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Table of Content

    25 September 2021, Volume 43 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Research on the method and application of compiling coal resource balance sheets
    SHI Jia, CHENG Lu, ZHONG Bing, ZHANG Bo
    2021, 43 (9):  1711-1727.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.01
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    China has put the preparation of natural resource balance sheets in a prominent position for constructing an ecological civilization system. Coal resources are the basic energy to support the development of China’s national economy. The compilation of coal resource balance sheets is of great practical significance for strengthening the scientific management of coal resources and the auditing for outgoing officials’ management of natural resource assets. After reviewing the international natural resource accounting system and the compilation method of natural resource balance sheets in China, this study found that existing research had some deficiency to guide the preparation of coal resource balance sheets, such as inconsistent reporting system, unclear asset valuation methods, and incomplete contents and methods for liability accounting. This study then investigated the characteristics, exploration and development conditions, value determination, and related energy statistics systems of coal resources in China. Furthermore, the preliminary work, technical structure, and basic procedures for the preparation of coal resource balance sheets were clarified. The accounting contents of the statement system were improved, and the calculation methods for the values of coal resource assets and liabilities were established. A sample table of coal resource balance sheet was designed. Taking Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as an example, this study provides an effective application of the preparation method for coal resource balance sheets. The results can provide a methodology reference for establishing China’s preparation system of coal resource balance sheets and for the preparation of coal resource balance sheets of coal-producing cities, provinces, or nationwide.

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    Research on influencing factors of China’s energy consumption and intensity:Based on the demand-side perspective
    LI Hong, WANG Shuai
    2021, 43 (9):  1728-1742.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.02
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    At present, China has implemented the “double control” on total energy consumption and energy intensity. Under the background of demand-side reform, analyzing the influencing factors of total energy consumption and energy intensity is the basis for formulating effective energy policy in China. Based on the perspective of final demand, this study measured the embodied energy consumption and embodied energy intensity of five types of final demand in China in 2012, 2015, and 2017. Structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and two-level attribution analysis were used to explore the factors that affect China’s total energy consumption and energy intensity. Two methods were proposed to deal with the problem of zero value and negative value. The results show that: (1) Nearly half of China’s energy consumption is due to meeting the demand for capital formation. The embodied energy intensity of capital formation and export is more than 1.2 times that of the country average, while the embodied energy intensity of consumption is lower than that of the average. (2) The energy efficiency effect and the production structure effect are the main factors leading to the decline of the total energy consumption and its intensity in 2012-2015 and 2015-2017 respectively. (3) The first level of attribution analysis found that the influencing factors mainly affect the capital formation demand, and then affect the total energy consumption and its intensity. (4) The second level of attribution analysis found that heavy manufacturing and construction industries are the main industries that affect the change of capital formation demand. Therefore, it has greater potential to control energy consumption from the demand side in the future, the economic growth model needs to be further changed from investment and export-driven to consumption-driven, and to speed up the promotion of domestic circulation. At the same time, we should pay attention to optimizing the consumption structure of residents, and promote its transformation to green, low-carbon, and energy-saving.

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    Revenue and expenditure balance of renewable energy electricity price subsidies based on grey model
    WANG Fengyun, CONG Longyuan
    2021, 43 (9):  1743-1751.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.03
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    The huge accumulative gap of electricity price subsidy has caused great pressure on the renewable energy industry and fiscal expenditure. Therefore, there is great practical significance to analyze the revenue and expenditure balance of China’s renewable energy price subsidy for its sustainability. Under the background of price subsidy withdrawal, the grey model GM (1,1) was used to predict the electricity consumption of the secondary and tertiary industries and the urban and rural residents. This study calculated the theoretical subsidy of renewable energy electricity price and its additional tariff income, and analyzed the balance of electricity price subsidy. The results show that: (1) The accumulative gap of electricity price subsidy will be closed in 2025. In this year, the renewable energy price subsidy will reach a balance of income and expenditure, and there will be a subsidy surplus of 25.347 billion yuan, after which the surplus of the subsidy will increase continuously. (2) The additional tariff standard of electricity price can be lowered gradually from 2026. It will be reduced by 0.002 yuan per kilowatt-hour annually from 2026 to 2030, and 0.001 yuan per kilowatt-hour annually from 2031 to 2038, until it will be abolished in 2039. (3) The leakage of China’s renewable energy electricity price additional tariff income is serious, the levying rate is low, and we should increase the levying rate until the full amount of collection to promote an earlier attainment of electricity price subsidy income and expenditure balance. Finally, suggestions were put forward to promote the high quality development of renewable energy industry from the aspects of adjusting additional tariff standard for electricity price, increasing the levying rate of additional tariff income, raising subsidy funds, and so on.

