Table of Content

    25 November 2021, Volume 43 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Classification of natural resources: From theory to practice and from principle to management
    FENG Zhiming, XIAO Chiwei
    2021, 43 (11):  2147-2159.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.01
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    The unification of classification standards of natural resources is of great significance for the integrated management of natural resources and development of Resources Science. Based on the scientific connotation of natural resources, this article compared and summarized the tradition and classics, theories and attributes, and jurisprudence and management of natural resources classifications and their evolution process. This preliminary review typically relied on the currently available historical English literature (including published papers, books, and reports) and some literature in Chinese. The review showed that the classification of natural resources mainly focuses on three aspects of theories, principles, and management. Compared with the first aspect, the latter two of classifications showed larger differences in China and internationally. In particular, the existing natural resources classification cannot well avoid the overlap of natural resource management and the classification standards are not uniform. Internationally, many scholars have conducted in-depth studies and analyses on single category or specific region of resources classification in the early 1990s. Then new developments were achieved in Geography, Ecology, Resources Science, Economics, and Environmental Science in the 1960s. Overall, international methodologies provide a basis for the classification of natural resources in China, although there is still a lack of a standard set of classification theories. In China, the massive comprehensive surveys of natural resources (1950s-1960s) are a turning point in the study on the classification of natural resources. Thereafter, research on single category natural resources classification (e.g., land resources and water resources) has developed rapidly, while comprehensive classification remains sparse, sporadic, and scattered. It was not until the late 1990s that the establishment of the China Society of Natural Resources (1983) and the publication of China Encyclopedia of Resources Science (2000) symbolized the born of systematic and comprehensive classification of natural resources in China. In particular, the multilevel classification method based on the uses and attributes of natural resources is widely used. At present, studies related to the integrated classification of natural resources in China are at their developing stage, and the unified classification system has gained much attention from national decision-making departments of the Ministry of Natural Resources the People’s Republic of China. In view of the situation, it is necessary to recognize and clarify the characteristics and functions of different classifications of natural resources for standardization and modernization of management and classification of natural resources.

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    Discussion on the classification of natural resources and a new classification framework and scheme
    SHEN Lei
    2021, 43 (11):  2160-2172.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.02
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    The scientific classification of natural resources is the most basic preliminary work for carrying out the investigation and evaluation of natural resources, fulfilling its management responsibilities, preparing spatial planning, implementing the overall protection of landscape, forest, land, lake, and grass (Shan-Shui-Lin-Tian-Hu-Cao, in Chinese) and systematic restoration and comprehensive management, and realizing the modernization of natural resources governance. In view of the different opinions and differences of academic researchers, management authority, and practitioners on natural resources classification, this article creatively proposes a new classification framework and classification scheme with three primary categories, 11 secondary categories, and 62 third-level categories from the perspective of space, attribute, use, and management of natural resources. The scheme not only distinguishes the geographical space of natural resources, facilitates differentiated management and practical operation, but also distinguishes different uses and attributes of natural resources, which well reflects the difference between natural resources as matter or energy and natural elements as environmental conditions. The results of this research have application value and practical significance for promoting the improvement of natural resources classification system and international integration, enhancing the modernization of natural resources management, and promoting the intrinsic connection between natural resources management departments and ecological environment, farmland and water conservancy, spatial planning, and urban and rural construction departments with regard to the key tasks and objectives for natural resources, territorial space, and ecological restoration.

