizenization perception on exit behavior, and reduce the resistance of risk expectation. So there are three ways to realize the smooth exit of homesteads. On the one hand, it is necessary to activate the “spontaneity” of farmers’ participation. On the other hand, it is important to enhance the synergistic effect of the relocation by strengthening famers’ citizenization perception and to reduce the binding effect of risk expectation by strengthening employment support and optimizing the convergence of social security system before and after resettlement. It is necessary to adopt more differentiated policies according to the resettlement modes and age of the farmers and continuously improve the policy cognition to efficiently promote the household homestead exit behavior.

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The influence path of farmers’ homestead withdrawal behavior in poor areas:From the family life cycle perspective
GAO Yuan, SUN Pengfei, ZHAO Kai
2021, 43 (7):  1403-1418.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.10
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Exploring the paths of influence of farmers’ homestead exiting behavior in poor areas has important theoretical and practical significance for implementing the homestead withdrawal policy. Based on the planned behavior theory and the survey data of 333 farming households in Jinzhai County of Anhui Province the only poor county in the pilot counties of China’s rural homestead reform program, a structural equation model was used to explore the paths of influence of homestead exiting behavior of farmers from the perspective of family life cycle. Differences in the paths of influence of different types of families were also compared and analyzed. The results show that the homestead exiting behavior of rural households in poor areas basically follows the theory of planned behavior, and the influence paths include “behavior attitude → willingness to withdraw → withdrawal behavior” and “subjective norms → willingness to withdraw → withdrawal behavior”. Subjective norms are the dominant factor, followed by behavior attitude, and the willingness of rural households to withdraw from homesteads significantly positively affects their withdrawal behavior. Different types of family homesteads have different influence paths for the withdrawal behavior. The influence paths of families with high demand for support and elderly-care families are “behavior attitude → withdrawal willingness → withdrawal behavior” and “subjective norms → withdrawal willingness → withdrawal behavior”. The influence path of child-raising families is “subjective norms → withdrawal willingness → withdrawing behavior”, and the influence of subjective norms on the child-raising families is stronger than that of elderly-care families and families with high demand for support. This article further put forward some recommendations: implementing different incentive policies for farmers’ homestead withdraw for different types of families, effective use of rural social relations and social networks, improving supporting policies after homestead withdraw, strict implementation of information disclosure and timely payment systems for homestead withdrawal compensation funds, and so on.

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Structure and realization of rural homestead development right under the Separation of Three Rights
E Shixuan, WANG Zhaolin
2021, 43 (7):  1419-1427.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.11
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The purpose of this study is to examine and clarify the right structure and form of realization of rural homestead development under the Separation of Three Rights, which has important significance for promoting a new round of deepening the reform of rural homestead system, protecting farmers’ rights and interests, and increasing farmers’ property income. This study adopted an inductive summary and legal analysis method, systematically explained right necessity and connotation and legal attribute of rural homestead development under the Separation of Three Rights, and examined and clarified the right structure and form of realization of rural homestead development. The results show that: (1) Rural homestead development right under the Separation of Three Rights refers to the rural homestead development right beyond the function of residential security when rural homestead is expanded to new industries, new business forms, and the integrated development of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. Rural homestead development right is a kind of dynamic property right derived from rural homestead ownership and its right to use, stemming from ownership, and its legal attribute is a civil right (private right) in legal term. It is a new usufructuary right; (2) Rural homestead development right subjects should be hybrid, where the collectives enjoy the first level rural homestead development right derived from ownership, farmers enjoy the secondary rural homestead development right derived from the use right, and social subjects enjoy the third level rural homestead development right derived from the management right. The material form of rural homestead and its development potential should be treated as a whole and act as the object of rural homestead development right. The content of rural homestead development right is the summation of its main rights and obligations; (3) The realization of rural homestead development right should define collective economic organizations as ownership subjects and endow rural homestead ownership with complete rights and powers; incorporate their qualification into collective membership rights through legislation, and establish a system for statistical accounting; innovate the business circulation and sharing and co-construction mode of the transfer of rural homestead development right. Distribution of the value-added income in the transfer process of rural homestead development right should take into account the interests of farmers’ collectives, farmers, and social subjects. The research of this paper provides theoretical reference and policy enlightenment for deepening the reform of rural homestead system.

