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Table of Content

    25 February 2021, Volume 43 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Perspective on the development of Hainan Free Trade Zone (Port) from a political geography approach
    LIU Yungang, LIU Xuanyu
    2021, 43 (2):  209-216.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.01
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    The current situation in China and internationally is undergoing profound and complex changes, under which China needs to actively participate in and promote the process of economic globalization and the development of a higher level of open economy. Based on the political geography theories, this article discussed the theoretical basis of the establishment of a free trade port (FTP), used the concept of island to explore the geographical nature, situation, and extension of the construction of the Hainan FTP, and gave a preliminary consideration to the development prospect of the Hainan FTP. The research results show that the Hainan FTP has three goals and strategies: economic integration, regional influence, and global geopolitical competition, and its development processes reflect the integration of geopolitics and geostrategy. The Hainan FTP is a new development in the economic field of hierarchical sovereign management policies, as well as a conscious and proactive national re-scaling spatial development strategy in China, which has the dual processes of removing/reexpanding sideways. At the local level, the construction of the free trade port is an opportunity for Hainan Province to realize the spatial governance of urban areas in the future. At the national level, the Hainan FTP is an important strategic fulcrum for China to implement the “Belt and Road” initiative. Finally, the importance of the concepts of scale and island meta-geography to the study of island economy is reiterated.

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    Implications of international experiences for the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port
    MENG Guangwen
    2021, 43 (2):  217-228.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.02
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    The planning and development of Hainan pilot free trade zone and Free Trade Port is not only out of the needs of Hainan’s development, but also an important measure and a strategic step for China to deepen reforms, expand opening up, achieve economic transformation, and respond to international competitions and challenges. The current research focuses on the theoretical basis, planning sce-narios, management mode, legal issues, and value and effect of Hainan free trade zone and domestic and international cases, but there is a lack of systematic and in-depth research on the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port. This study examined the types and functions, industrial development, spatial structure, policy and supervision, business environment, and risk prevention of Hainan Free Trade Port in an attempt to spur further debates among the policymakers and aca-demic community. Hainan Free Trade Port should become a pilot zone of the “double circulation” strategy, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and China-EU Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI), a complex and comprehensive free trade zone, which should take shipping logistics and international trade, and tourism and service trade as leading sectors, and research and development, manufacturing, and modern agriculture as auxiliary sectors. It should take the main island as the key platform, the outlying islands as the auxiliary, and various types of parks as the focus of development. On the basis of the management of the island’s customs zone, it should implement the management mode of “zones in free trade port”, and speed up the legislation of the Basic Law of Hainan Free Trade Port, which should be enacted to facilitate the free flow of goods, investments, capital, personnel, and information, and implement low tax policies, simplify the form and content of laws and regulations. In order to achieve sustainable development, Hainan should gradually improve the living environment and enhance the comprehensive transportation level, prevent economic and political risks, establish a coastal defense center and an illegal immigrant deporting center, and limit the development intensity of land and coastal zone and population size and density. This study has both theoretical and practical significance for enriching the academic research on free trade zones and the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port.

