25 September 2022, Volume 44 Issue 9 Previous Issue   
Optimization of China’s provincial carbon emission responsibility sharing scheme based on the principle of responsibility and benefit matching
YANG Jun, YANG Ze, CONG Jianhui, ZHANG Yaxi
2022, 44 (9):  1745-1758.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.01
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The definition of provincial carbon emission responsibility standards is an important part of the construction of the national carbon emission statistical accounting system under the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. The existing provincial carbon emission responsibility sharing scheme does not give enough consideration to the responsibility and benefit relationship of consumers of the final products, so it is urgent to optimize the scheme to improve the fairness and soundness of carbon emission responsibility definition. This study built a full multi-region (FULL-MRIO) bilateral trade implicit carbon measurement model to measure carbon emission transfer responsibility and the gains from carbon emissions with the change of trade “surplus”. Based on the industry-level analysis, this study refined the coefficient of shared responsibility, and put forward the optimization scheme of China’s provincial carbon emission responsibility sharing with the principle of “beneficiaries bear the responsibility” from the perspective of responsibility and benefit matching. The results show that the provincial shared responsibility coefficient is jointly determined by the scale, characteristics, and benefits of the trade implied carbon of various industries in the province, and it ranges from 39.98% to 60.02%, which is more reasonable than the equal distribution method and other shared responsibility coefficients; Based on the responsibility and benefit matching perspective, the carbon emission responsibility of most provinces is between that of the production side and the consumption side. Compared with the production side carbon emission responsibility and other shared responsibility schemes, the carbon emission responsibilities of provinces with high final demand, such as Beijing and Tianjin, have increased significantly, while the carbon emission responsibilities of resource based provinces, such as Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, have decreased significantly; According to the shared responsibility calculated in this study, a new scheme can be established for the inter-provincial carbon compensation relationship. Under this scheme, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and some other provinces are compensated on a large scale, which is different from the scheme that resource based provinces with large direct carbon emissions but also large implicit carbon emissions need to provide carbon compensation for other provinces, and this scheme would be more equitable and operable at the policy level.

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Carbon emission abatement effect of China’s carbon market from the perspective of incentives and constraints
ZHANG Han, MENG Jixian
2022, 44 (9):  1759-1771.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.02
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The carbon emissions trading market is an important economic tool for China to achieve its carbon peaking and neutrality goals. To systematically explore the carbon market’s emission reduction mechanism, this study focused on the system differences between seven carbon markets located in two provinces and five cities in China. Using municipal data from 2014 to 2020, we empirically examined the incentive and constraint mechanisms of the carbon market. The results show that: (1) In terms of the incentives for emission trading systems, carbon price is the core element that affects the carbon abatement effect, while such effect does not mainly come from carbon allowance trading; (2) Carbon allowance trading has a carbon price threshold effect on carbon abatement; only when the carbon price reaches a certain level, it will reduce carbon emission through trading; (3) In terms of constraints, the binding policies mainly stay in the non-trading stages; quota allocation is the core policy in the process of decarbonization, while the constraints of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) and punishment policy are not apparent yet. In conclusion, we recommend that: First, carbon emission trading should be encouraged to form a reasonable carbon price that can reflect the gradually increasing reduction costs of participating parties; Second, a floor price for the carbon allowance needs to be taken into consideration; Third, a relatively strict carbon quota allocation policy needs to be formulated.