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Rural homestead value reconstruction and withdrawal compensation pricing based on marginal opportunity cost
ZHOU Yajuan, LIN Aiwen, ZHANG Ershen
2021, 43 (7):  1428-1439.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.12
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In the process of urbanization, the population loss in rural areas is serious, and a large number of homesteads are left unused. Reasonably reconstructing the complete value of homesteads and formulating an exit compensation pricing mechanism have become an inevitable measure to reuse rural residential land and promote rural revitalization. In this study, on the basis of examining the relationship between the property rights of homesteads in China, the types of homestead withdrawal were clarified. Based on the theory of marginal opportunity cost, the value evaluation system consisting of value cognition of homesteads-marginal opportunity cost analysis-complete value reconstruction was constructed from the perspective of the cost of homestead withdrawal. The results of the research are as follows: (1) The value of rural homestead is composed of its own value, development value, equity value, and intergenerational value. The part of the value lost when the homestead is withdrawn is the cost of loss of farmers; (2) Use cost losses to measure the value of homesteads, use marginal production costs to measure the development value of homesteads, use marginal user costs to measure the value of homesteads themselves, and use marginal externality costs to measure the value of homestead equity and intergenerational values; (3) Different types of homesteads have different values at the time of exit, and corresponding compensation should be made according to the cost loss in the exit compensation; (4) The marginal production cost of homestead and the loss of marginal user cost are mostly compensated by monetary means, and the marginal externality cost is compensated by monetary means combined with non-monetary means. Based on the results, a new mechanism of homestead pricing is explored, and relevant policy recommendations for homestead withdrawal compensation are put forward to provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of the rural homestead withdrawal system.

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Influence of farming household interactions on rural homestead withdrawal compensation from the perspective of social network
PENG Shangui, SUN Hao, WANG Jian, ZHANG Yong
2021, 43 (7):  1440-1453.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.13
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Measuring and depicting the influence of farming household interactions concerning rural homestead withdraw compensation is helpful for understanding the formation mechanism of homestead withdraw compensation, and has significance implications for making policy arrangements scientifically and promoting the withdraw of farmers who have settled in cities from rural homesteads according to the law, voluntarily, and with compensation. In this study, an econometric model was used to measure farmers’ interaction concerning homestead withdraw compensation, and the nomination method was used to construct a social network reflecting the interactions of farming households concerning homestead withdraw compensation. Furthermore, the centrality of individual farmers and its driving factors were analyzed, the characteristics of “people with important influence” were depicted, and then the corresponding policy implications were put forward from the people-oriented perspective. The results show that: (1) Interactions between farmers are an important factor in the formation mechanism of farmers’ homestead withdraw compensation. Controlling for the influence of other factors, for a farmer, a 1% change in the willingness to accept (WTA) of neighbors will lead to a change of 0.218%~0.421% in the same direction. (2) There are obvious differences in farmers’ in degree centrality and out degree centrality in the discussion network of homestead withdraw compensation, which reflects the varied ability of different farmers to exert and accept influences. (3) In the process of the formation of farmers’ centrality, personal income is not a significant factor, while the two factors related to identity and reputation, namely, professional prestige and educational level, are significant factors. The policy implication of this study is that in the process of promoting the compensation for farmers’ homestead withdrawal, according to the idea of differentiated promotion, we can use the interactive influence of farmers to better promote the realization of policy objectives.

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Multifunctional evolution and formation mechanism of rural homestead
ZHAO Qinglei, MA Wenqiu, QU Yanbo, JIANG Guanghui
2021, 43 (7):  1454-1466.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.14
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Exploring the function change law of rural homestead can deepen the study of land use function change and provide a scientific basis for formulating an effective rural homestead management system. This paper constructs a multi-function classification system of “social security—profit—retention” for rural homestead. Based on the two-phase survey data of 613 typical farmer households, the kernel density method and multivariate logistic regression model are used to analyze the multifunction characteristics of rural homestead in typical counties in metropolitan suburbs. The formation of key factors reveals the formation mechanism of the function of rural homestead under the comprehensive action of "farmers-rural homestead-village". Research shows: (1) From 2005 to 2018, the social security function of rural homestead showed a significant weakening trend, while the profit function and retention function showed an increasing trend, the functional structure changed from 83.2%:6.9%:9.9% to 71.8%:10.6%:17.6. (2) The social security function has been continuously strengthened in the economically backward mountainous areas, it reflects the dependence of regional farmers on their residential security, and the spatial form has evolved from strip-band to patch-area. In order to meet the needs of leisure agriculture and tourism, the income function is concentrated in the plain area with good economy and the suburban mid-level mountains, and the distribution pattern evolves from point to point to strip expansion. However, the retention function is strengthened in mid-level mountainous areas, and the form is decentralized from piece-plane to point-band, which reflects the increase of rural households' working outside and their expectation on the potential value of rural homestead. (3) From the perspective of farmers household, village characteristics such as location, economy and terrain are the triggering factors of multifunctional formation of rural homestead; farmer households characteristics such as family members, the size and structure of revenue are active factors for multifunctional formation of rural homestead; the characteristics of rural homestead such as location, size and construction age are restrictive factors, which affect the degree and direction of the multifunctional evolution. In the construction of new rural communities and the reform of rural homestead system, it should follow the law of the evolution and differentiation of rural homestead, and take measures according to the difference system of the comprehensive characteristics of village-peasant household and rural homestead.