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    Resource endowment, economic foundation, and the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port
    CHENG Yeqing, ZHANG Jinping, CHEN Yan
    2021, 43 (2):  229-240.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.03
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    The construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port is a momentous measure of China’s reform and opening up and a major strategic decision scientifically planned by The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, which has great significance for China’s in-depth reform and innovation, establishing a new high-level open and modern economic system, supporting economic globalization, and building a community with a shared future for mankind. Facing the overall goals and practical needs of the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and from the perspective of comprehensive geographical research based on the policy interpretation and theoretical analysis of the overall plan of the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, this study analyzed the resource endowment, economic foundation, industrial transformation, and the existing problems in the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and discussed the optimal allocation of resources and economic transformation path in response to regional changes, resource constraints, and economic globalization, aiming at providing a scientific basis and practical reference for promoting the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port. The study concluded that: (1) Hainan has superior geographical conditions and abundant natural resources, which can provide resource support for the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, but it faces a number of resource constraints such as poor geographic proximity to major economic centers, insufficient reserve land resources, and shortage of high-end human resources. (2) Since the establishment of Hainan Province and the special economic zone, the economic scale of the region has continued to grow, the industrial structure has been continuously optimized, the level of industrial specialization has been improved, and the supporting capabilities of key industries have been enhanced, but there still exist outstanding problems such as relatively poor quality of economic growth, weak advantages of dominant industries, low degree of industrial specialization, and suboptimal industrial spatial layout. (3) We should pay more attention to the limitation of geographical location, shortcomings of resource and quality of economic growth of Hainan, and strengthen the construction of transport infrastructure and economic cooperation with the Chinese hinterland and the international market, optimize the allocation of natural and social resources, accelerate economic transformation and industrial upgrading, and promote its economic location advantages, resource guarantee capabilities, and economic quality and competitiveness, so as to promote the institutional reform and innovation, the construction of modern industrial systems, and the construction process of the Hainan Free Trade Port effectively and achieve the development goal of a high-level free trade port.

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    Regional coordination between Guangdong and Hainan and the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port
    LI Guoping, XU Zhen
    2021, 43 (2):  241-255.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.04
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    Regional coordination between Guangdong and Hainan Provinces, is an important measure to make full use of domestic resources, especially the resources of Guangdong Province, in the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port, a national strategy of China. This paper first constructed a gravity entropy model to evaluate the comprehensive development level of Guangdong and Hainan and the gravity intensity between cities, and then explored the regional coordination level of Guangdong and Hainan from the perspective of industrial division, innovation connection, and factor market integration. The results show that, from 2013 to 2018, the comprehensive development level of Guangdong and Hainan steadily improved, while there is a certain gap between the two provinces. The gravity intensity between Guangdong and Hainan is at a low level. In terms of industrial synergy, the manufacturing structure of the two provinces is obviously different, while the service industry has a similar structure. The innovation spillover from Guangdong to Hainan is also in a low level. In the aspect of factor market integration, the two provinces have relatively low integration level of factor market. Based on the analysis of the current situation and problems of coordination between the two provinces, this article put forward some countermeasures and suggestions for the construction of regional cooperation and economic integration between Guangdong and Hainan, to promote the development of the Hainan Free Trade Port project.

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    Trade pattern change of Hainan Province and its economic connection with provinces in China’s mainland
    SONG Zhouying, TAO Lei, LIU Weidong
    2021, 43 (2):  256-268.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.05
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    Free economic zone is an important platform worldwide to boost employment, drive institutional innovation, and promote economic and social development. As a free economic zone with the highest level of opening up in China, Hainan Free Trade Port is of great significance for China to promote the Belt and Road initiative and form a new development pattern of mutual promotion between domestic and international circulations. Based on the revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and interregional input-output model, this study examined the change of Hainan’s trade pattern and the province’s economic connection with other provinces in China’s mainland. The results show that: (1) Since 2002, Hainan’s foreign trade has developed rapidly. The proportion of trade with ASEAN countries has increased significantly and these countries have become the major trading partners of Hainan Province, and the proportion of trade with oil-producing countries has fluctuated dramatically. (2) Hainan’s export commodity structure was relatively stable, dominated by mineral products; but the import commodity structure fluctuated greatly, currently dominated by chemical products, mineral products, and transportation equipment. (3) The economic relationship between Hainan and other provinces shows an obvious characteristic of unidirectional connection, with Hainan’s economy depending strongly on other provinces in China’s mainland. Guangdong, Henan, and most provinces in East China have relatively strong economic ties with Hainan. Guangdong, Anhui, Shandong, and Henan Provinces are the main destinations of Hainan’s products; and Jiangsu, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Henan, and Anhui are the main source provinces. (4) Industry, construction, and agriculture are the main sectors of product flow between Hainan and other provinces. However, agriculture, wholesale and retail, accommodation and catering, and transportation sectors in Hainan have competitive advantages in domestic product flow

