25 April 2022, Volume 44 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
Land certification and rural labor migration in China: Evidence from provincial panel data
SHI Changliang, ZHANG Yi
2022, 44 (4):  647-659.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.01
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Existing studies are inconclusive about whether land certification will promote or inhibit rural labor migration. This study constructed a theoretical model that decomposes the effects of land certification on rural labor migration into land loss risk reduction effect and land investment incentive effect, and used the panel data of 30 provinces in China’s mainland from 2005 to 2019 and two-way fixed effects model to test the relationship between land loss risk reduction effect and land investment incentive effect from a macro perspective. On this basis, the threshold regression model was introduced to explore the heterogeneity of the effect under different land transfer market development levels. The research revealed that: (1) Land certification mainly generates land loss risk reduction effect and promotes rural labor migration. Especially for those who migrate perennially and outside the provinces, the enhancing effect can be more pronounced. (2) Regional heterogeneity analysis showed that the effect of land certification on rural labor migration is strongly positive in the eastern and southern regions, while in the central, western, and northern regions, this effect is less significant. (3) Land certification’s promoting impact on rural labor migration has a single threshold adjusting effect based on the development level of the land transfer market. When the land transfer market development level is low, there is no significant effect. Only when the development level of land transfer market reaches a certain threshold value, can land certification enhance the rural labor migration significantly. The policy implication is that in order to promote the rural-urban migration of surplus agricultural laborers by land certification, land transfer market construction must be promoted simultaneously in addition to clarifying property rights.

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The impact of differentiated policy tools on cultivated land protection
ZHANG Yanwei, LU Xinhai
2022, 44 (4):  660-673.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.02
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Cultivated land protection is an important subject of land policy regulation, and its implementation is an important guarantee for maintaining social stability and national food security. The cultivated land protection policy tool is the specific means adopted by the policy implementers to achieve the goal of cultivated land protection, and the differentiated policy tools will directly affect the effect of cultivated land protection. This study used the Markov-switching VAR model to reveal the dynamic nonlinear characteristics of the relationship between policy tools and the effect of cultivated land protection, and to provide a new perspective for the theoretical construction and in-depth analysis of the combined effects of cultivated land protection policy tools. The results show that: (1) The effect of cultivated land protection shows clear dual-regime characteristics, with a slow growth regime (regime 1) and a stable growth regime (regime 2). Moreover, the effect of cultivated land protection shows signs of nonlinear periodic changes, and the emergence of the transition node (the inflection point) between the two regimes coincides with the promulgation of important policy texts. (2) In the period of slow growth, in order to guarantee the performance of cultivated land protection, the use of command and control tool and economic incentive tool must be strengthened. In the period of steady growth, the use of publicity and guidance tool should be strengthened to promote policy innovation and dissemination. (3) Changes in policy applicability and implementation pressure during policy implementation lead to regime transition. Asymmetry occurs in the regime transition probability of cultivated land protection effect, and the probability that cultivated land protection effect falls within regime 1 is slightly greater than in regime 2 Prediction analysis shows that if the government relaxes its emphasis on cultivated land protection, the cultivated land protection effect may change from regime 2 to regime 1 at any time. In conclusion, the nonlinear econometric model used in this study helps to deepen the research on the effect of cultivated land protection.