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Cost-benefit analysis of carbon emission mitigation policies for urban passenger transport in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
ZHENG Yuhua, JIA Yiwei
2022, 44 (9):  1772-1784.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.03
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Passenger transport accounts for a high proportion of the total traffic volume in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, and its emission reduction potential is a key factor affecting the peaking of traffic-related carbon emissions. This study established the urban passenger transport system model in the BTH region based on agent modeling and simulation method. It then simulated consumer’s travel behavior under different scenarios of urban passenger transport carbon emission reduction policies in the region, and evaluated the environmental benefits and economic costs of various carbon emission reduction policies and their impact on carbon peaking. The research results show that: (1) The policy of fuel efficiency improvement of passenger vehicles is the only policy scenario that can achieve the peaking of carbon emissions of urban passenger transport in the BTH region by 2030 with relatively low carbon emission reduction cost. Tianjin is expected to achieve the peaking of carbon emissions first, followed by Beijing, and Hebei Province will be the last. (2) The carbon emission reduction cost of public transport promotion policy is relatively high, especially in Hebei Province. Although the policy can also achieve the peaking of carbon emissions of urban passenger transport in Beijing Municipality and Hebei Province, it fails to achieve the goal of carbon emission peaking in Tianjin Municipality. (3) The transport congestion charge policy alone would not achieve the goal of carbon emission peaking, and it needs to be implemented in combination with other policies. To achieve the goal of passenger transport carbon emission peaking in the BTH region, it is necessary to continuously promote the policy of improving the fuel efficiency of passenger vehicles. It is also possible to adopt a combination of policies such as subsidies for new energy vehicles, public transport promotion, and transport congestion charges to reduce the economic cost of emission reduction.

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Research progress of land consolidation in China
ZHENG Rongbao, HUANG Yongjian, CHEN Meizhao, MA Xiaoning, CHEN Jing, TANG Xiaolian
2022, 44 (9):  1785-1798.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.04
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The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the disciplinary knowledge base of China’s territorial consolidation and rehabilitation research over the years, reveal the research status, explore the deficiencies of existing research, and propose future research directions in this field. First, the word cloud of research hotspots was obtained by using high-frequency keywords and it indicates that this field is composed of seven thematic modules: concept evolution and stage division, development strategy research, consolidation plan, potential analysis, performance evaluation, willingness research, and project types and measures. Second, through content analysis of highly cited literature, the study found that: (1) Existing research mainly focuses on engineering measures and performance evaluation, and does not pay enough attention to the ecological restoration of territorial space, lacks empirical studies on comprehensive land improvement in the whole area, and most of their conclusions are relevant to the typical project areas but the mathematical model and evaluation system obtained have a narrow scope of application. (2) Existing research mainly focuses on the project scale and the administrative units. The focus is often on the comparative analysis of the horizontal data of the land surface. The selected time points are few, and the research scale is relatively simple. (3) Existing work overemphasizes empirical research, and at the same time pays insufficient attention to the field of humanities and social sciences in territorial consolidation and rehabilitation. When examining the prospects of such research, research themes, research scales, and research methods were considered: (1) Emphasize ecological protection, restoration, and management work, actively explore the regional unified quantitative reference system, improve theoretical research, and build a complete knowledge system. (2) Pay attention to the dynamic development in the vertical direction, explore new research perspectives, and carry out long time series and multi-dimensional spatial scale research. (3) Pay more attention to the integration of engineering technology and humanistic management, and adopt qualitative and quantitative research methods to deepen the research on the benefits after consolidation and rehabilitation. Finally, regarding the development of territorial consolidation and rehabilitation in the future, we recommend to strengthen the application of information engineering and technology, enhance the legal status of territorial consolidation and rehabilitation, broaden multiple financing channels, integrate key technologies and operational guidelines, and carry out special technical research on landscape ecology. This research can provide a useful reference for grasping the hotspots and development status of China’s territorial consolidation and rehabilitation research.

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Classification of land surface slope spectrum and its relationship with population distribution in China at county scale
PENG Qiuzhi, ZHU Dan
2022, 44 (9):  1799-1808.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.05
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Average slope index is difficult to describe the characteristics of the slope spectrum robustly, and in order to solve the problem, this study proposed a slope spectrum classification method based on merging by Quantile. As a verification, China was divided into five slope levels at the county scale by using digital elevation model data. The relationship between slope levels and population distribution was analyzed by using the 2000 and 2020 population census data. The results show that: (1) The proposed classification method includes three key steps: constructing the cumulative frequency of slope spectrum curve, generating the reference curve based on Quantile, and the type merging based on similarity. The resulting county-scale slope classification scheme can generate robust slope gradients, continuous agglomeration of large-scale spatial patterns, and clear geographical meanings; (2) Nationally, the total county-scale population showed the characteristic of fluctuating decrease with the increase of the slope level, and there is an obvious negative linear correlation between them. The R2 of linear fitting increased from 0.761 in 2000 to 0.845 in 2020. The R2 of linear fitting between the change of the total population and the slope level in the 20-year period was 0.963. The extreme value of population density has a great impact on its slope-level distribution. After excluding the areas with population density lower than 20 persons/km2 and higher than 2000 persons/km2, the population density of counties in China has steadily maintained a linear decrease with the increase of slope level (R2>0.985). This study provided a new classification method for robustly expressing environmental gradients such as slope, and it is helpful for a deeper understanding of the relationship between population distribution and slope in China.

