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    25 December 2020, Volume 42 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors of water resources use in the Yellow River Basin
    SUN Siao, TANG Qiuhong
    2020, 42 (12):  2261-2273.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.01
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    Along with the rapid population growth and socioeconomic development, the Yellow River Basin (YRB) in China is facing water scarcity. Given limited water resources availability in the YRB in the semi-arid and arid regions, water resources management on the demand side is essential for sustainable development in the region. Previous studies on driving forces of water use were mostly based on administrative units. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and change of water use in the YRB in 2003-2015 at the second-order basin scale. In addition, we examined the main influencing factors that drive the temporal and spatial changes of water use using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) method. The results indicated that the total water use in the YRB represented 8.0%~9.3% of the total water use in China. The total water use in the YRB exhibited an increasing trend, while water use per capita showed a decreasing trend. The main driving factors for the spatial evolution of water use in different second-order basins were different. The increasing water uses in the second-order YRBs were mainly attributed to population growth and per capita GDP increase, whereas water use efficiency improvement and industrial structure upgrading contributed to offsetting increasing water use. Per capita water uses in the second-order basins showed large spatial heterogeneity. The spatial LMDI results showd that water use intensity was the largest contributor to the spatial difference of per capita water uses. The effects of all the contributing factors to the spatial differences of per capita water use tended to decrease with time. The results are useful in informing relevant policies towards sustainable water use and management in the YRB.

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    Spatiotemporal change of urban green development efficiency in the Yellow River Basin and influencing factors
    YUE Li, XUE Dan
    2020, 42 (12):  2274-2284.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.02
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    The Yellow River Basin plays an important role in the economic development and ecological security in China. Based on the panel data of 57 cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2005 to 2017, this study calculated the urban green development efficiency of the basin using the super-SBM (slacks-based measure) model, and constructed a Tobit model to empirically analyze the influencing factors of the green development efficiency of the basin. The results of this paper were as follows: (1) The overall green development efficiency of the basin is fluctuating and rising, with the highest in the upper reaches, followed by the lower reaches and the lowest is found in the middle reaches. The high efficiency values are concentrated in provincial capital cities such as Xining, Zhengzhou, Xi’an, and Taiyuan, and regional central cities such as Zhongwei, Wuwei, and Ordos. (2) Economic development and industrial structure upgrading can significantly improve the green development efficiency of the basin. The impact of urbanization on the green development efficiency of the basin presents a U-shaped curve. The use of foreign capital and science and technology development level have a negative impact on the green development efficiency of the basin. The impact of environmental regulations on the green development efficiency is not obvious. (3) The science and technology level and FDI have no significant impact on the green development efficiency of the upper reaches. The level of economic development has limited impact on the middle reaches, while upgrading industrial structure has negative impact on the green development efficiency of the middle reaches, and the impact of FDI on the the green development efficiency of the lower reaches is not significant. This study is of significance for improving the green development level of the Yellow River Basin and boosting the high-quality development of the region.

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    Change and regional differences of production-living-ecological space in the Yellow River Basin: Based on comparative analysis of resource-based and non-resource-based cities
    LI Jiangsu, SUN Wei, YU Jianhui
    2020, 42 (12):  2285-2299.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.03
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    It is known that the ecological vulnerability is rather prominent in the Yellow River Basin (YRB); there are great differences in economic development mode between resource-based and non-resource-based cities in this basin. Studying the evolution and regional differences of the production-living-ecological space (PLES) of two types of cities in the basin, which is particularly important to understand the development and utilization of land-space in the YRB. Based on the PLES classification, this study measured the regional differences of PLES in the two types of cities by employing spatial auto-correlation and Theil index. It was found that: (1) PLES of the two types of cities changed dramatically, living space had increased significantly; the ecological space of resource-based cities was squeezed by living and production space for a longer time; while the production space of non-resource-based cities was squeezed by living and ecological space for a longer time. (2) PLES of the two types of cities showed the characteristics of spatial aggregation, and the high-density area and low-density area of PLES of each type was relatively stable. (3) For factors (economy and population) affecting the regional difference of PLES of the two types of cities, economic development was more likely to cause the change of PLES. Influenced by economic development and population, the regional difference of the PLES of non-resource-based cities was obvious, while that of resource-based cities was comparatively small. Possible reasons for the differences may be the diverse modes of economic development in non-resource-based cities and the lack of diversity in resource-based cities. The overall regional differences of PLES of all cities in the Yellow River Basin mainly depend on the internal differences of the two types of cities. The regional differences of production and ecological spaces from the resource-based cities and the regional differences of living space from the non-resource-based cities had major impact on the regional differences of PLES of all cities in the Yellow River Basin. This paper puts forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions, which is of significance for the management of land-space in the YRB.