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    Influence of social network on grassland renting behaviors of herdsmen: A case study in four villages of Menyuan County, Qinghai Province
    QIAN Chen, SHAO Liqun, WANG Shuai, ZHANG Hui, CHEN Haibin
    2021, 43 (2):  269-279.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.06
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    Grassland rental market is the main way of grassland transfer in pastoral areas of China. It is of great significance to explore the factors that affect the grassland renting behavior of herdsmen and to improve the grassland rental market for maintaining the ecological balance of grasslands, increasing the income of herdsmen, and promoting the prosperity and stability of pastoral areas. This study is to empirically test the influence of social network on the tendency and intensity of grassland renting of herdsmen, by constructing the social network of herdsmen and replacing traditional social capital indicators with two structural indicators of social network, i.e., strong ties and weak ties, based on a field survey in four villages of Menyuan County, Qinghai Province. A Heckman model was built and estimated. The results show that: (1) Strong ties, which are built on consanguinity, geographical proximity, and kinship and are the invisible force behind rule compliance, significantly increase grassland renting tendency and intensity on the part of the herdsmen; (2) Weak ties, which reflect the power and social status of herdsmen in the village, could help to transmit non-redundant and heterogeneous information efficiently and to break down the invisible barriers and access restrictions in the grassland rental market, also significantly increase grassland renting tendency and intensity of herdsmen. The study concludes that the government should actively cultivate specialized herdsmen cooperatives and animal husbandry enterprises, hold various traditional ethnic cultural activities routinely, hence create a social environment of trust and reciprocity in local communities, so as to give full play to the positive role of social network in developing grassland rental market and revitalizing rural pastoral areas.

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    Impact of fallow on off-farm employment of farmers
    XIE Xianxiong, DENG Yue, LIU Jiyao, LU Weinan, ZHAO Minjuan
    2021, 43 (2):  280-292.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.07
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    With the depletion of China’s surplus rural labor force, it is urgent to reform agricultural operations to release rural labor. Farmland fallow is a sustainable agricultural operation mode, and whether fallow can help promote the transfer of labor force to non-agricultural operations has become a practical issue. Based on the field survey data of 1240 households in the Northwest fallow pilot area, this study used the multivariate Probit, seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR), Heckman two-step, and instrumental variable methods to systematically examine the impact of fallow on off-farm employment from the aspects of employment decision making, employment choice, employment intensity, and employment income, and further investigated the heterogeneity of the impacts. The results show that: (1) Fallow can improve the probability of farmers’ off-farm employment, but the space of action is very limited, and the farmers tend to choose off-farm business. The impact of fallow on the intensity of farmers’ off-farm employment is mainly to increase the available time for off-farm work, and is not to increase the number of off-farm workers. The number of migrant workers increased only because fallow promoted the labor force in their families to shift from local off-farm employment to working outside the home area. Fallow is conducive to increasing farmers’ total off-farm income, migrant workers’ income, and off-farm business income, which is mainly achieved by making more time available for corresponding off-farm activities. (2) The heterogeneity analysis shows that the degree of fallow participation has a positive role in promoting farmers’ off-farm employment, but only when all the cultivated land of a household is involved in fallow can the off-farm employment probability of its members be significantly improved, and only when most of the cultivated land is involved in fallow can their off-farm employment intensity and income be improved. Fallow is beneficial for pure and type I part-time farmers’ off-farm employment probability and income; and it improves farmers’ off-farm employment intensity and income in the older age group, and has greater impact in the high education group than in the low education group.