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Food and nutrition security in China from the perspective of land-ocean coordination
YIN Wei, YU Huijuan, QIU Rongshan, HAN Limin
2022, 44 (4):  674-686.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.03
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The study of food and nutrition security is an extension of China’s long-term food security research, and it is also a requirement for pursuing a healthy life. The food system under the big food concept and land-ocean coordination can more comprehensively reflect the food and nutrition security situation in China. Based on the perspective of food nutrition composition, this study calculated the production and demand of food nutrition in China from 2003 to 2018 by using the food nutrition transformation model. The overall situation of China’s food and nutrition security was described by using the food nutrition surplus and lack index. The results show that: (1) The output of food nutrients was increasing in China, but the rate of growth and contribution of different types of food were different. Grain was the largest food source and growth contributor of energy, protein, and amino acids, while fat and fatty acids were mainly derived from meat. The output of marine food nutrients was small, but marine food has certain advantages in terms of unit nutrient content, food diversity, and future development potential. (2) Considering the changes in the population structure, China’s demand of food energy, protein, and fat was increasing year by year, and the growth rate reached 6.9%, 7.6%, and 7.0% respectively. Population growth is the primary driving force for the growth of food nutrition demand in China, but the average demand of per capita and per diem food nutrition presents a downward trend, reflecting population aging in China. (3) Protein supply in China has always been at an absolutely safe level, energy supply has been at a relatively safe or above level for a long time, and fat supply has been at a relatively safe or inadequate level for a long time. (4) The amount of food loss and waste in China is alarming—its average annual volume can meet the basic food and nutrition needs of 244 to 539 million people, which also prevents China from entering energy and fat relatively safe and absolutely safe levels for 4 to 9 years.

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Spatiotemporal patterns of paddy rice production change in China during 1980-2018
ZHANG Qiang, ZHANG Geli, ZHU Daolin, DI Yuanyuan, YANG Tong, LIU Ruoqi, DONG Jinwei
2022, 44 (4):  687-700.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.04
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Paddy rice, the essential staple grain in China, is important for national food security. As the largest producer and consumer of rice globally, China has undergone significant changes in the pattern of paddy rice production in recent decades. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of paddy rice production change since 1980 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of paddy rice production change in China and determined the influences of planting area and yield on rice production during 1980-2018 based on the provincial-level statistics. The results show that: (1) The whole study period can be divided into three stages based on the interannual variations of paddy rice production: an unsteady increase phase in 1980-1997 (Stage 1), a significant decrease phase in 1998-2003 (Stage 2), and a rapid increase phase in 2004-2018 (Stage 3). Most of the provinces except Guangdong showed increasing trends in Stage 1. Almost all the regions, especially southern China, displayed decreasing trends in Stage 2. In Stage 3, Northeastern China and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin exhibited increasing trends, while the southeast coastal region (Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong) and Sichuan Province showed decreasing trends. (2) Paddy rice production had increased by 51.61% in China from 1980 to 2018. Rice production showed a spatial pattern of increasing in the south and increasing in the north. The spatial pattern of yield was similar to that of production, which continued to grow nationwide. The interannual changes in planting area were different, showing a trend of decreasing in the south and increasing in the north. (3) Rice production change in China was mainly dependent on yield (64.29%), supplemented by planting area (28.57%). The contribution of joint-dominant factors had little impact on production changes (7.14%). After 1998, rice production change gradually shifted from yield-dominated to planting area-dominated. As the yield may have reached the growth bottleneck, policy regulation is essential for stabilizing and increasing the rice planting area and yield.

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Carbon neutrality research hotspots and evolution trend: Based on the scientific knowledge map
YUE Ting, LI Mengting, CHEN Hong, LONG Ruyin, WANG Yujie
2022, 44 (4):  701-715.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.05
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Carbon neutrality is an important issue in addressing global environmental problems, promoting national economic development, and facilitating sustainable social development. This study used the CiteSpace software to analyze the keywords and research hotspots of 7192 English publications by international scholars and 3778 Chinese and English publications by Chinese scholars in the Web of Science and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1991 to 2021. It revealed the current status and development trend of carbon neutrality research in China and abroad from the aspects of temporal distribution, spatial distribution, keyword co-occurrence map, and keyword clustering map. The results show that: (1) Temporally, carbon neutrality research in China and abroad can be divided into three stages: the emerging period from 1991 to 2006, the development period from 2007 to 2014, and the prosperous period from 2015 to 2021. In the twenty-first century, the number of carbon neutrality-related publications has shown a rapid growth trend, and carbon neutrality research in China showed an explosive growth in 2021, with an annual publication volume exceeding 1500. (2) Spatially, carbon neutrality research areas and research institutions have shown a trend of multi-polarization development. Countries such as the United States, China, and the United Kingdom publish a relatively large number of papers, which are mainly dominated by universities and research institutes. (3) From the perspective of research hotspots, carbon neutrality research focuses on three major scientific issues of basic research and dynamic monitoring and evaluation, technology development and application, and policy design and roadmaps. Carbon footprint, energy, carbon capture and storage technology, life cycle assessment, carbon trading market, and global governance are important research hotspots. (4) From the perspective of keyword clustering, carbon neutrality research can be clustered into four topics from the individual, industry, and country levels: individual attitude and behavior toward carbon neutrality, carbon neutrality technology, carbon market and carbon financial system, and policy guidance and global governance. This study examined the connotation and research status of each topic, and summarized the hotspots and trend of change of carbon neutrality research to provide theoretical and practical help for China to achieve the carbon neutrality goals.