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    Classification method of land resources based on land use perspective
    YANG Zisheng, YANG Shiqin, YANG Renyi, WANG Jia, WU Qiuju
    2021, 43 (11):  2173-2191.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.03
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    Constructing a scientific, reasonable, and feasible land resource classification system is the premise and foundation for effectively carrying out land resources survey, correctly making land resource development and rehabilitation planning, and scientifically managing land resources. Based on the definition and connotation of land resource classification, this study compared six representative land resource classification systems internationally and eight land classification systems in China, analyzed the main problems of China’s current land resource classification system, and put forward some recommendations for improving the classification system of land resources in China. The results indicate that there are three main problems in China’s current land resource classification systems. First, the current systems may not be able to accurately reflect the complex and diverse land use types and the regional differentiation of land use due to the two land use classification levels and insufficient land use types, which compromises the actual application effect of land resource classification as a result. Second, land resource classification standards are sometimes confusing, with the form classification standards and functional classification standards coexisting in the same classification level and classifications lacking scientific and logical rigor. Third, the classification standards of some land use types are unclear, and some land use types have no corresponding categories in the classification systems, which is contrary to the principle of “no repetition and no omission” in land use classification setting. The following recommendations were put forward to improve the classification system of land resources in China. First, future revision of land resource classification system should adhere to the six basic principles of land use classification in China. Second, it is practicable to learn from the experience of the four levels of classification in the United Kingdom and the United States, and we put forward the basic framework of China’s land resource classification system with four levels. Third, it is necessary to upgrade the national land use classification standard system to national laws and regulations referring to Russian’s experience, and thereby comprehensively enhance the seriousness and authority of the national land resource classification system.

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    Review of grassland classification and grading and construction of a new system in China
    LI Zhiguo, WANG Zhanyi, QU Zhiqiang, NA Ya, WANG Zhongwu, LV Shijie, WANG Haichun, HAN Guodong
    2021, 43 (11):  2192-2202.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.04
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    As an important part of natural resources, grassland resources not only play a role as the means of production in the process of rural revitalization and development in China, but also have key ecological and production values. In the context of implementing the national inventory of natural resources, land right confirmation, and marketization of compensated use, the original grassland classification system can no longer fully meet the requirements of the current form of development. Therefore, based on the existing grassland grading systems and by integrating the natural, economic, and social attributes of grasslands and considering the availability and operability of data for evaluation indicators, this study reconstructed the evaluation indices and indicators of grassland grading and classification. According to the weighted scores of each indicator, five grassland grades were divided, and five grassland classes under each grade were defined. Three villages in Inner Mongolia were evaluated by this method. This study aimed to reflect the real-time nature of grading, provide a theoretical basis for grassland utilization and protection, and provide a reference for further development of grassland classification and grading system and grassland resource pricing system.

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    A review of the classification of natural resources
    WANG Xiaoqing, PU Lijie
    2021, 43 (11):  2203-2214.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.05
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    The scientific classification of natural resources is the basis and key to realizing the modern management of natural resources in China. Our study was based on the review of a large amount of literature, and we analyzed the research progress, existing problems, and challenges of China’s natural resources classification system. We also put forward implications and recommendations for a new classification system of natural resources in China on the basis of summarizing the experience of natural resources classification internationally. The results show that currently there are many kinds of classification systems of natural resources in China and the standards are not uniform. The multi-dimensional natural resource classification led to the problem of crossover and duplication, and the original classification system could not meet the development needs of achieving unified natural resource management. The paper proposed that the construction of the new classification system should be based on the concept of “integrated management of mountains, water, forests, fields, lakes and grasses”, with the goal of achieving the unified and modernized management of natural resources, and following the principles of systematic, uniformity and comprehensiveness. Finally, we proposed a process and framework for the construction of the new classification system. Our research can provide a scientific reference for building a natural resource classification system for unified management.

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    Classification scheme of water resources and its disciplinary system
    ZUO Qiting, ZHANG Zhizhuo, MA Junxia
    2021, 43 (11):  2215-2223.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.06
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    The definition and classification of water resources are the basis of conducting water resources research and management. The construction of the disciplinary system of water resources science is of great significance to the future development of the discipline. The classification of water resources further clarifies the research objects of water resources and is the basic content of constructing the disciplinary system of water resources science. Based on a framework of multi-principle, multi-dimension, and multi-category, a new classification scheme of water resources was put forward, which includes 26 categories in 9 dimensions. On the basis of summarizing the development history of water resources science, this study constructed the disciplinary system framework of water resources science, clarified the research objects of water resources science, and identified representative theoretical systems including the principle of water balance, the theory of water resources value, the theory of sustainable use of water resources, and the theory of human-water harmony. It also summarized the methodology covering monitoring and simulation methods, water resources models and other methods, and a series of applications. Considering the classification of water resources, the branches of water resources school are discussed from different perspectives, as well as the prospect and development directions of the research of water resources science. This study provides a reference for the research and management of water resources and the disciplinary development of water resources science.