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    Spatial effect of informatization on China’s energy intensity:Based on spatial Durbin error model
    WANG Xiaoying, WANG Yilong, SHEN Lei, LI Xiaoman, Du Qiangtao
    2021, 43 (9):  1752-1763.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.04
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    The externality of informatization leads to technology spillover and promotes the spatial effect of informatization on energy intensity. Based on the spatial differentiation and spatial autocorrelation of regional development, this paper studies the influence of informatization on energy intensity and the spatial effect among different regions, using the provincial panel data of China from 2006 to 2017 and the spatial Dubin error model. This paper measures the energy intensity and informatization level of 30 provinces in China, and reveals the spatial effect mechanism of informatization level on energy intensity. The results show that: (1) The spatial agglomeration phenomenon of informatization level and energy intensity is very significant, and the adjacent areas of 30 provinces (cities and districts) in China show similar agglomeration distribution; (2) Informatization level, urbanization and energy consumption structure have significant negative impacts on regional energy intensity, but industrial structure has no significant impact on regional energy intensity. (3) The effect of informatization on energy intensity shows a significant spatial spillover effect. The improvement of informatization level in neighboring areas of a certain region will promote the decrease of energy intensity in the region. For every 1% change of informatization level in neighboring areas, the spatial effect will make the regional energy intensity change in the opposite direction by 1.396%. It is suggested that all regions should pay attention to the role of informatization level in reducing regional energy intensity. To build a policy system that information-based development promotes the reduction of energy intensity; Strengthen regional cooperation and common development; Promote informatization construction and inter-regional cooperation and exchanges; We will improve the energy consumption structure.

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    Impact of consumption structure change on environmental efficiency from the perspective of investment
    ZHAO Jia, ZHU Yuke
    2021, 43 (9):  1764-1777.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.05
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    A positive interaction between household consumption structure and investment structure is crucial to achieving a balance between economic development and environmental protection. This article presented a theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of household consumption structure change on environmental efficiency from the perspective of investment. Using panel data on 30 provinces in China over the period 2003 to 2017, we examined the effects of upgrading the household consumption structure on environmental efficiency. The results indicate that: (1) Due to environmental regulations, investment returns, and clean technology, shifts in consumer preferences associated with consumption structure will change investment structure and further affect environmental efficiency. (2) The upgrading of the consumption structure from a survival to a development orientation positively improved environmental efficiency not only directly but also indirectly through the intermediary effect of investment structure change.However, the magnitude and direction of the indirect effect depend on the preference of investment structure. (3) The shift to investment in tertiary industries caused by upgrading the consumption structure effectively improved environmental efficiency. However, if the investment shift is biased toward high-polluting industries, then environmental efficiency is reduced due to increased environmental pollution. Therefore, accelerating the green transformation of consumption, guiding investment toward development-oriented consumption, and increasing low-emissions and climate-adaptive investments will help to achieve sustainable economic and environmental development.

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    Measurement of inter-provincial water resource use efficiency in China from the perspective of carrying capacity with triple attribute constraints
    ZHANG Kai, LU Haishu, LU Yumei
    2021, 43 (9):  1778-1793.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.06
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    The coexistence of structural water shortage and resource-based water shortage in China calls for effective improvement of water resource use efficiency. This study selected the water resources carrying capacity constrained by the triple attributes of resource endowment-social economic condition-ecological environment as the input variable, constructed a range-adjusted measure (RAM)-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)-RAM combined efficiency measurement model without mandatory adjustment of environmental factors and statistical noise, and conducted an empirical study based on the panel data of 31 provinces in China’s mainland from 2003 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The water resources carrying capacity under the triple attribute constraints is more suitable for the actual situation of the study area, and China’s water resources carrying capacity showed a steady growth trend in the study period, with a distribution pattern of low in the east and high in the west, and low in the north and high in the south; (2) Environmental regulation factors have different effects on the excess relaxation of input variables and the insufficient relaxation of output variables. The relaxation of R&D expenditure on labor input surplus is always negative, the impact of population density on the relaxation of input and output variables fluctuates in a narrow range, and vegetation coverage has a positive impact on the relaxation of input and output variables; (3) After excluding the impact of statistical noise and environmental regulation, the water resource utilization efficiency of most provinces in southern China has increased and that of most provinces in northern China has decreased, indicating that the impact of statistical noise and environmental regulation factors on different provinces is different. When making policies, we should adjust measures to local conditions and provincial policies, improve the water resources management supervision system, actively construct the water rights trading market, and promote the “flow” of water resources market allocation.