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Compensation preference and heterogeneity sources of homestead withdrawal of farming households: Based on choice experiment method
CHEN Ming
2021, 43 (7):  1467-1478.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.15
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Promoting the withdrawal of rural homesteads is an important measure to alleviate the inefficient allocation of land resources in China. The core of this policy is to understand farmers’ compensation preferences, design a reasonable compensation plan, and promote farmers to voluntarily withdraw from their homesteads. This study designed experimental plan scenarios including six attributes compensation method, compensation delivery speed, compensation ratio, payment mode, supporting services, and funding sources. Based on the survey data, we focused on comparing farming household choice preferences and sources of heterogeneity under the three compensation methods of monetary compensation, housing replacement, and employment. The results show that: (1) As long as the policies are open and transparent and the compensation standards are reasonable, most farmers show the willingness to participate in the withdrawal of homesteads and tend to choose direct monetary compensation; (2) Non-monetary compensation also shows certain policy potentials. Groups of people who are younger, more educated, have higher income levels, and have homesteads farther from county seats and less important are more attracted by non-monetary compensation plans; (3) Education and income levels are the two important factors that affect what supporting services and source of funds farmers choose. The lower the level of education and annual income of the farmers, the more they prefer education and training and paying social security contribution retrospectively, and they are more inclined to choose the source of compensation funds through the financial appropriation channel. The findings of this study have policy implications for formulating residential land withdrawal compensation plans more scientifically and accurately.

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Effect of homestead withdrawal on family welfare:From the perspective of family risk taking capacity
WU Lijun, WU Zebin
2021, 43 (7):  1479-1491.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.16
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The right to use homestead is a kind of usufruct privilege unique to China, with a strong welfare nature. Homestead withdrawal has an important impact on the overall welfare level of peasant families. From the perspective of household risk carrying capacity, the threshold effect of homestead withdrawal on household welfare level was discussed. Based on the sample data of 3450 households in China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014 to 2016, a threshold panel regression model was constructed to take household risk carrying capacity as the threshold variable for empirical test. The results show that: (1) A significant nonlinear relationship exists between homestead withdrawal and household welfare level, and the degree and direction of the impact of homestead withdrawal on household welfare level depend on the risk taking capacity of households. (2) Family risk taking capacity has a double threshold effect. The stronger the risk taking capacity of the family, the more the homestead withdrawal can promote the improvement of the household welfare level; when the risk taking capacity of the family is weak, the welfare level of the family decreases after the homestead is withdrawn. (3) Risk taking capacity of households, per capita GDP, the area of homestead, and the amount of compensation for the withdrawal of homestead all have a significant positive impact on the improvement of the household welfare level. Family risk bearing capacity is an important threshold variable that affects family welfare level in the process of homestead withdrawal. The government should take family risk bearing capacity as an important decision-making factor to promote the orderly withdrawal of rural homestead in China. The policy making should fully consider the differences of risk bearing capacity of different households and treat them differently.

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Multi-value segmentation deviation measurement of rural homestead use right
XIA Fangzhou, LU Pingzhen
2021, 43 (7):  1492-1508.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.17
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“Same location with equal rights and equal price” is an ultimate goal of building a unified urban and rural construction land market. However, for a long time, the cognitive limitations of rural homestead use right, circulation obstacles, and the difficulty in forming a rural homestead market make it difficult to realize the value of rural homestead. There is a big deviation between the actual transfer price and the functional value of rural homestead, and there exists also a huge gap between rural homestead and urban homestead. Therefore, this study selected 287 cases of rural homestead and 534 cases of urban homestead in Beijing and built a measurement framework of segmented deviation of multiple values of rural homestead use right. The study used a multi-function model and deep belief network (DBN) to measure the “three-dimensional value” and “two-level deviation” of the actual transfer price, the functional value, and the urban-rural equal right value. The results show that: (1) The average difference between the functional value and actual transfer price of rural homestead use right in Beijing is 8748.08 yuan/m2, and the average value deviation is 63.14%, showing the spatial distribution characteristics of zonal decline, which may be caused by the cognitive deviation of the functions of rural homestead and citizenship rights, the comprehensive influence of supply-demand matching degree, market integrity, policy externality and other factors; (2) The average difference between the equal right value and functional value of rural homestead use right is 27192.81 yuan/m2, the average deviation is 68.32%, showing a significant spatial distribution feature of central diffusion, which may be caused by the differences in the integrity, clarity, and stability between urban and rural homestead use rights. Based on these results, this article proposed that in the future, the manifestation and realization of value of rural homestead should be carried out in two steps: First, improve the “rural secondary market” of rural homestead, gradually correct farmers’ cognition of the functions of rural homestead use right and the manifestation of qualification right; Second, according to urban property situation, build a “unified urban-rural market” by constantly improving the functions, promoting the further manifestation of the complete value of rural homestead, then realize the goal of “same location with equal rights and equal price” for a relatively coordinated unified urban and rural construction land market.

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