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    Spatial evolution of specialized villages and influencing factors in the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Chenguang
    2020, 42 (12):  2300-2313.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.04
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    The Yellow River Basin is an important core area of grain production in China and an important area to win the battle against poverty. Exploring the general pattern of the distribution and evolution of the specialized villages in the area is of great significance for the high-quality economic development of the region. Taking the specialized villages in the Yellow River Basin as the research object and using ArcGIS spatial analysis and Geodetector tools, this study comprehensively analyzed the spatial pattern evolution and influencing factors from 2008 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The concentration of the overall spatial distribution is increasing, and the concentrated distribution area is in the Guanzhong Plain and the lower Yellow River Basin; (2) The spatial pattern at the county level has changed from bands to clusters. The cluster-like agglomeration forms include suburban agglomeration, township agglomeration, and rural hinterland agglomeration; (3) Specialized villages are mainly distributed in low-altitude areas, areas with gentle slopes, along rivers, and along highways, with rapid growth; (4) The influencing factors of specialized village distribution in the Yellow River Basin are mainly in the technological, institutional, cultural, and market dimensions, and the core impact factors of spatial distribution vary in different regions. Therefore, it is recommended that underdeveloped regions, on the basis of fully exploiting their own advantages, should improve infrastructure, introduce advanced technology, and strive to produce high quality agricultural products. The developed regions should make full use of advanced technologies, well-developed management systems, and innovative culture to promote and lead the sustainable and healthy development of specialized villages.

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    Natural resource endowment, path selection of technological progress, and green economic growth: An empirical research based on China’s provincial panel data
    MENG Wangsheng, ZHANG Yang
    2020, 42 (12):  2314-2327.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.05
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    The core of green economic growth is high-speed economic growth based on resource conservation and environmental improvement. A common phenomenon in China’s economic growth presently is that natural resource-rich areas often face more severe resource and environmental problems. On the basis of reviewing existing research, this study first analyzed the relationship between natural resource endowment and green economic growth by choosing the way of technological progress as the intermediary variable. Second, under the framework of data envelopment analysis (DEA), it used the non-radial direction distance function method with global reference to build the measurement of green growth efficiency of provinces in China, and set up the panel data samples. Third, based on the characteristics of sample data and theoretical analyses, an econometric model was constructed to analyze the impact of resource endowment on green growth efficiency through technological progress. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Natural resource endowments inhibit green growth efficiency; (2) Resource endowments have crowding-out effect on technology innovation and promoting effect on technology import; (3) Technology innovation is conducive to the improvement of green growth efficiency, while technology import is not. This research has theoretical and practical significance for areas rich in natural resources to save resource and improve the environment and realize green and high-quality development.

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    Public willingness to pay for cleaner power sources
    LIU Xiao, XU Jianhua
    2020, 42 (12):  2328-2340.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.06
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    Switching to cleaner power sources is important for China’s environmental protection and energy security. Understanding public preference for power sources and willingness to pay for cleaner power sources can provide information for the government to develop energy policies. This study used a discrete choice experiment to explore public preference and willingness to pay for cleaner power sources, analyzed the influence of attributes such as power source structure, associated environmental impacts (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions) and electricity price change on preference, and characterized preference heterogeneities among different demographic and socioeconomic groups. A total of 1008 valid responses was collected in 10 selected cities, and mixed logit models and latent class models were used to analyze the data. The following results are obtained. (1) The public in different regions have different preferences for power sources. (2) Environmental impacts associated with the power sources and increase in electricity prices are negatively associated with public preference for cleaner power sources. (3) Preferences for power sources are different among different groups of people. Those who are older, with higher income, living closer to the city, and with pro-environmental attitudes prefer cleaner power sources. (4) The public is willing to pay 31% more for cleaner power sources that reduce sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide emissions by 30%. The impact of public environmental attitude on the willingness to pay (the difference is about 26%) is greater than socioeconomic characteristics such as age (the difference is about 15%). Based on these findings, we suggest that precise policies be designed across regions, and efforts be put on raising public environmental awareness, especially for those with lower income, are younger, and live in rural areas, to improve public acceptance of and willingness to pay for renewable energy.