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Coordination of human-water-land system and mechanism in rural areas of the Loess Plateau
XUE Dongqian, WANG Sha, WANG Jianing, TANG Yu
2022, 44 (9):  1809-1823.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.06
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Rapid industrialization, urbanization, and modernization have posed increasing pressure on the rural regional system, and studying the relationship between human and land and the combination of resources in rural areas is the scientific basis for realizing regional coordination in rural areas and high-quality development for rural revitalization. Based on the basic data of 313 county-level administrative units on the Loess Plateau from 2000 to 2018 and constructing the rural human-water-land indicator system, this study adopted the entropy weight technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method, spatial autoregressive model, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to examine the spatial and temporal differentiation pattern of the human, water, and land subsystems, identifying the synergistic relationship between the three systems and their main types, and revealing the driving mechanism of system synergistic evolution. The results show that: (1) The spatial distribution pattern of the rural human activity intensity index and water resource index on the Loess Plateau is consistent, and the spatial dislocation of the land resource index is significant. The three subsystem indices are mainly at low levels and the imbalance between counties is prominent, but there is a weakening trend. (2) The type of rural cooperative relationship on the Loess Plateau is dominated by two-dimensional constraints, which showed an inverted U-shaped change characteristic during the study period. The number of comprehensive coordinated counties is increasing, indicating that the rural areas of the Loess Plateau are gradually developing towards a high level of coordination. (3) The coordinated development of the system is influenced by the four-element driving mechanism of resource distribution and combination, flow and distribution, resource demand and utilization, and population flow and transfer formed by various elements. Intensity and coordination of factors vary. This study has certain reference significance for optimizing the allocation of water and land resources in rural areas and promoting the coordinated evolution of the rural human-water-land system.

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Baseflow separation and spatiotemporal variation characteristics in the Yiluo River basin
GAN Rong, XU Mengsha, ZUO Qiting
2022, 44 (9):  1824-1834.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.07
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Baseflow is the relatively stable component of streamflow and main source of streamflow during dry periods. To investigate the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of streamflow and baseflow in the Yiluo River basin, this study compared the suitability of the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model and Chapman method for baseflow separation in the Yiluo River basin, and selected the optimal baseflow separation method to determine the baseflow process in the basin. The Mann-Kendall test, intraannual distribution index and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation algorithm were used to analyze the interannual and intraannual variations and spatial distribution characteristics of streamflow, baseflow, and baseflow index (BFI). The results show that the SWAT model is better applicable in the Yiluo River basin and more accurate than the Chapman method in simulating baseflow, based on validation by the measured streamflow data at Heshiguan Station. There is an overall significant decreasing trend in streamflow, baseflow, and BFI in 1964-2017 at Heshiguan Station in the basin, but with differences in mutations. The annual streamflow and baseflow showed a single-peaked distribution with obvious seasonality and non-uniformity. The baseflow hysteresis effect is significant. Streamflow, baseflow, and BFI values are relatively high in the western and central parts of the basin and low in the eastern part. More than 90% of the sub-basins in the region have an average annual BFI of less than 0.5. The results of this paper can provide references for the rational development and utilization of water resources and eco-environmental protection in the Yiluo River basin.