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Assessment of carbon sink capacity and potential of marine fisheries in China under the carbon neutrality target
YANG Lin, HAO Xinya, SHEN Chunlei, AN Dong
2022, 44 (4):  716-729.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.06
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Increasing carbon sequestration and sink through marine fisheries is an important way to achieve “carbon neutrality”, in which the key lies in the scientific, accurate, and systematic calculation of the carbon sink capacity of marine fisheries. In this study, some carbon without carbon sink function in the classical “removable carbon sink” model was removed, and the carbon sink formed by shellfish and algae by releasing particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was included. Using the panel data of production of shellfish and algae in nine coastal provinces of China’s mainland from 2006 to 2020, the carbon sink capacity of China’s marine fisheries was evaluated, and the contributing factors to the improvement of China’s marine fishery carbon sink capacity were deconstructed based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition method. Then we predicted the potential of China’s marine fishery carbon sequestration by 2030 under different scenarios. The results show that: (1) The carbon sink capacity of China’s marine fisheries will reach 3.03 million tons in 2020, with significant regional differences; (2) Including carbon without carbon sink function will overestimate the carbon sink of marine shellfish fishery by 24.24%, while ignoring the carbon sink formed by shellfish and algae by releasing POC and DOC will underestimate the carbon sink of marine fishery by 50.70%; (3) Under the current development model that relies on scale effect, the carbon sink capacity of marine fisheries will reach 3.36~4.00 million t by 2030, and the growth potential of carbon sink is very limited. Based on this, China should promote its marine fishery carbon sequestration growth to a technology-driven and high-quality development model to continuously improve the coastal provinces’marine fishery carbon sequestration capacity and contribute to the realization of the target of carbon neutrality.

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The impact of green service industry policies on China’s low-carbon economic growth
HE Dan, TANG Yahua, HU Xuhua
2022, 44 (4):  730-743.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.07
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The green service industry is a supportive industry that provides intellectual support and professional services in the green industry. According to the relevant catalogues of green service industries in the Green Industry Guidance Catalogue (2019 edition), this study extracted 2921 green service industry policies from the PKULaw database and analyzed the impact of green service industry policies on low-carbon economic growth. The results show that: (1) The number of China’s green service industry policies has shown a rapid growth since 2000, and the scale of policies in the eastern region where green manufacturing is more developed is significantly larger than other regions; (2) Green service industry policies have a significant impact on low-carbon economic growth. The promotional effect is stronger in areas of China with good economic or ecological foundations; (3) China’s green service industry policies mainly promote low-carbon economic growth by expanding the scale of green industries, promoting green transition of the industrial structure, and strengthening green technological innovation. The green service industry policy system should be further improved to provide strong support for the high-quality development of green manufacturing. At the same time, attention should be paid to the heterogeneous characteristics of the green service industry policies to promote the coordinated development of different regions.