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    Ecological poverty and its influencing factors in an alpine area: Case study of the Selinco area
    YANG Ding, YANG Zhenshan
    2021, 43 (2):  293-303.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.08
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    Ecological poverty research is of great significance for understanding the mechanism of interaction between the ecological environment and poverty in areas with formidable ecological environments, and for giving support to formulating policy measures to consolidate the achievements of poverty alleviation. However, there exist only few studies on the evaluation of ecological poverty and analysis of its influencing factors in alpine areas with harsh ecological environments. Taking the Selinco area of Tibet as an example, this study constructed an index system of ecological poverty. By using the BP neural network and the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method, the ecological poverty level and influencing factors of ecological poverty of 30 township-level administrative units in the Selinco area were evaluated and analyzed. The results show that: (1) The average level of ecological poverty of the townships is 2.97, and most townships are in the third level. Townships with a higher level of ecological poverty are located in mountainous areas with harsh natural conditions, while townships with lower levels are located in areas with better natural conditions near the lakes. (2) There are differences in the impact direction of the factors on ecological poverty. Slope, relief, mean temperature, and elevation have a positive effect on ecological poverty, while drainage density, average precipitation, soil texture structure, and vegetation are the opposite. Therefore, residents should be guided to reduce the interference to highly ecologically fragile areas, strengthen the protection of pastures and water sources, develop characteristic industries such as modern animal husbandry and tourism service industry, and further promote community development to reduce livelihood vulnerability. (3) Altitude, slope, and relief are the key factors that affect ecological poverty and are correlated with other factors such as average temperature and precipitation. Considering the key factors such as altitude and topography, it is recommended to optimize the layout of residential areas and actively respond to ecological poverty. These results not only provide some references for formulating long-term effective poverty reduction strategies from the perspective of the ecological environment but also provide a reference for ecological poverty monitoring in other areas.

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    Impact of precipitation on vegetable prices: Taking Guangzhou City as an example
    ZHAI Zhihong, JIANG Minxing, CHANG Chunying
    2021, 43 (2):  304-315.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.09
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    Precipitation variations have important impacts on vegetable prices. Identifying and analyzing the shock effects of precipitation on vegetable prices are of great significance for vegetable prices forecasting and market supply and demand adjustment. Based on a dynamic model of vegetable supply and demand with precipitation factors, we revealed the mechanism of daily precipitation impulse on the price of vegetables and the cause of the heterogeneity of precipitation impact on different vegetables. Subsequently, based on daily and monthly retail vegetable prices (cabbage, lettuce, and asparagus bean) and precipitation data in Guangzhou City from 2004 to 2018, we used vector autoregression (VAR), impulse response function (IRF), and forecast error variance decompositions to verify the identified mechanism, and analyzed the effect of precipitation on the prices of the three vegetables. The results are as follows. (1) Under certain conditions, daily excess precipitation has a positive impact, which will stimulate vegetable prices, and the impact is inversely related to the price elasticity of vegetable demand. (2) The impact of precipitation on the price of vegetables has clear heterogeneity on different temporal scales, and the daily scale is more sensitive than the monthly scale. Daily precipitation impacts on cabbage, lettuce, and asparagus bean prices reach their maximum at 16, 20, and 10 day, respectively and then weakened. Monthly precipitation impact, which is strong, is reflected in the next month but not lasting. (3) Compared to daily precipitation, monthly precipitation has a greater impact on vegetable prices. Daily precipitation impacts on cabbage, lettuce, and asparagus bean contribute 8.3%, 18.4%, and 1.0% of the price fluctuations, respectively, while monthly precipitation impacts contribute to a higher degree of 24.0%, 18.1%, and 10.7%. According to the results, this article proposed serval countermeasures to ensure the stable supply of vegetables.

