Forestry is not only an important production sector of the national economy, but also a key area of ecological civilization construction. Improving the production technology efficiency (forestry PTE) is a key link in the efficient use of forest resources. In this article, the super-efficiency slacks-based measure (SBM) model was used to calculate the forestry PTE of 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in China from 2004 to 2018. Considering spatial factors, the convergence trend and spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics were developed based on the spatial conditional β convergence model. The study found that: (1) The overall level of forestry PTE at the national level was not high, and there was a large room for improvement. The forestry PTE at the major forest region level ranks from high to low in southwest, south, northeast, North China, and northwest forest region. The gap between the provinces was equally obvious. But the gap between provinces in the same forest regions is smaller than the gap between provinces in different forest regions. (2) At the national level, forestry PTE showed a significant spatial conditional β convergence trend, and the inclusion of spatial factors shortens the convergence period by about 4 years. The degree of forestry opening up, the level of forestry income, and the structure of forestry industry were positively correlated with the convergence to high values, while the technological market environment had a restraining effect. The level of regional economic development, the level of forestry human capital, and the natural environment had insignificant impacts. (3) From the perspective of forest regions, the five major forest regions showed a “club convergence” phenomenon, and the convergence rate was generally higher than the national average. The North China forest region had the highest convergence rate, followed by the northeast, southwest, and northwest forest regions, and the southern forest region have the lowest convergence rate. In terms of time periods, the convergence rate from 2012 to 2018 was higher than that from 2004 to 2011. The regional economic development level and the degree of forestry opening up to the outside world had a different impact in the direction or strength of forestry PTE in the two periods. For this reason, this article proposes to further improve the forestry system and mechanism, clarify the regional positioning, and formulate forestry development measures according to local conditions.