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    Characteristics of the water-energy network in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    HONG Siyang, CHENG Tao, WANG Hongrui
    2021, 43 (9):  1794-1807.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.07
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    Economic development is inseparable from water resources and energy, and exploring the circulation characteristics of water and energy among various sectors in the macroeconomic system and examining their patterns is of vital importance for the efficient and sustainable use of water and energy. In this study, the Yangtze River Economic Belt was taken as a case and complex network theory was adopted to create resource networks to explore the resource network characteristics from a new perspective of two-way savings and mutual savings on water and energy. The results indicate that: (1) Water-energy-related resource networks in the Yangtze River Economic Belt had small-world and scale-free characteristics and changes of key sectors in the network will significantly affect the whole network. (2) Chemical industry, metallurgy, and construction in Jiangsu Province had significant mutual saving effect of water and energy in the Yangtze River Economic Belt due to their great node strength. For chemical industry, metallurgy, and electrical equipment manufacturing in Jiangsu Province, and electricity and hot water production and supply in Hubei and Hunan provinces, the energy-saving effect brought by water saving and the water-saving effect brought by energy saving can be quickly spread to other sectors, and the two-way saving effect of water and energy was significant. (3) The amount of resource circulation was generally positively correlated with the level of economic development. The circulation of resources in Jiangsu, Hunan, and Hubei provinces was relatively large, while the circulation of resources in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces and Chongqing Municipality was relatively low. (4) The reasonable regulation of resource utilization of sectors in three trade routesChongqing (transport, storage, and postal services) → Chongqing (leasing and commercial services), Chongqing (construction) → Chongqing (other services), and Sichuan (construction) → Sichuan (other services) can significantly affect the resource flow of the entire network, so as to realize resource conservation. Exploring the characteristics of the regional water-energy network can provide references for the efficient utilization of resources.

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    Estimation, driving factors, and regional differences of agricultural irrigatioan water rebound effect in arid areas: Examples of five provinces in northwestern China
    XU Hang, LI Tao, SONG Jianfeng
    2021, 43 (9):  1808-1820.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.08
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    In arid and semi-arid regions, the agricultural sector uses a lot of water, but the utilization rate is not high. Therefore, the development of water-saving irrigation has become a possible way to alleviate the scarcity of water resources. However, under the conditions of improved water-saving irrigation technology, if the actual water-saving effect fails to meet expectations, the “irrigation water rebound effect” will appear. Based on this situation, this paper theoretically constructs a method for measuring the irrigation water rebound effect, and then uses the LMDI method to decompose the irrigation water rebound effect into climate effect, unit yield effect, structural effect, area effect and irrigation effect. And, with the data of five northwestern provinces from 2005 to 2016, based on the calculation and decomposition of the effect, this paper analyses the driving factors and regional differences of agricultural irrigation water rebound effect in arid areas. The results show that: (1) The overall rebound effect in the northwest of China is as high as 340.00%, that is, the newly added water use has reached 3.4 times the expected water saving. Among them, the irrigation water rebound effects in Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Xinjiang are 374.97%, 55.10%, 117.46%, 434.51%, and 384.32%, respectively. (2) The increase in output per unit area and expansion of planting area are always the driving factors that promote the increase in the irrigation water rebound effect in the entire northwest or the provinces. (3) The increase in output per unit area is the main driving factor for increase in the overall irrigation water rebound effect in the northwest. However, there are still regional differences among the northwestern provinces. Among them, the main driving factors in Gansu, Ningxia, and Shaanxi are the increase in output per unit area, while the main driving factors in Qinghai and Xinjiang are the climate change and expansion of planting area, respectively. Based on these results, in order to avoid the agricultural irrigation water rebound effect in arid and semiarid regions, the overall strategy should not be to pursue the maximization of yield. Deficit irrigation should be appropriately adopted instead, and the scale of irrigated agriculture should be rationally planned. In terms of local strategies, regionalized policies should be adapted based on local conditions.