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    Economic prying effect of de-capacity and asset structure adjustment in the coal industry
    ZHU Liangfeng, ZHU Xueyi
    2021, 43 (2):  316-327.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.10
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    De-capacity in the coal industry is an important measure for the transformation and development of coal enterprises. It promotes the development of energy resources in the direction of clean, low carbon, efficient, and high quality. At the same time, it forces coal enterprises to eliminate backward production capacity, improve the conversion rate of coal processing, rationally allocate capital investment, arrange asset structure in an orderly manner, and expand non-coal business. In this research we collected data on indicators related to coal industry capacity reduction in 2009-2018 and data on asset structure change of 34 listed coal companies in China during the same period, and used the entropy method to determine the entropy value of the asset structure change, and the regression analysis method to determine the effect of de-capacity in coal enterprises and adjust asset structure on the listed coal companies. The empirical research shows that: (1) Coal industry has achieved brilliant results in de-capacity and structural adjustment, but negatively correlated with earnings per share or return on equity of listed coal companies, and its implied prying effect lags behind release. (2) Listed coal companies actively adjust the direction of capital investment under the environmental pressure of de-capacity and structural adjustment, so that the asset structure changes in an orderly manner, and the entropy value of assets under orderly change is positively related to the prying effect of enterprises. (3) Rational arrangement of the proportion of current liabilities to current assets in listed coal companies and accelerating the turnover of current assets and fixed assets have played a positive role in promoting the prying effect of enterprises. The supply and demand balance of the coal industry has entered the normal track, consolidating the transformation results, controlling the orderly change of asset structure, and taking the road of green development and sustainable development is the future development direction that should be adhered to.

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    Change and ecological restoration of the dike-pond system in the Pearl River Delta: A case study of four villages in Foshan City
    CHEN Caixia, HUANG Guangqing, YE Yuyao, ZHAO Lingling, JIN Lixia, LIU Xulong
    2021, 43 (2):  328-340.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.11
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    The dike-pond system (DPS) has been recognized as a China Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems site. Its macro pattern changes have been widely concerned, but the micro village level research has not been paid enough attention. This study constructed an analytical framework for the qualitative analysis of change of the DPS. Taking Xiqiao, Nanjin, Qingtian, and Shiban Villages in Foshan City as examples, field research and semistructured interviews were used to analyze the process, characteristics, and mechanism of change of the DPS. The results show that the DPS has changed from the original combination of planting and breeding to a high density pond system. However, the DPS was closely combined with the living space of the nearby village settlements, forming ecological landscape pond, vegetable dike-fish pond, and so on. Under the background of urbanization and industrialization, the operation and management of rural collective economic organizations and farmers that prioritize economic benefits is the internal driver of the DPS change. Changing the operation mode of the DPS, giving full play to the comprehensive benefits of the system, reasonably managing the interface between DPS and urban-rural space, and combining with the conservation of agricultural and cultural heritage and rural culture of DPS are crucial for realizing the ecological restoration of the DPS in the Pearl River Delta. This study can provide some theoretical basis for the the sustainable development of agriculture and territorial spatial planning of the Pearl River Delta.

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    Pollution control effects of environmental policies based on threshold effect model of industrial structure: Taking the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan as an example
    CHEN Lin, XIAO Qianbing, LAN Shujing
    2021, 43 (2):  341-356.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.12
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    The improvement of environmental quality is not only the result of environmental policy, but closely related to the adjustment of industrial structure under the effect of policy. Based on the panel data of the average annual concentration of PM2.5 in 197 prefectural-level and above cities in China from 2006 to 2016, this study took the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan as the proxy dummy variable of environmental regulation, and combined the difference in differences method to examine whether the implementation of the action plan is conducive to reducing the level of haze pollution in three target areas. By putting the industrial structure upgrading indicators (including industrial structure optimization, the “quantity” of industrial structure supererogation, and the “quality” of industrial structure supererogation) into the model, this study explored how the policy affected the haze pollution control through the upgrading of industrial structure. In addition, a panel threshold regression model was used to examine whether there is a threshold effect of industrial structure optimization and industrial structure supererogation on haze pollution control under the background of the implementation of the action plan. The regression results show that: (1) Using the full sample, the policy effect is not significant. In the subregional samples, the policy has a significant haze control effect in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the surrounding areas, but has no significant policy effect on the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta; (2) In the mediation effect model, in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the surrounding areas the policy mainly acts on haze pollution control through the “quantity” of industrial structure supererogation, and the effect is partial intermediary. The “quantity” of industrial structure supererogation in the Yangtze River Delta is complete intermediary when it acts on haze pollution control and the industrial structure upgrading variables in the Pearl River Delta region do not have a significant mediating effect; (3) In the panel threshold regression, threshold effects of industrial structure optimization and industrial structure supererogation are observed in the samples of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei-Shanxi-Shandong-Inner Mongolia and surrounding areas, and the samples of the Yangtze River Delta and surrounding areas.