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    A quantitative analysis of Shanghai municipal solid waste classification policies from the perspective of policy instruments
    SUN Yan, HU Ming, ZHANG Bei
    2021, 43 (11):  2224-2235.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.07
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    As a leading city in the classification of municipal solid waste in China, Shanghai is representative and typical in the practice of domestic waste classification policy. Based on the policy instruments theory, this study adopted the content analysis method and conducted a quantitative analysis on 31 municipal solid waste classification policies of Shanghai by building an analytical framework, defining the unit of analysis, encoding, and conducting statistical analysis. The sample policies were analyzed from two dimensions of basic policy instruments and waste classification activities. The study found that: (1) The municipal solid waste sorting policy in Shanghai is characterized by high level of government attention, multi-department cooperation and emphasis on government guidance, which are conducive to easing policy inertia, alleviating sectoral barriers and promoting active participation of social subjects in the policy implementation. (2) There are some shortcomings in the design and application of policy instruments. On the one hand, the structure of policy instruments is unbalanced, which is reflected in the over-supply of environmental policy instruments, insufficient supply-oriented policy instruments, and shortage of demand-oriented policy instruments, leading to unsustainable policy implementation. Unreasonable use of various sub-instruments leads to the waste of policy resources. On the other hand, policy instrument application without a clear focus cannot match with current situation of waste sorting. Based on these results, policy recommendations such as increasing the use of demand-oriented policy instruments and focusing on the rational use of policy instruments at all stages were put forward.

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    Farmers’ domestic waste disposal behavior: Moderating effects based on big five personality traits
    SU Min, FENG Shuyi, LU Hualiang, FAN Pengfei
    2021, 43 (11):  2236-2250.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.08
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    In order to regulate farmers’ littering behavior, and improve the effect of rural environmental governance, this study combined the theory of planned behavior and the big five framework from the perspective of psychology, adopted structural equation modeling (SEM), latent cluster analysis, and multiple-group generalized SEM, and conducted an empirical analysis based on the sample of 1779 households in Handan City, Hebei Province. The results indicated that (1) Attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control significantly increased farmers’ waste disposal intention, and therefore their waste disposal behavior. Farmers who have a more positive attitude, have more willingness to follow the environmental expectations of family and friends, and feel less difficulty properly disposing of household waste will have a higher intention to achieve household waste disposal behavior properly. (2) Farmers’ personalities significantly moderate the psychological mechanism, and the moderating effect is mainly generated by the stability meta-trait. Agreeableness and conscientiousness increased the positive effect of subjective norms on intention, but decreased the positive effect of perceived behavior control on intention. Neuroticism increased the positive effect of perceived behavior control on intention. Therefore, it is necessary not only to encourage the government to increase the financial investment and optimize the spatial layout of infrastructure but also consider the local custom civilization and develop more personalized programs to guide and motivate farmers’ participation in rural domestic waste management by taking most use of their personality traits.

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    Strategic behavior of heterogeneous coal-based enterprises under dual regulations
    CHEN Yalin, LIU Jiaojiao, WANG Xianjia, YU Rong
    2021, 43 (11):  2251-2263.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.09
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    Under the institutional framework of administrative regulation and water rights transaction, analyzing the different strategic behaviors of high-water consuming, coal-based enterprises is the basis for improving the efficiency of water resource governance. This article describes the interaction of the behaviors of endogenous coal-based enterprises by using the replication dynamic equation, which establishes an asymmetric evolutionary game model, and examines the change of behavior of enterprises. The theoretical analysis presents that there are three local asymptotically stable points in the behavioral change, which shows the following characteristics: when the punishment degree shifts from weak to strong, the behaviors of coal-based enterprises evolve from non-cooperation to cooperation; when punishment is between the extra income of coal-based enterprises from two different groups, different strategic behaviors occur. The calculation experiments and scenario simulation were designed based on different scenarios classified by the degree of punishment, which reveal that the change of expected utilities’ difference drives the differentiation of behavior; the degree of punishment drives the heterogeneous coal-based producers’ behavior to converge to different evolutionary stable strategy (ESS). If the initial probabilities of non-cooperation are beyond (0.50, 0.50), water rights transaction affects behavioral convergence rate and lacks effect on the trend of change. The results have some implications for water resources regulation in coal-rich areas: given the heterogeneities among coal-based producers, optimizing the punishment regulation is required, which contributes to a reasonable market concentration; within certain punishment range, regulation efficiency can be improved by adjusting the initial probability of non-cooperation and the cost caused by water rights transaction.