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    Comparison of irrigation efficiency of smallholder farmers and new agricultural operators and influencing factors
    XU Lang, CHEN Jie, LIU Chen
    2021, 43 (9):  1821-1833.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.09
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    New agricultural operators are the main force of agricultural development in China. Based on the field investigation data of the North China Plain area, this study selected winter wheat as the research object, applied a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model to calculate the irrigation water use efficiency of winter wheat with different agricultural operators, and used the Tobit model to explore the factors that affect the irrigation water use efficiency of different subjects. The study found that there are great differences in irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers, large grain growers, family farms, and agricultural cooperatives, and the irrigation water use efficiency values of farmers in family farms and agricultural cooperatives are mostly concentrated at the level of more than 70%. On the other hand, smallholder farmer irrigation water use efficiency values are concentrated at the level of 10% to 30%. Combined with the technical efficiency of various agricultural operators, we can see that the irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers and new agricultural operators have a certain space to improve; significant differences exist in the factors that affect irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers and new agricultural operators, such as the level of education and labor force; and the proportion of agricultural income, water cost, and adoption of advanced irrigation technology have a positive impact on the irrigation water use efficiency of all agricultural operators. Among the new agricultural operators, farmers’ age, irrigation area, irrigation facilities, and training measures can improve their irrigation water use efficiency, but have no significant impact on the irrigation water use efficiency of smallholder farmers. Smallholder farmers should be an important target to promote the application of water-saving irrigation technology and improve the efficiency of irrigation water use. Measures such as speeding up the transformation of traditional farmers to a new type of agricultural operator and increasing the development of public services will help to improve the efficiency of irrigation water use.

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    Progress of research on fuzzy mathematical model of water resources value
    FENG Xin, JIANG Wenlai, LIU Yang, LI Xinru
    2021, 43 (9):  1834-1848.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.10
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    Strengthening water resources management, promoting the reform of the paid use system of water resources, and the preparation of Natural Resource Balance Sheet require accounting for the value of water resources. The fuzzy mathematical model of water resources value is a widely used method in water value research. However, there is no existing comprehensive review on the progress of research on the model, which is not conducive to the development and application of the model. This article analyzed and evaluated the research progress of fuzzy mathematical model of water resources value through statistics and induction of published literature from 1995 to 2019. The analysis and evaluation are based on multiple perspectives, such as research purpose, indicator selection, weighting method, evaluation standard, and calculation method. The results indicate that: (1) The application of the model is closely related to the release of water resources policies. (2) The indicator system of the model is becoming increasingly more abundant, but water quality, per capita water resources, per capita GDP, and population density are still the most widely used indicators. (3) In terms of weighting methods, combination weighting method is an important development direction of the model. (4) The evaluation criteria are determined based on international standards and domestic status quo, which have their own advantages and disadvantages, but they need to be updated and adjusted in time. (5) There is a certain gap between the evaluation result and the current water price, which is affected by the low water price policy, but it provides theoretical support for China’s water price reform. It is an important method for water resource value research. The model has many application cases and strong applicability, and has been continuously optimized in application and development. In the future, it is necessary to further consolidate its theoretical foundation, expanding the research scale, and strengthen the practical application.