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    Effectiveness of regional environmental regulation, economic growth and environmental pollution: An emprical study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    FENG Fei, FENG Xuegang, HOU Jingchuan, HUO Dianming, TANG Rui
    2020, 42 (12):  2341-2353.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.07
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    Environmental pollution and ecological damage are part of market failures, which require the government to adopt regulatory tools to adjust, and the impacts of environmental regulation on environmental pollution and regional economy are limited by natural conditions. In order to remove this constraint and test the effectiveness of environmental regulation, this study took the panel data of 13 cities from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example, and analyzed the impacts of environmental regulation on regional ecological efficiency by constructing a regional ecological efficiency framework that includes the ecological environment and economic development level. The results show that: (1) Compared with the financial expenditure on energy conservation and environmental protection, the monitoring of enterprises with poor environmental performance plays a significant positive role in promoting regional ecological efficiency in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, indicating that the improvement of regional ecological efficiency depends on the choice of regulatory tools, and the punitive environmental regulatory tools of government monitoring type are useful for the improvement of regional ecological efficiency in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; (2) There is a threshold effect in the monitoring of environmentally unhealthy enterprises. With the increase of monitoring intensity, the improvement of regional ecological efficiency in the region is gradually enhanced; meanwhile, the negative impacts of fiscal expenditure of energy conservation and environmental protection on regional ecological efficiency simultaneously decrease. Therefore, employing strict punitive environmental regulatory tools can rapidly and effectively improve the environment in economically developed areas with more serious pollution, yet once the environment is significantly improved, environmental regulatory tools should switch to mainly incentive types supplemented by punitive ones, so as to effectively give consideration to regional economic growth and ecological efficiency improvement, and realize the coordinated development of regional ecological environment and economy.

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    Impact of social norms and public supervision on the willingness and behavior of farming households to participate in rural living environment improvement: Empirical analysis based on generalized continuous ratio model
    SUN Qianlu, FANG Kexin, LIU Tianping
    2020, 42 (12):  2354-2369.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.08
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    The willingness and behavior of farming households to participate in the improvement of rural living environment is the most direct driving force for rural environment improvement and an important basis for rural residents to realize the reform of improving rural livability and ecological civilization and the promulgation of detailed methods. To examine the willingness and behavior of farming household participation in rural residential environment improvement , this study comprehensively analyzed the willingness and behavior of farming households and factors that influence the consistency between behavior and intention based on the perspective of social norms and social supervision, using data from a survey of 707 farming households in Tibet and the generalized continuous ratio model. The results show that: (1) Willingness to participate in the improvement of rural living environment was observed in slightly more than half of the surveyed households (51.77%), but the consistency between willingness and behavior is poor; (2) Participation enthusiasm of neighbors, supervision of cleaning workers, and perception that the improvement of village living environment can reduce the spread of diseases have a significant positive impact on the willingness and behavior of farmers to participate; (3) Education level of farmers, peer supervision, and government publicity are conducive to the transformation of farmers’ willingness to participate into action. The conclusion of this study supports the rural living environment improvement model with the government taking the leading role and farmers participating, which has some policy implication for promoting the improvement of rural living environment and reference value for the government to issue rural management policies.