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    Ecological network analysis and construction: A case study of the urban agglomeration of the Min River Delta, China
    LIU Xiaoyang, WEI Ming, ZENG Jian, ZHANG Sen
    2021, 43 (2):  357-367.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.13
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    Contemporary processes of urbanization present a major pressure on aggravating the fragmentation and isolation in ecological environment. Therefore, constructing ecological networks, as an effective way to connect fragmented habitats, becomes increasingly salient in maintaining biological diversity and enhancing ecological security. This study took the urban agglomeration of the Min River Delta, China, as the study context, and developed an optimized scheme for ecological network construction with the consideration of both network connectivity and construction cost. In this study, drawing on a series of indicators, including terrain, landscape, vegetation cover and human activities, a habitat suitability index was established to identify the habitats in the study area. The rectified night satellite images coupled with local land use were incorporated to build the ecological resistance surface. With the two essential elementshabitats and ecological resistance surface as input, the ecological corridors were identified using the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model and then classified by a new accessibility potential model. Based on these classified ecological corridors, different schemes of ecological network were proposed by computing a set of connectivity indices. Given the network connectivity and construction costs, this study finally presented an optimized ecological network construction scheme. The results show that: (1) The identified habitats are 45, with a total area of 3542 km2; the 990 ecological corridors have a cumulative length of 5941 km; (2) Both habitats and ecological corridors are spatially concentrated in the northwestern hilly areas and seldom found in the northeastern coastal areas; (3) The maximum value of the ratio of network connectivity and construction costs is at the 73th percentile. Under this scheme, 268 corridors connecting 45 habitats are identified. Our results may provide some scientific basis for constructing and optimizing the ecological network in the urban agglomeration of the Min River Delta.

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    Spatial variability and pollution risk assessment of soil fluorine in the core area of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project
    TAN Li, WANG Zhanqi, XUE Zhibin, YANG Bin
    2021, 43 (2):  368-379.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.14
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    In order to provide important data and technical support for improving local soil fluorine environment and ensuring water safety in reservoir area, it also provides decision-making basis for local soil remediation and ensure high-quality water diversion to the north, this study quantitatively analyzed the spatial distribution and pollution risk of soil fluorine in the core area of the Middle Route of the South- to- North Water Transfer Project with fragile ecological environment by using the methods of GIS and geostatistics and pollution risk assessment models. The results show that: (1) The soil fluorine content was on the high side and showed clear spatial autocorrelation in the study area. The fluorine density of topsoil increased gradually from west to east and south to middle north, and obviously peaked in Cangfang Town, Xichuan County and Shigu Town, Danjiangkou City in the central eastern part, which was corresponding to the characteristics of regional stratigraphic lithology and soil parent material. Combined with information on the net increment of soil fluorine, it was concluded that the fluorine content in most areas was related to human activities. (2) The degree of fluorine pollution showed obvious regional differentiation, which was mostly resulted from environmental pollution caused by human activities according to the characteristics of geoaccumulation index, except that Xijiadian Town and Songping Town of Danjiangkou City were restricted by structural factors such as soil parent material. (3) The degree of potential ecological risk indicates that level A was mainly distributed in the west and the south of the study area, and level B was concentrated in the central, eastern, and northern parts. The areas with the highest ecological risk were the east of Shengwan Town and the west of Cangfang Town in Xichuan County, Songping Town and Shigu Town in Danjiangkou City.