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    Cooperative behavioral strategies of overseas farmland investment participants from the perspective of evolutionary game
    WANG Yameng, TIAN Yingdong, DU Panpan, WEI Feng
    2021, 43 (9):  1849-1862.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.11
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    Due to asymmetric information and lack of risk management, cases of failure of Chinese companies’ overseas farmland investment projects continue to occur, damaging the interests of all parties involved. Achieving long-term cooperation of the “going global” companies with the host countries through farmland investment projects has become a key issue for promoting national food security using overseas agricultural resources. Based on the limited rational behavior of different participants in the overseas farmland investment process, a tripartite evolutionary game model of Chinese companies, host country governments, and host country landowners was constructed, and a numerical analysis was conducted with Xi’an Aiju Cereals and Oils Industry Group as an example. The results show that: (1) The tripartite evolutionary game model of Chinese companies, host country governments, and host country landowners has four evolutionary stability points that can reach a stable state, corresponding to the different strategic choices of the three parties. (2) When Chinese companies make strategic choices of independent operation or cooperative operation, they often respond more quickly to the host country government and host country landowner strategic choices and the evolution path is more sensitive. Host country governments take the longest time to achieve equilibrium, the evolution path is the most stable, and the strategic choice is less influenced by Chinese companies and host country landowners. (3) The loss aversion psychology of the host country governments often makes them hesitant and slow when formulating a “high support” strategy that is favorable to Chinese corporate policies and is firm and quick when formulating a “low support” strategy that is not favorable to Chinese corporate policies. This situation poses high requirements for the stability and long-term engagement of Chinese companies’ overseas investment in farmland. (4) In the process of overseas farmland investment, Chinese companies cannot do without the support of the host country governments. When Chinese companies choose the independent management strategy, they are less affected by the host country governments’ “high support” strategy, but when they choose the cooperative management strategy, they are more affected by the host country governments’ “high support” strategy. The tendency and possibility of the host country governments’ strategic choice should be considered in such case.

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    Policy feasibility and effectiveness test of relaxing constraints of interplanting in returning farmland: Based on a survey of farmers in Guizhou Province
    HUANG Jielong, WANG Liqun
    2021, 43 (9):  1863-1875.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.12
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    To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the policy of relaxing constraints of interplanting in the new round of returning farmland to forests (NRRFF) in Guizhou province, and to provide a reference for consolidating the results of the NRRFF and improving the NRRFF policy, the economies of scope and profit of scope of interplanting of farming households were measured using the economies of scope model. The effects of interplanting on farmers’ economies of scope, profit of scope, and economic forest management and protection were analyzed by using quasi-irrelevant regression and panel Tobit model. The research found that: Interplanting can bring economies of scope and profit of scope to returning farmland households, of which “economic forest + food crops” has the highest degree of economies of scope, and “economic forest + cash crops” has the highest degree of profit of scope. From the perspective of the interplanting models, the degree of economies of scope brought by single-crop intercropping is slightly lower than dual-crop intercropping, but interplanting of economic crops can bring greater degree of profit of scope. There is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the intensity of interplanting, economies of scope, and profit of scope, and there exists a threshold value for interplanting intensity considering the economies of scope and profit of scope. Cross-effects indicate that interplanting intensity will affect the degrees of economies of scope and profit of scope of farmers through the survival rate of interplanted trees of economic forests. Compared to food crops, interplanting economic crops is not as beneficial to the management of economic forests.

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    Impact of aging rural labor force and household structure on the decision to transfer farmland
    WANG Jie, CAI Zhijian, QIN Xi
    2021, 43 (9):  1876-1888.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.13
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    Large-scale operation of farming is one of the main paths to modern agriculture, and exploring the impact of aging rural labor force on the decision of transferring out family farmland has important implications for promoting the connection between smallholder farmers and modern agriculture. Based on the improved household life cycle model and data from the China Household Finance Survey, the impact of household labor force aging on farmland transfer and the difference of impact due to heterogeneity of household structure were empirically tested at the household level. The results find that: (1) nearly one-third of rural households in China still have elderly people involved in agricultural work, and with the increasing proportion of the aging population, small farmers with elderly people as the mainstay of agricultural production may also exist in the long run in the future. (2) The aging of the labor force is a disincentive for transferring out farmland. Compared with other household types, households with an older laborer are about 5% less likely to transfer out farmland. (3) The inhibitory effect of labor force aging on household farmland transfer differs under different household structures, and the magnitude of the inhibitory effect is raising family period Ⅰ> supporting family period Ⅰ> empty nest period Ⅰ. This article argues that for the older elderly labor force, it is necessary to further establish a sound rural social security system to promote this group of farmers to transfer their farmland to more productive operators instead of farming by themselves; for the younger elderly labor force, it is necessary to cooperate with more complete agricultural socialization services to achieve the dual goals of improving agricultural productivity and supporting elderly livehoods with farmland.