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Logic and effect of production method transition of large grain growers under the constraints of factors and demands of risk diversification
ZHENG Xuyuan, ZHOU Lingchennuo, LIN Qinglin
2022, 44 (9):  1835-1847.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.08
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This study focused on the formation of the dual business portfolio of large-scale land operation and agricultural machinery outsourcing service supply chosen by large grain farmers under incomplete factor market conditions, and analyzed the impact of this business transition on the production and management performance of large grain farmers. From the perspective of factor constraints and risk diversification, we analyzed the causes and effects of the dual business combination of large grain farmers using two periods of micro panel data from four provinces. The results show that under incomplete factor markets, In China’s incomplete factor market conditions, the stronger capital and labor constraints and greater natural risks will prompt the transformation of the production and operation mode of large grain farmers from a single land scale operation to a dual operation (simultaneous land scale operation and farm machinery outsourcing services). The dual management approach is beneficial for large grain farmers to improve their capital level and production efficiency, and to smooth out the fluctuation of operating income. The findings of this study have important policy implications for promoting innovation in China’s grain production and management methods, safeguarding the returns of large grain farmers, and implementing the national strategy of “storing grain in the land”.

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Green development effect of agricultural socialized services: An analysis based on farming households’ perspective
CHENG Yongsheng, ZHANG Deyuan, WANG Xia
2022, 44 (9):  1848-1864.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.09
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Agricultural socialized services are considered an effective path and strategic choice in practice and policy design for small farming households’ connection to modern agriculture and a realistic starting point to enhance agricultural green total factor productivity (AGTFP), and help promote green development of agriculture and rural areas. This study started from the micro-subjects that account for an absolute majority of the current agricultural production and operation, constructed short balanced panel data with the latest three sample periods of 2014, 2016 and 2018 from the large sample of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), measured the development level of socialized services and green agriculture at the farming household level through input-output-based measures and Malmquist-Luenberger index, and used a threshold effect model to empirically test the results. It was found that: (1) Agricultural socialized services affect the input structure and quality of agricultural production factors of farming households, and may improve agricultural green total factor productivity by increasing positive output and reducing negative output; (2) Under the guidance of the family efficacy maximization target, this impact has a “moderate boundary”, which may break the “glass curtain wall” of the radiation and diffusion of agricultural technology through direct transfer and indirect technology spillover, and affect the progress of green agricultural technology changes. The effect of factor substitution and institutional change eliminates “hidden barriers”, affects the technical efficiency of green agriculture, and jointly promotes the development of green agriculture for farming households. (3) The overall effect of agricultural socialized services on AGTFP shows a U-shaped relationship, with a greater effect of promoting decline than promoting increase, and shows obvious heterogeneity in terms of gender of household head, village distance, and regional environment. Accordingly, it is suggested that we should deeply understand the basic national and agricultural conditions, continue to accelerate the development of agricultural socialized services, promote farming households’ income generation and cost saving, transform farming households’ agricultural production methods, and accelerate the process of agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics.

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Impact of social network embeddedness on the adoption of green control technologies by farmers: Mediating effects based on technology perception
ZHAO Peipei, ZHANG Qiangqiang, ZHONG Yiwei, LIU Tianjun
2022, 44 (9):  1865-1878.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.10
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The analysis of the influence of different social network embeddedness on the adoption of green control technologies by farmers and its mechanism can provide a reference for the government to improve the policy of green agricultural technology promotion. In this study, the survey data of 790 apple farmers in Henan, Shaanxi, and Gansu Provinces were used to construct a social network matrix of farmers’ village-level social networks using social network analysis methods. The results show that: (1) Relational embeddedness significantly increased the likelihood of farmers adopting green control technologies, while the effect of structural embeddedness was not significant. (2) The mechanism analysis showed that relational embeddedness promoted farmers’ adoption of green control technologies by enhancing the breadth and depth of their technology knowledge and the effect of structural embeddedness on farmers’ adoption of green control technologies was moderated by the demonstration effect, indicating that structural embeddedness only had a significant positive effect on the adoption of green control technologies by farmers in the high demonstration effect group, but not in the low demonstration effect group. Based on the findings of the study, we recommend that the government should focus on the role of the social network embeddedness of farmers as a mediator in the diffusion of green control technologies, strengthen the level of farmer interaction, and enhance the demonstration role of large farmers and family farmers to accelerate the green transition of agriculture.