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    Implementation monitoring of territorial and spatial planning in metropolitan areas from the perspective of intercity functional linkages
    NIU Xinyi, LI Kaike
    2021, 43 (2):  380-389.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.15
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    Mobile positioning big data can play an important role in the implementation monitoring of territorial and spatial planning. Based on the theory of “space of flows”, the functional integration of metropolitan area is represented by intercity functional linkages in the area. The two intercity functional linkages of living-working and working-working are the signs of the functional integration of a metropolitan area. This study took Shanghai metropolitan area as an example, and proposed a set of methods for monitoring the functional integration of the metropolitan area with mobile positioning big data. First, mobile positioning big data can effectively quantify intercity functional linkages from intercity travels. Second, there are three application areas of mobile positioning big data in the implementation monitoring of territorial and spatial planning. The first is to delineate the scope of close connection in the metropolitan area using intercity functional linkages. The second is to describe and quantify the functional flow of resources brought by the industrial division in the metropolitan area. The third is to monitor the performance of transportation infrastructure in the metropolitan area. Finally, with functional integration as the goal, the spatial planning of the metropolitan area needs to be guided by a spatial system that supports intercity functional linkages. The system of “flow space” with intercity functional linkages should be one of the important contents of planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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    Equity of urban health resources based on walkability and spatial distribution of population: A case study of the central urban area of Guangzhou City
    WANG Fang, ZHU Mingwen, CHEN Chongwang, XIAO Ying, ZHANG Xuxi
    2021, 43 (2):  390-402.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.16
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    Urban health resources have a positive impact on residents’ physical and mental health. In this study, the central urban area of Guangzhou City was selected as the study area, and the points of interest data, road network data, Sentinel-2A remote sensing image, and demographic data were used for the analysis. Using a walkability index and multiple linear regression model of land-population, the equity of urban health resources is comprehensively explored through correlation analysis and spatial overlay. The results indicate that: (1) The urban health resources in the central urban area of Guangzhou City can be conveniently accessed by walking, but the high and low values of walkability are mixed, forming a multi-center zonal distribution pattern with decreasing walkability when moving away from the centers; (2) The regional differences in spatial distribution of population are large, and the population gradually decreases from the center of Liwan District, the southwest of Yuexiu District, the northwest of Haizhu District, and the south of Tianhe District; (3) The correlation coefficient between the walkability of urban health resources and population is small, with the proportion of the low-high value areas and high-low value areas as high as 40%. There is still a large space for improvement in the equity of urban health resources; (4) The regional supply and demand of urban health resources is unbalanced, among which natural health resources are the scarcest and the distribution is suboptimal. In order to promote the maximization of walkability equity of urban health resources, its allocation should comprehensively consider the regional population demand, resource type and quantity, and accessibility and convenience of walking. This study can provide a scientific reference for optimizing the spatial distribution of regional health resources and improving the balance between supply and demand.

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    Quantity of available nutrient in livestock manure and its potential of replacing chemical fertilizers in China
    SHI Xiaoxiao, ZHENG Guodi, GAO Ding, CHEN Tongbin
    2021, 43 (2):  403-411.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.17
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    Quantifying the total amount and nutrient contents of livestock manure and calculating their substitution potential for chemical fertilizers are of great significance for achieving zero growth in fertilizer use. This study focused on the manure from cows, horses, donkeys, mules, pigs, sheep, poultry, and rabbits. The amount and the nutrient contents of livestock manure from 1980 to 2016 were estimated using the excretion coefficient method. The potential of livestock manure replacing chemical fertilizers was calculated according to the annual amount of chemical fertilizers applied and the amount of livestock manure that had been used. The results indicate that: (1) The amount and the nutrients of livestock manure showed a rapid growth trend then stabilized from 1980 to 2016. The manure resource and the total nutrients were 2.38×109 t and 4.71×107 t in 2016, and they had increased 45.7% and 49.8% from 1980 to 2016, respectively. (2) The total amount of chemical fertilizers applied in agriculture is 5.98×107 t in 2016. At present, the utilization rate of livestock manure is 60% in China. If the utilization rate of livestock manure increases to 75%, the consumption of chemical fertilizers can be reduced by 3.7% for nitrogen, 17.5% for phosphate, and 44.2% for potassium, respectively. The results showed that the potential of replacing chemical fertilizers is more valuable reference as it consider the current utilization of livestock and poultry manure. (3) The utilization rate of manure needs to be further improved under the conditions of farming and livestock and poultry farming are separated, pollutant loading to agricultural land. In order to achieve the utilization rate of livestock and poultry manure improved and zero growth in fertilizer, some measures should be taken such as optimizing the distribution of animal husbandry, rationally planning the amount of livestock and returning poultry manure to the field.