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    Impact of domestic waste pollution perception and social capital on the farming households’ sorting of waste: Based on the survey of 1374 farming households in Shaanxi Province
    JIA Yajuan, ZHAO Minjuan
    2020, 42 (12):  2370-2381.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.09
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    Farming households are the main agents of rural domestic waste sorting. Their level of sorting directly relates to the effectiveness of rural domestic waste sorting and the success or failure of beautiful countryside construction. Based on the micro-data of farmers’ waste sorting behavior, this study combined individual level and collective level factors to analyze the influencing mechanism of farmers’ domestic waste pollution perception and social capital on waste sorting, and used the ordered probit model to conduct an empirical test on the data from the survey of 1374 farming households in the rural areas of Shaanxi Province. The results show that the pollution perception of domestic waste at the individual level played obvious roles in improving waste sorting the stronger the farmers’ perceive the pollution and impacts caused by randomly stacked and unsorted domestic waste on the ecological environment, community environment, and physical and mental health, the higher the waste sorting levels. Social networks, trust on institutions, social participation, and social norms as social capital at the collective level had significant positive impacts on waste sorting, but interpersonal trust had no significant effect on the level of sorting, which indicates that the farmers who had higher frequency of social interactions, higher degree of trust in institutions, more active participation in the public affair of rural waste management, and believed that village waste management is satisfactory tend to exhibit a higher level of domestic waste sorting behavior. In addition, females had higher levels of domestic waste sorting than males, and low-income families had higher levels of waste sorting than high-income families. Therefore, to achieve sustainable sorting and treatment of rural domestic waste and the comprehensive construction of an ecologically livable new countryside, we need not only to promote waste sorting by strengthening farmers’ pollution perception, but also to build a good community environment. Through network communication and information sharing to strengthen farmers’ communication frequency, improve farmers’ trust in institutions and their participation in public affairs, and strengthen the community self-discipline mechanism, farmers’ domestic waste sorting levels can be improved.

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    External shocks, social networks and adaptability of resettled farming households
    GUAN Rui, YU Jin
    2020, 42 (12):  2382-2392.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.10
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    Farming household adaptability is not only the core indicator to evaluate the effectiveness of resettlement policy, but also an important starting point to guide the follow-up support work of resettlement. Based on the data of 1250 resettled farming households in eight counties and three cities in southern Shaanxi Province, this study empirically tested the impact mechanism of the social network of resettled farmers on their adaptability from the perspective of risk and opportunity by means of instrumental variable method. It is found that: (1) Social networks can help poor people to effectively resist external shocks through risk sharing mechanisms. (2) Social networks can help non-poor people to grasp external opportunities effectively through the mechanism of opportunity sharing. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the industrial development policy support around relocated communities, and accelerate the integration of resettled farming households into the communities. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce the risks that resettled farming households may encounter and strengthen timely assistance after the occurrence of irresistible shocks.

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    Assessment and supervision of renewable portfolio standards and strategic selection of stakeholders
    HUANG Taozhen, SHANG Bo
    2020, 42 (12):  2393-2405.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.11
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    In order to support the healthy development of renewable energy and realize low-carbon environmental benefits, China has implemented the renewable portfolio standards policy after the coordination of multiple social interests, and strengthening the policy implementation and assessment and supervision are the guarantee for the implementation of the renewable portfolio standards. The method of evolutionary game was used to analyze the problem of quota target completion and inspection regulation among the central government, local governments, and power grid companies, and the principle of system dynamics was also used to reflect the inner game structure and its dynamic evolution mechanism of the tripartite stakeholders, whose strategic choices are discussed under different scenarios. The results show that: (1) In the scenario of punishment constraint, increasing punishment can help power grid enterprises to fulfill the dual targets of total renewable energy and non-hydropower renewable portfolio standards. But if the government lacks incentives, it will also loosen regulation. (2) Under the incentive scenario of realizing excess quota, the incentive radio is set by central government between 10% and 30%, which has a weak incentive effect on local governments to adopt a strict regulation strategy, but can have a significant incentive effect at between 33% and 47%. (3) Under the transitional scenarios, it is not the best choice for the central government to simply increase the incentive ratio. It is necessary to increase the constraint proportion of the minimum quota at the same time to realize the optimal incentive for local governments. This research may provide theoretical guidance and has practical values for the establishment and improvement of incentive assessment and supervision system of renewable portfolio standards in China.

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    Aged city built environment friendliness:Taking Taipei and New Taipei Cities as examples
    YANG Ling, CHANG Hsiao-Tung
    2020, 42 (12):  2406-2418.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.12
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    In today’s society, the elderly population and aged cities have become a worldwide concern. By sorting out the theoretical research and practical focus of elderly friendly city in recent years, and the definition and evaluation index and methods of the built environment friendliness of elderly friendly cities, this article described the concept and definition of the built environment friendliness of aged city, summarized the evaluation index of the built environment friendliness of aged city, and proposed a multi-factor quantitative evaluation method of built environment friendliness of aged cities based on actual data, and guided by the characteristics of the elderly population distribution. Taking two aged cities of Taiwan Province — Taipei and New Taipei Cities as examples, this study evaluated their built environment friendliness. The evaluation results show that the “highest” and “high” built environment friendly administrative streets account for about 18% of the total, and they are mainly concentrated in Taipei’s urban area and parts of New Taipei’s urban area; the “moderate” administrative streets account for about 64%, and are mainly concentrated in New Taipei’s urban area, parts of Taipei’s urban area, and suburban areas of Taipei and New Taipei Cities; the “lowest” and “low” administrative streets account for about 18%, and are mainly concentrated in north and south city periphery of New Taipei City. The aging degree of each grade of built environment friendliness in Taipei and New Taipei Cities was compared with the average values of other evaluation indicators, so as to put forward effective policy recommendations. Generally, the quantitative evaluation method is helpful for improving the overall planning strategy of the built environment of aged cities, and can provide some reference for similar aging cities.