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The impact of short-video APPs on farmers’ adoption of green techniques of pest and disease control
LIU Di, LUO Xiaofeng
2022, 44 (9):  1879-1890.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.11
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The short-video APPs of Kwai and TikTok are developing rapidly in the context of informatization, and provide an effective new way for digital agricultural extension services. Based on 770 samples of rice and wheat growers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, this study used the endogenous switching probit model to verify the impact of short-video APPs use on farmers’ green techniques of pest and disease control adoption behavior. We found that 37.78% of the sample farmers used short-video APPs such as TikTok and Kwai to query or browse the information of green pest and disease control techniques. The main factors affecting farmers’ use of short-video APPs are farmers’ age, years of education, part-time employment status, family income, and public service status. Using short-video APPs can significantly improve the adoption probability of green pest and disease control techniques of farmers by 9.0%~10.4%. Moreover, the empirical results obtained by propensity score matching method, sample adjustment test method, and placebo test method are still valid. Short-video APPs mainly promote the adoption of green pest and disease control techniques by improving the perception of ease of use. Therefore, short-video APPs should be used for building digital agricultural extension platforms. We should encourage new generation agricultural operators and planting experts to participate in the sharing and dissemination of green pest and disease prevention and control technology. Through the market power of high quality and good price of green agricultural products, the application of green prevention and control technology will be promoted.

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Income-increasing effects of registered poor households in the context of targeted poverty alleviation
HUANG Yinuo, LU Zhixian, SHE Kexin, LI Guoping, LIU Huidi
2022, 44 (9):  1891-1904.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.12
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Based on the targeted poverty alleviation database of three counties in Guangyuan City of Sichuan Province, this study used the event study and the propensity score matching-difference in differences (PSM-DID) approach to evaluate the medium- and long-term income of the registered poor households after they are lifted out of poverty. We also combined field research to evaluate different types of poverty alleviation to analyze whether the income growth is sustainable. The study found that the household income level of poor households increased rapidly just before they were out of poverty, and the overall income remained stable after the poverty alleviation. The increase in wage income was the most significant and sustainable, which is mainly due to the local “hematopoietic” poverty alleviation measures, including the promotion of home area employment and the employment poverty alleviation cooperation between the eastern and the western regions, and the development of agricultural industrial parks to provide flexible employment opportunities. This study also conducted heterogeneity analysis around different causes of poverty, and we found that the wage income of families impoverished due to disability and lack of skills has been significantly improved after poverty alleviation, because the local governments provide flexible public welfare jobs for the disabled and targeted skills training for families lacking skills. This research provides an empirical support for evaluating the dynamic effect of targeted poverty alleviation policy, and has important reference value for consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation and solving the problem of relative poverty.

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Impact of the follow-up supportive policies of relocation for poverty alleviation on multidimensional relative poverty of farming households
HUANG Zhigang, LI Jie
2022, 44 (9):  1905-1917.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.13
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As China’s poverty reduction strategy has changed from eliminating absolute poverty to alleviating relative poverty in the new stage, the follow-up supportive policies of relocation for poverty alleviation is an important measure to consolidate the achievements of poverty alleviation through relocation and it is necessary to examine the impact of the policy on multidimensional relative poverty alleviation of farming households. This study introduced risk and social exclusion into the framework of sustainable livelihood, and constructed the analytical framework of “follow-up supportive policies → livelihood strategies → multidimensional relative poverty”. It adopted a formative structural equation model to conduct empirical analysis of survey data of relocated farmers. The conclusions of this research are as follows. (1) The follow-up supportive policies including industrial, employment, public service, and so on have effectively alleviated multidimensional relative poverty (-0.181). Specifically, these policies can directly reduce the multidimensional relative poverty of farming households (-0.097), and effectively improve their livelihood strategies, thereby indirectly alleviating their multidimensional relative poverty (-0.084). (2) Risk (0.150) and social exclusion (0.088) directly lead to the falling of relocated farming households into multidimensional relative poverty. When the relocated farmers are faced with social exclusion and risk, they will have difficulties in employment, income, social integration, and other conditions. (3) The path that follow-up supportive policies alleviate the multidimensional relative poverty of farmers by improving their livelihood strategies will be constrained by social exclusion and risk. Specifically, social exclusion has a significant negative regulatory effect (-0.160) in the process of follow-up supportive policies promoting farming household livelihood transition, and risk has a significant positive regulatory effect (0.096) in the process. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the top-level design of follow-up supportive policies of relocation, and strengthen the precise implementation of follow-up supportive policies for the governance of multidimensional relative poverty.