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    Evaluation of harmonious development of economy-population-resource-environment in the lower reaches of the Yellow River
    LIU Jianhua, HUANG Liangchao, ZUO Qiting
    2021, 43 (2):  412-422.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.18
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    With the rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization, the relationship between the economy, population, resources, and environment of the lower reaches of the Yellow River became increasingly complicated with clear conflicts. Quantitative assessment of their harmonious development level is of great significance for the high-quality development of the lower Yellow River Basin. This study constructed a harmonious development level evaluation index system from four aspects: economy, population, resources, and environment, adopting a single indicator quantification-multiple indicator synthesis-multiple criteria integration evaluation method to evaluate the harmonious development level of the economy, population, resources, and environment in 17 cities in the lower reaches of the Yellow River in Henan and Shandong Provinces from 2010 to 2018. Radar chart and boxplot were used to analyze the time-varying process, and Kriging interpolation was used to analyze the spatial change process. The results show that: (1) The overall degree of harmony in the lower reaches of the Yellow River is only moderate, but it has been steadily increasing year by year. The economic subsystem shows the highest development level, followed by the environmental subsystem, and the population and resources subsystems show a lower development level; (2) In terms of spatial distribution, the level of harmonious development presents a high-level cluster centered on Zhengzhou and Jinan, and low-level clusters in the peripheral cities of the two provinces. Finally, based on the characteristics of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the advantages and disadvantages of the harmonious development process were analyzed by different urban agglomerations, and suggestions for promoting the harmonious development of the lower reaches of the Yellow River were proposed from the perspective of structural adjustment. This study aimed to provide data support and policy recommendations for the harmonious development of the lower reaches of the Yellow River by quantifying the level of the harmonious development of economy, population, resources, and environment.

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    The value and pathways of green technology innovation for ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Beibei, ZUO Qiting, DIAO Yixuan
    2021, 43 (2):  423-432.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.19
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    As a carrier for the realization of green development goals, green technological innovation is indispensable, and it plays an important role in the ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin (YB Conservation and Development). It is meaningful to enrich the theoretical research of green technology innovation and realize its role in the implementation of the YB Conservation and Development. Based on the definition of green technology innovation, this study examined the theoretical basis and practical significance of green technology innovation and its economic, social, and ecological values. Then, combined with the new requirements of the ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, the value and significance of green technology innovation in the realization of the YB Conservation and Development were identified, which include promoting green economic development, ensuring water security, and facilitating ecological civilization construction. Finally, the status quo of science and technology innovation in the Yellow River Basin was briefly analyzed from the aspects of science and technology innovation foundation, science and technology innovation investment, and green technology innovation achievements. The ways to realize the value of green technology innovation in the YB Conservation and Development were put forward, which include improving the level of green technology innovation, stimulating the driving force of innovation subjects, forming the strength of green technology innovation, promoting the ecological transformation of science and technology, and protecting the rights and interests of the stakeholders. The study is expected to help improve the theoretical research of green technology innovation and contribute to the realization of the YB Conservation and Development.

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