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    Economic impact and water saving effect of tax reform policy based on open water resources embedded CGE model
    WU Zheng, TIAN Guiliang, HU Yucan
    2021, 43 (11):  2264-2276.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.10
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    Water resources tax reform is an important price reform measure implemented by the Chinese government to promote the effective conservation and sustainable utilization of water resources. The water- saving effect and economic impact of policy implementation are one of the important bases for determining whether the tax reform can be promoted nationwide. Taking Hebei Province the first pilot province of water resources tax reform as an example, this study constructed an open water resources embedded computable general equilibrium model (CGE) while expanding the standard social accounting matrix (SAM table), and three scenarios were set up to simulate the economic impact of the implementation of the water resources tax reform policy on Hebei Province. The results show that: (1) Levying water resources tax will have a certain negative impact on the macro economy in the short term, but from a long-term perspective, the implementation of water resources tax policy can effectively promote the conservation and protection of water resources, improve the efficiency of enterprises in the use of water resources, and is conducive to the construction of ecological civilization and the sustainable development of economic and social environments; (2) Different industries have different dependencies on water resources, so the differentiated water resources tax reform policy can more effectively achieve the goal of water saving and achieve better policy results; (3) The transfer payment of water resources tax can play the role of tax regulation, effectively reduce the welfare loss caused by taxation, and reduce the negative impact on economy and society while achieving the ideal water saving effect. Finally, the article puts forward the policy recommendation that the provinces of China should coordinate policy making, policy implementation, and tax use in the process of water resources tax reform.

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    Effects of ecological compensation on water environment governance in the Yellow River Basin: A test based on difference-in-difference method
    MA Junqi, YUE Zhang
    2021, 43 (11):  2277-2288.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.11
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    Ecological compensation in the Yellow River Basin is an important system design to ensure the long-term stability of the Yellow River and promote the high-quality development of the entire river basin. This study used the national water quality monitoring data of key sections of the river basins from 2007 to 2018 and the data from the China City Statistical Yearbooks, and adopted the multi-period difference-in-difference method to empirically test the water environment governance effect and mechanism of the ecological compensation policy in the Yellow River Basin. The study found that the implementation of the ecological compensation policy has significantly improved the effect of water environment governance in the Yellow River Basin, and the ecological compensation in the Yellow River Basin has shown a significant long-term pollution control effect. This conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests. Mechanism analysis shows that the implementation of ecological compensation policy has had a significant institutional incentive effect. By increasing local government investment in environmental governance, reducing industrial wastewater discharge has improved the water pollution situation in the Yellow River Basin. From a spatial perspective, compared with cities in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin, ecological compensation policy has had a more significant impact on the water environment management of downstream cities. Based on this, the article proposes relevant policy recommendations for improving the water environment of the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of improving the horizontal ecological compensation within the river basin, attaching importance to the ecological transfer payment in the middle and upper reaches, and establishing a joint water pollution prevention and control system with multiple stakeholders.

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    Factors influencing public participation in urban water environmental governance: Based on the survey data in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou
    SHEN Jinyu, WANG Yuqi, ZHAO Zheng
    2021, 43 (11):  2289-2302.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.12
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    Understanding the determinants of public willingness to participate in urban water environmental governance plays a significant role in improving water environmental governance performance. Based on 2051 questionnaires from Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, this study used a double-hurdle model to analyze the factors that affect the public participation willingness and degree of urban water environmental governance, and conducted an interpretative structural model analysis to explore the mechanism of interaction of participation willingness. The results show that: (1) Of the survey participants, 74.3%are willing to participate in urban water environmental governance, and they are willing to pay around 12.29 Yuan/year for this purpose; (2) There are significant differences in the determinants of public willingness and degree to participate in urban water environmental governance, and disposable income, frequency of visits to urban water environment and duration of stay, cognition of landscape and entertainment value of urban water environment, and perception of the overall ecological condition of urban water environment have significant impact on their degree of participation; (3) The fundamental factors (education level, age, distance between residence and urban water environment) impact the intermediary factors (perception of overall ecological condition of urban water environment, cognition of ecological value of urban water environment), then influence the direct driving factor (environmental responsibility awareness), and ultimately affect the public participation willingness in urban water environmental governance. To conclude, this article suggests that policymakers should enhance the propaganda of environmental protection, design awarding policy for public participation, and further improve the information exchange mechanism between the government and the public.