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Decoupling and spatiotemporal change of carbon emissions at the county level in China
ZHANG He, HUANG Yazhe, WANG Rui, ZHANG Jianxun, PENG Jingyi
2022, 44 (4):  744-755.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.08
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The decoupling relationship between carbon emissions and economic development affects the realization of carbon emission reduction target and the choice of economic growth model. Based on the Tapio decoupling model and spatial autocorrelation analysis, this study explored the spatiotemporal change characteristics and spatial aggregation pattern of the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth in 1741 county-level administrative units in China’s mainland from 2002 to 2017. The Markov model was used to analyze the spatial convergence effect of carbon emission decoupling at the county level in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The study found that: (1) The relationship of carbon emission decoupling at the county level is mainly strong decoupling, weak decoupling, and expanded negative decoupling. The trend of decoupling is greater in the south than in the north, and the number of negative decoupling cases increases gradually and is concentrated in the west and northeast. (2) The decoupling of carbon emissions at the county level showsa positive spatial correlation. After experiencing local aggregation and a spatial differentiation of “positive in the east and negative in the west”, there exists an aggregation and differentiation coexistence pattern of “positive in the south and negative in the north”. (3) Carbon emission decoupling at the county level tended to be stable and developed well, and there was a spatial “club convergence” phenomenon. Most of the regions present ideal decoupling agglomeration characteristics, but the northern region presents a cluster agglomeration pattern of downward transfer of the county and neighboring areas. Therefore, China should focus on the state instability and regional imbalance of the decoupling relationship between county carbon emissions and economic development, implement differentiated carbon emission control strategies, and achieve spatially balanced decoupling.

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Influence of investment and trade cooperation with China on carbon intensity convergence in countries along the Belt and Road
LI Yanmei, FU Liyuan, CHI Yuanying
2022, 44 (4):  756-767.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.09
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The common low-carbon transformation in the Belt and Road (BR) countries is crucial to global climate change mitigation. It is of great significance to examine carbon intensity convergence in the BR countries and analyze the impact of investment and trade cooperation with China on carbon intensity convergence for evaluating China’s role in promoting the construction of the green BR. Based on the panel data of 87 BR countries from 2003 to 2018, this study established absolute and conditional β convergence models including spatial effects to analyze the carbon intensity convergence considering the investment and trade cooperation between China and the BR countries. The empirical results show that: (1) There are spatial autocorrelation and convergence of carbon intensity in the BR countries. The investment and trade cooperation between China and the BR countries has a positive influence on carbon intensity convergence. (2) The investment and trade cooperation between China and the BR countries has different effects on the improvement of carbon intensity convergence rate in different continents. The degree of improvement in Africa is greater than Asia, followed by Latin America. The degree of carbon intensity convergence improvement is minimal in Europe. (3) In different parts of the same continent, the investment and trade cooperation also have different effects on the improvement of carbon intensity convergence rate. In Africa, the whole continent is divided by the Sahara. The increase of convergence rate of carbon intensity in the areas north of the Sahara is faster than that to the south. In Asia, as far as the growth rate of carbon intensity convergence is concerned, Central Asia is most affected, followed by West Asia, South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Therefore, the BR countries should enhance communication to address climate change together. In particular, these countries can deepen the investment and trade cooperation relationship with China based on their own development characteristics, which is conducive to the early realization of common low-carbon transformation.

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Effect of emission reduction in the compensated areas under the policy of watershed eco-compensation: A case study of the Xin’an River Basin
ZHANG Hui, GU Dian, WU Shuang, YU Yi
2022, 44 (4):  768-779.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.10
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As one of the important policy tools for ecological environment management in China, the policy of watershed eco-compensation is upgrading from water environment management alone to comprehensive environment management of watersheds. Current, many studies focus on this policy to examine whether it can play an active role against the challenges of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. Based on the 2006-2019 panel data of prefecture-level cities, this study took the Xin’an River Basin—a pilot area for watershed eco-compensation—as a natural experiment site to build a difference-in-differences (DID) model to investigate the effect of the policy on carbon emissions in the compensated area. The results are as follows: (1) The policy of eco-compensation implemented in the Xin’an River Basin significantly reduced the total carbon dioxide emissions in Huangshan City, and the inhibitory effect was 4.9%; (2) The spillover effect of the eco-compensation policy was significantly in the same direction as the policy effect, and this spillover effect decreased as the distance increased; (3) The results of the analysis on the effect of carbon emission reduction verified the validity of the following positive transmission mechanism: The policy of watershed eco-compensation—industrial structure transformation—technological progress—carbon emission reduction. Moreover, this policy did not achieve carbon emission reduction by depressing local economic growth. Finally, relevant policy recommendations were put forward to gradually carry out the policy watershed eco-compensation, realizing the diversification of compensation ways, and preventing the relocation of pollution-intensive industries to the neighboring areas.