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Progress and prospect of research on coastal resorts
GAO Caixia, LIU Jiaming, XIA Siyou, ZHU He, LI Fengjiao
2022, 44 (9):  1918-1931.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.14
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Coastal resort plays an important role in the world’s marine economy and has always been one of the core topics of international tourism research. The increasing intensity of human activities has seriously threatened the stability of coastal ecosystems and the sustainable development of coastal resorts. Based on the literature from 1991 to 2021 in China and internationally, this article systematically reviewed and discussed the research progress of coastal resort using quantitative and qualitative methods, and suggested the key directions of future research. From 1991 to 2021, the research of coastal resort is closely related to the development of this industry. Some progresses have been made in the industrial development and transformation of coastal resort, the interactions between coastal resort and natural environment, perception and behavior of holidaymakers, and sustainable governance of communities. However, previous studies often had the following insufficiencies: weak theoretical basis, traditional research content, and insufficient application of big data methods. The focus of future research should include four aspects: sustainable development theory of coastal resorts; coordinated development and adaptive governance of complex tourism regional system in coastal resorts; risk management and resilience enhancement of coastal tourism industry under complex international and domestic situations; and the application research of coastal tourism resort using big data, new method, and new technology.

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Risk and prevention mechanism of returning to poverty after poverty alleviation through tourism in underdeveloped areas
HUANG Tai, WEI Man, XI Jianchao
2022, 44 (9):  1932-1948.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.15
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In order to stabilize the achievements of poverty alleviation and realize rural revitalization, it is a key issue to effectively prevent and control the risk of returning to poverty after tourism in underdeveloped areas. Based on the vulnerability assessment theory and comprehensive risk management theory, this study took tourism poverty alleviation in underdeveloped areas as the research background to construct the theoretical framework and evaluation model for the risk of returning to poverty, and used the Tianzhu Mountain tourism area in the Dabie Mountains as an example to empirically analyze the risk of returning to poverty and its internal driving and prevention and control mechanisms. The results show that in underdeveloped tourism poverty alleviation areas, the stability of poverty alleviation is generally high. Compared with non-tourism participating farmers, tourism participating farmers have higher stability of getting rid of poverty and lower risk of returning to poverty. But with the participation in tourism from low to high, the risk of returning to poverty shows a U-shaped change, that is, farmers with high participation can be affected by the vulnerability of tourism, which leads to a reverse increase in the risk of returning to poverty. Besides, the influencing factors of the risk of returning to poverty include endogenous and sudden onset factors. For different types of poverty alleviation farmers with tourism participation, the effects of the two factors are also different. For tourism participating farmers, on the one hand, health impact and human capital play a key role in the risk of returning to poverty, and affect it through the diversity of farmers’ livelihood and non-cognitive ability reflecting personality traits. On the other hand, the risk of returning to poverty has spatial heterogeneity. The higher the risk prevention and control ability and resource endowment of tourist destinations, the lower the risk of returning to poverty of farmers. Finally, underdeveloped tourism areas should build a multi-dimensional prevention and control mechanism for the risk of returning to poverty, which takes target management, organizational level and risk factors as the framework, goal setting, comprehensive management and control, normalized governance, system improvement, information communication and collaborative supervision as one. This study can provide beneficial policy enlightenment for the risk of returning to poverty prevention and control and rural revitalization in less developed regions of China.

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