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    Consistency of farmers’ planting strategies and government objectives for drought risk governance:A case study of Xinghe County of Inner Mongolia
    GUO Hao, JIANG Yao, WANG Jing’ai, LIANG Qin’ou
    2021, 43 (9):  1889-1902.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.14
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    Under the background of climate change, the increase of frequency, spatial scope, and intensity of drought has a great impact on agricultural production. In order to understand the consistency between farmers’ behaviors and government objectives and promote the coordination between farmers and the government in the process of drought risk governance, this study analyzed the farmers’ planting strategies in semiarid and rain-fed agricultural areas and evaluated their consistency with the government objectives from the two dimensions of increasing economic income and enhancing drought adaptation based on the perspective of drought risk governance. The results show that: (1) 81.67% of farmers chose the crops with higher adaptability because of their experiences. Farmers with relatively good agricultural planting conditions pay more attention to drought adaptability to ensure stable agricultural production. (2) According to the differences between farmers’ planting strategies and government objectives, farmers can be divided into 4 categories. Only 9.98% of the farmers belong to the high-income and high-adaptability group and they are mainly distributed around government station, while 20.69% of the farmers belong to the low-income and low-adaptation group, mainly distributed near the north or south border of the study area and the consistency between their planting strategies and government objectives is low. Low-income and high-adaptation farmers, high-income and low- adaptation farmers account for 60.26% and 9.07%, respectively. (3) Total planting area and crop diversity have the greatest impact on the consistency. Crop diversity has a positive impact on the consistency of farmers with lower economic income, while it has a negative impact on farmers with higher economic income. This study can provide a scientific reference for the formulation of related policies and for improving the level of integrated risk governance.

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    Research progress of community development of national parks and implications
    ZHU Dongfang, ZHONG Linsheng, YU Hu
    2021, 43 (9):  1903-1917.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.15
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    Community is an important part of national park construction. Based on the Web of Science Core Collection database, this study conducted a systematic analysis of the literature on national park community research as well as its key content, and put forward a research framework of national park community development in China. The results show that the research on the community development of national parks can be divided into the embryonic stage (before 1990), the initial stage (1991-1999), and the rapid development stage (since 2000). Furthermore, the research mainly focuses on four aspects, including the influencing factors of community perception and attitude, ecotourism development and community, conflict and coordination between communities and parks, as well as community management models. Under the background of diversification of national park types, geographic types, and economic development stages, research on national park community development in China should focus on the prominent problems of conflict between human and land. Lessons should be drawn from research on national park community, and the key issues should focus on the cognition and attitude towards the construction of national parks, community participation models and mechanism of national parks, identification of the types of national park community and their sustainability drivers and paths, and the management as well as the development strategy of national park community. At the same time, the research methods should be integrated and optimized to establish a scientific system of sustainable community development in national parks.

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    Implications of the evaluation and transaction of “wetland credit” in the United States for wetland restoration in China
    YU Jie, LI Jingmei
    2021, 43 (9):  1918-1931.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.09.16
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    The introduction of a third party for wetland restoration and the use of market transactions is a medium of equivalent exchange in wetland restoration. Scientific evaluation of wetland credit provides a technical support to sustain the spatial scales and ecosystem service functions of wetlands and is a key link in establishing wetland restoration market transactions. In this study, the wetland credit evaluation models and parameters were systematically reviewed based on the spatial scales and ecosystem service functions in wetland restoration compensation of the United States. The wetland market-based compensation transaction rules and the pricing for transactions are expounded and analyzed. This research found that: First, the two kinds of wetland credit assessment methods simultaneously take into account the functionality of ecosystem services and the flexibility of market transactions, providing an effective means for wetland credit assessment. Second, the prices in wetland credit transactions are subject to construction costs, transaction timing, and so on, and the equilibrium prices are formed based on the supply and demand balance of wetland restoration market. Third, market trading rules should be set up and standardized restoration methods should be devised in order to ensure the ecological equivalent compensation transactions as much as possible. China should gradually cultivate the wetland restoration third-party industry, and explore market-oriented compensation models for wetland restoration. It should also advance the performance evaluation of wetland restoration, and explore and improve ecological equivalent compensation assessment techniques for securing ecological services. These efforts can help to provide a scientific basis and technical support for the market-oriented reform of ecological restoration and wetland restoration performance evaluation in China.

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