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The impact of digital economy on high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin: Empirical evidence from urban heterogeneity
WANG Jun, CHE Shuai
2022, 44 (4):  780-795.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.11
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High-quality development in the Yellow River Basin is a major national development strategy in the new era. As a higher economic form, whether digital economy can become the driving force of high-quality urban development in the basin remains to be explored. This study used the endogenous growth mathematical model to examine how the digital economy affects high-quality development. It constructed the digital economy development index of cities in the Yellow River Basin and the high-quality development index under water resources constraints, and empirically tested the promotional effect of digital economy on high-quality development and transmission paths based on the panel data of cities in the basin from 2011 to 2018. The results show that: (1) The digital economy in the Yellow River Basin can significantly improve the high-quality development level, and the improvement effect of non resource-based cities is better than that of resource-based cities. (2) The high-quality development effect of digital economy has the advantage of late onset and increasing marginal return, and this advantage is more significant in the upstream and midstream cities than the downstream cities. (3) The effect of digital economy presents the characteristics of inverted-U shaped relationship with the expansion of urban scale. Medium-sized cities are the focus of developing digital economy in the future. (4) The upgrading of industrial structure, technological progress, and improvement in technical efficiency are the key transmission paths for the digital economy to promote high-quality development. Optimization of industrial structure is an important potential channel. The multi-dimensional Internet development and inclusive finance show a consistent convergence effect. The policy implication is to fully understand the differential impact of urban characteristics, urban location, and urban scale, and strengthen the high-quality development dividend effect of digital economy according to local conditions; comply with the new round of scientific and technological revolution, promote the upgrading of industrial structure and technological progress, and provide important support for the future high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

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Effect of urban high-quality brand resources on economic efficiency
LIU Yu, DONG Yanyan
2022, 44 (4):  796-808.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.12
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As one of the most important elements of soft environment, brand resources play an important role in enhancing city competitiveness and promoting high-quality development. Based on the world Brand Lab’s list of China’s 500 most valuable brands and the cities where the listed brands are located, the influence of urban brand resources on economic efficiency was investigated by using the two-way fixed effect model and panel data from 2005 to 2016. The study found that urban high-quality brand resources can significantly improve economic efficiency, mainly by improving urban pure technical efficiency. High-quality brand resources can promote the agglomeration of urban producer services and improve the level of international cooperation and innovation, thus improving urban economic efficiency. By analyzing the heterogeneity of brands, the brand resources of the secondary industry can promote the economic efficiency of the city, but the effect is not significant. The brand resources of the tertiary industry can significantly promote urban economic efficiency. Moreover, the brand resources of productive service industry can promote urban economic efficiency more than that of living service industry. Further analysis showed that with the same scale of brand resources, increasing the number of brands can not significantly improve urban economic efficiency, while creating high-quality brand diversity is conducive to improving urban economic efficiency. This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of the mechanism and results of brand resources driving urban economic efficiency, and provides a reference for cultivating high-quality brand resources and improving urban economic efficiency.