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    Environmental-friendly behaviors of different floating population groups: The mediation effect of lifestyle
    FANG Xiang, ZHOU Yujiao
    2021, 43 (11):  2303-2315.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.13
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    This study explored the differences of environmental-friendly behaviors of the floating population and examined how the change of lifestyle can promote environmental-friendly behaviors. Based on the data of CGSS 2013, this study used the multiple linear regression model to examine the impact of three types of mobility on private environmental-friendly behavior and public environmental-friendly behavior, analyzed the mediation effect of lifestyles, and conducted a robustness test by using the propensity score matching method. The research findings indicate that: (1) the two types of environmental-friendly behaviors (private and public) of rural-urban floating population are significantly superior to those of rural local population. There are no significant differences in the two types of environmental-friendly behaviors between urban floating population and urban local residents. (2) the impacts of migrants on private environmental-friendly behavior are partly mediated by the two lifestyles (consumption and leisure activities), while the influence of the floating population on public environmental-friendly behavior is entirely produced by the mediation of lifestyles. (3) after considering the sample selection bias, the migration decision of the rural population will still increase the private environmental-friendly behavior. In short, mobility makes people break away from the original environmental value system and improve environmental-friendly behavior through lifestyle changes, which are of positive significance to the optimization of China’s ecological environment.

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    The impact of urban digital finance development on carbon emission performance in China and mechanism
    DENG Rongrong, ZHANG Aoxiang
    2021, 43 (11):  2316-2330.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.14
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    Based on a theoretical analysis, this study used the balanced panel data of 285 city samples in China from 2012 to 2018 to empirically analyze the impact of digital finance development on carbon emission performance by using the panel regression model and instrumental variable method. The results show that: (1) The development of digital finance significantly reduces the carbon emission intensity and improves the carbon emission efficiency, and the improvement of the coverage, use depth, and digitalization degree of digital finance improves the carbon emission performance. (2) The analysis of intermediary mechanism shows that the development of digital finance reduces carbon emission intensity through economic growth effect, industrial structure effect, and technological innovation effect, and improves carbon emission efficiency through economic growth effect and technological innovation effect. In general, the development of digital finance improves carbon emission performance through these three effects. (3) The results of heterogeneity analysis show that the development of digital finance is more conducive to reducing the carbon emission intensity of cities with low economic development level and low financial development level; with regard to carbon emission efficiency, the development of digital finance is more conducive to improving the carbon emission efficiency of cities with high economic development level and high financial development level, which is a result of the different basic conditions of technological innovation.

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    Carbon peak time and peak level of relevant provinces in the Yellow River Basin under stable economic growth
    WANG Liangdong, WU Leying, CHEN Yulong, MA Xiaozhe, DU Mengna
    2021, 43 (11):  2331-2341.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.15
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    The Yellow River Basin is an important ecological security barrier in China, and it is of great practical significance to examine the carbon peak of the region. This study adopted the optimal economic growth model to calculate the optimal economic growth rate of relevant provinces in the Yellow River Basin from 2020 to 2050, simulated and analyzed the carbon peak of each province under different emission scenarios, and explored the impact of emission reduction scenarios on the equality of carbon emissions. The results show that: (1) Emission reduction scenarios are conducive to the decoupling of carbon emissions and economic development in relevant provinces of the Yellow River Basin, thereby promoting the achievement of carbon peak; (2) Under the baseline scenario and the intended nationally determined contributions (NDCs), the relevant provinces of the Yellow River Basin cannot achieve the target of carbon emissions by 2030; Early peaking emissions scenario has the largest emission reduction; (3) Emission reduction scenarios can improve the equality of carbon emissions in relevant provinces of the Yellow River Basin., and the effect of the early peaking emissions scenario is more significant. However, the problem of regional inequality of carbon emissions still exists. In order to achieve the carbon peak in the Yellow River Basin as soon as possible, the government should further reinforce its policy orientation, fully consider regional differences, strengthen inter-provincial cooperation, and formulate more appropriate emission reduction policies.