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Effects of capital endowment, perceived value, and government subsidies on farming households’ adoption behavior of clean heating
JIN Rongrong, LI Shiping, NAN Ling
2022, 44 (4):  809-819.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.13
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Farming households’ adoption of clean heating is the key to realize the long-term management of rural loose coal use and the sustainability transition of energy structure. In order to systematically explain the mechanism of farming households’ clean heating adoption behavior, based on the survey data of farmers on the Fenwei Plain, this study empirically analyzed the relationship between capital endowment, perceived value, government subsidies and farming households’ clean heating adoption behavior by using the binary Probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) measurement methods. The results show that: (1) As a group of structural factor resources, capital endowment reflects farming households’ “ability”; As a set of perceptive evaluation system, perceived value reflects the “degree of intention” of farming households; When households have both intention and capacity, the behavioral tendency of adopting clean heating is obvious. (2) As a practical actor in the adoption of clean heating, the role of farming households is very important. Without the support of structural factor resources such as capital endowment, farming households probably will not implement clean heating; On the other hand, without the cousciously perceived value by farming households of income requirements and cost risk avoidance considerations, the resources provided by the structure are also difficult to be transformed into specific actions of clean heating, that is, the intermediary role of perceived value between capital endowment and farming households’ adoption behavior of clean heating exists. (3) As an incentive mechanism, government subsidies can strengthen farming households’ perception of clean heating benefits, alleviate their perception of clean heating costs and risk pressure, and then positively regulate the relationship between perceived value and farming households’ adoption behavior of clean heating. Therefore, this article puts forward policy recommendations to promote the accumulation of farming households’ capital endowment, improve their perceived value of clean heating, and implement government subsidies.

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Influence mechanism of migrant workers’ psychological capital on their urban integration: Based on the intermediary effect of local adaptability
SI Wentao, QI Wei, MENG Lin
2022, 44 (4):  820-832.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.14
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Migrant workers are increasingly becoming the main body of urban floating population. Paying attention to the integration of migrant workers into city life in the new era is related to the harmonious and sustainable development of the society. Psychological capital is an important factor that affects migrant workers’ urban integration, but there are only few studies that explore the mechanism of its influence from different dimensions. This study divided psychological capital into optimism, self-confidence, hope, and resilience dimensions, and urban integration into economic integration, social integration, and psychological integration dimensions. By examining the relationship between psychological capital and urban integration in different dimensions and the role of local adaptability in the relationship, this study explored the impact effect and paths of psychological capital on urban integration. The results show that: (1) Path analysis indicates that optimism, self-confidence, hope, and resilience have a significant positive impact on economic integration and social integration. Optimism and resilience have a significant positive impact on psychological integration, while confidence and hope have no significant impact on psychological integration. (2) The intermediary effect of local adaptability is manifested in three aspects. First, in the impact of optimism, self-confidence, and resilience on economic integration, local adaptability plays a partial intermediary role. In the impact of hope on economic integration, local adaptability plays a complete intermediary role; Second, in the impact of optimism and resilience on social integration, local adaptability plays a partial intermediary role. In the influence of self-confidence and hope on social integration, local adaptability plays a complete intermediary role; Third, in the impact of optimism and resilience on psychological integration, local adaptability plays a partial intermediary role. In the impact of self-confidence and hope on psychological integration, local adaptability plays a complete intermediary role. The research results can provide a reference for decision making for promoting the integration of migrant workers into cities and supporting the healthy, harmonious, stable, and sustainable development of cities.

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Payment decisions on water-saving irrigation services and farming households’ incomes: Based on survey data in the ecologically fragile areas of Xinjiang, China
DUAN Pei, LIU Run, CHEN Shengdong, LI Min
2022, 44 (4):  833-846.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.15
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Agricultural water-saving irrigation services are an important direction for improving the livelihoods of farming households in ecologically fragile areas, and farmers’ payment decisions determine the income effect of water-saving irrigation services. Based on a sample survey of 613 rural households in seven counties (cities) in Changji and Bazhou, Xinjiang in December 2018, this study used multiple linear regression, Heckman two-stage model, and ordered probit model to analyze the effects of farmers’ water-saving irrigation service payment decisions on agricultural income, non-agricultural income, and income perception; the instrumental method was used to deal with the endogenous nature of payment decisions; and the grouping model was used to analyze the regulating effect of service supply. The empirical results show that: (1) Both the willingness to pay and the payment behavior have a significant positive impact on agricultural income, but there is a divergence between the willingness to pay and the payment behavior. (2) Both willingness to pay and payment behavior have a positive impact on the choice of laborers, but in ecologically fragile areas, farmers have very few opportunities for generating non-agricultural income. (3) Farmers’ income from planting was the main source of family income. The more adequate supply of services, the more farmers participate in non-agricultural employment. The willingness to pay and the payment behavior have a significant positive impact on the perceived income level. Furthermore, the supply of water-saving irrigation services has a moderating effect on the impact of farmers’ willingness to pay and payment behavior on the income perception. This study broadened the theoretical and practical exploration of agricultural service outsourcing in water-saving irrigation, and may provide some reference for the promotion of water-saving irrigation services in arid and semiarid ecologically fragile areas in China and internationally based on the perspective of farmers’ income effects.

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Spatiotemporal variations of gross ecosystem product and identification of important ecological protection spaces in the Yangtze River Delta
LIN Yangyan, XU Xibao
2022, 44 (4):  847-859.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.16
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Reasonable ecological protection space can optimize the ecological environment in a certain region, improve ecological function, maintain ecological security, and achieve sustainable development goals. The important ecological protection space is the area with the highest protection value of high-quality ecological products in the region. Taking the rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta region as the research area, this study used CASA and RUSLE ecological models, market value method, and shadow engineering method to estimate and analyze the spatial and temporal changes of gross ecosystem product (GEP) in the Yangtze River Delta region from 2000 to 2017. The sequential t-test analysis of regime shift (STARS) mutation test, combined with nature reserves, identifies important ecological protection spaces in the region. The results show that: (1) The GEP in the Yangtze River Delta region shows an upward trend, from 4.61 trillion yuan in 2000 to 7.12 trillion yuan in 2017, which are 2.06 and 0.36 times of the GDP in the same year. (2) Among the three main ecosystem services, the regulation services are the largest, accounting for 89.1% and 64.9% of the total GEP in 2000 and 2017, respectively. The proportion of supply services and cultural services in the total GEP has increased. (3) The spatial distribution of GEP is high in the south and low in the north, and the unit GEP in the plain and coastal areas is low while that in the mountainous and hilly areas is high. (4) Important ecological protection space in the Yangtze River Delta region accounts for 12% of the territorial space area, of which Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai account for 11%, 12%, 13% and 13% of the territorial space area, respectively, and have healthy spatial coupling with the ecological protection red line.

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Comparison of energy-based disposal schemes for municipal solid waste and sewage sludge: Based on two life cycle assessment methods
ZHANG Zhihui, WANG Yuan, CHAI Lihe, LI Liping, LI Jiao, ZHU Rongjie
2022, 44 (4):  860-870.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.04.17
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Municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge (SS) are important solid wastes of cities, which cause severe impacts on both environmental quality and human health. Due to the high proportion of combustible materials in their composition, research on their energy-based disposal has become a hot topic. In this study, a sustainable environmental management tool—life cycle assessment software Simapro was applied. The Impact 2002+ and ReCiPe Endpoint 2016 methods were used to calculate the life cycle environmental impacts of simple summation and mixed incineration of MSW and SS. The advantages and disadvantages of the two treatment scenarios were explored. At the same time, the uncertainties of these two life cycle impact assessment methods for assessing municipal solid waste and sludge treatment were compared. The results show that: (1) The combined MSW and SS combustion scenario has higher beneficial effects on resource consumption and human health than the individual combustion solution; (2) For this scenario, both the midpoint impact category and the endpoint damage category evaluation results of the Impact 2002+ method are stronger than the ReCiPe Endpoint 2016 method in highlighting the combined combustion scheme, but the uncertainty of the latter is smaller. These conclusions provide a basis for the selection of the whole life cycle environmental impact evaluation methods for MSW and SS.

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