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    Effect of inclusive finance on farming households’homestead exit:A case of 401 households in the pilot area of Chengdu City
    SUN Le, YUAN Shaofeng, ZHU Congmou
    2021, 43 (11):  2342-2355.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.16
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    Studying the impact of inclusive finance on farmers’ homestead exit behavior is of great significance to promote the reform of rural homestead system and rural revitalization strategy. Using the survey data in typical areas of Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, this study constructed farming households inclusive finance index by using factor analysis method from the micro level, adopted the Probit model to analyze the impact of inclusive finance on farming households' homestead exit decisions, explored the intermediary role of risk expectation in the impact, and further analyzed the intergenerational differences of the impact. The results show that: First, inclusive finance has a significant positive effect on household residential land exit behavior. Second, inclusive finance indirectly affected homestead exit through the intermediary variable risk expectation, and the intermediary effect of risk expectation accounted for 17% of the total effect. Third, inclusive finance of the new generation and the old generation both have a significant positive impact on the homestead exit behavior, but from the comparison between the two, there is no obvious intergenerational difference in the impact. Therefore, based on household financial demand and supply, we should increase rural financial support, enhance the level of inclusive finance, and guide farmers to form a reasonable risk perception towards homestead exit. We should also formulate targeted policies and measures for different generations of farmers to reduce their risk expectation, strengthen policy guidance and realize financial knowledge sharing among different generations and finally promote the orderly exit of rural homesteads.

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    Change of human activity intensity in ecological resettlement villages of Tibet
    LI Zhennan, PAN Ying, WU Junxi, ZHANG Yanjie, ZHAO Zhongxu, YU Chengqun
    2021, 43 (11):  2356-2368.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.11.17
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    In view of the significant changes of human activity intensity and ecological carrying capacity (EC) caused by ecological resettlement, this study analyzed the impact of ecological resettlement on human activity intensity of typical semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral villages in the Lhasa River Basin of Tibet by using the methods of ecological footprint (EF) and human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP). The results show that the per capita ecological footprint of Bailang Village the case study village decreased from 2.79 hm2 to 1.80 hm2, and the per capita ecological carrying capacity decreased from 4.44 hm2 to 2.47 hm2 from 2010 to 2019. The ecological footprint index (EFI) value decreased from 51.72% to 27.25%, implying that the sustainability of the village has been weakened. The HANPP increased from 20.17 g C/m2 to 34.01 g C/m2, that is, HANPP in percent of potential net primary production ranges from 10.09% to 12.0%. Land-use induced human appropriation of net primary production (HANPPluc) raised and exceeded biomass harvest (HANPPharv), and the semi-agricultural and semi-animal husbandry industries tend to develop in the direction of agricultural dominance. The valley plain area, which accounts for 11.46% of the village area, bears 72.96% of the HANPP after resettlement in 2019. The newly reclaimed cultivated land and artificial grassland reduce the grazing pressure of mountain grassland, make the intensity of human activities in the village more concentrated, and help to realize the coordinated improvement of ecosystem supply services and regulation services. The results of the two methods show that the resettlement has significantly enhanced the intensity of human activities in Bailang Village. Ecological footprint is more specific in the evaluation of sustainability while HANPP has more advantages in spatial analysis and ecosystem function analysis, and the two methods are complementary. In the subsequent resettlement program, the number of resettlement villages shall be determined according to the local ecological carrying capacity, and the coordinated improvement of ecosystem service function shall be realized through the rational allocation of supply services and regulation services between different terrain and vegetation types. By comparing the characteristics of the two evaluation methods, this study provides a reference for the selection of human activity intensity evaluation indicators in other regions. It also provides a scientific basis for the relocation and sustainable development of ecological resettlement sites in Tibet.

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