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    Impacts of reclaimed water recharge to a river channel on ambient water bodies: A case study of the Chaobai River in Beijing
    JIANG Ruixue, HAN Dongmei, SONG Xianfang, YANG Lihu, LI Binghua
    2020, 42 (12):  2419-2433.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.13
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    Reclaimed water is used primarily for replenishing rivers and lakes in Beijing, but the impact of reclaimed water on ambient water environment has also been a concern. This research monitored the water quality of the reclaimed water, surface water, and shallow groundwater in the Chaobai River in Beijing from 2015 to 2017. This study used mathematical statistics and hydrochemical analysis to investigate the characteristics of the ambient water bodies under long-term reclaimed water recharge to the river. The results show that the total nitrogen in surface water exceeded the quality standard at all monitoring points because the reclaimed water had a high nutrient content. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased and the pH value increased along the river, which was more significant in the summer. This is related to photosynthesis and denitrification. The surrounding shallow groundwater level showed seasonal variation only. The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater was mainly HCO3·Cl-Na·Ca type, which was similar to the reclaimed water. But the main ion concentrations in different water bodies were different due to cation exchange and absorption during the infiltration process and mixing. The maximum distance of the reclaimed water impact on shallow groundwater quality was about 425 m away from the center of the river course. Of the 140 water samples, 120 met the class Ⅱ to IV groundwater quality standard, and the groundwater quality tended to get better along the groundwater flow direction. The ammonia nitrogen concentration of 19 water samples exceeded the quality standard. It mainly occurred near the Henan Village dam. Nitrogen might have come from soil nitrogen, irrigation, and fertilization input in the surrounding agricultural and forestry lands. This study provided important references for improving the water quality of the ambient water bodies in the Chaobai River and increasing the utilization of reclaimed water.

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    Spatiotemporal variations of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2019
    YE Hong, YI Guihua, ZHANG Tingbin, ZHOU Xiaobing, LI Jingji, BIE Xiaojuan, SHEN Yilin, YANG Zhenglan
    2020, 42 (12):  2434-2450.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.14
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    Snow cover, as the most important component of the cryosphere, affects the atmospheric circulation and regional water balance, and is very sensitive to climate change. Using 8-day snow cover data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer/Terra (MODIS/Terra) from 2000 to 2019, the interannual, annual, and seasonal spatiotemporal characteristics of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its variation trends were discussed. The results show that: (1) In recent 20 years, the snow cover in the QTP consisted largely of short-term snow. The spatial distribution of snow cover with one month or shorter duration was the widest, accounting for 72.91% of the total snow-covered area. The longer the snow duration, the higher the snow cover ratio (SCR). The multi-year mean SCR in the mountains surrounding the QTP was high, while the SCR was low in the Qiangtang Plateau, the source region of the rivers, and the Qaidam-Huanghuang high-medium basin, among others. (2) Snow cover area showed repeated fluctuating increase and then decrease with a relative change rate of -15.97%~11.52% during 2000-2019 in the QTP. Snow cover ratio in most areas of the Hengduan Mountains, the Pamirs Plateau, and the Qiangtang Plateau showed an obvious decreasing trend. In the areas surrounding the QTP with high mountains and extremely high mountains of huge difference in relief, hilly mountain plain in the source area of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and high mountain areas of medium or great difference in relief of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, a significant increasing trend of SCR in recent 20 years was observed. (3) The snow-covered area showed a bimodal cyclical trend annually, reaching the peak in March and November and the lowest in August, which was in contrary to the periodic change of air temperature, precipitation, and other climate factors in this region. The widest spatial distribution of snow cover was in the winter, followed by the autumn and the spring, and the smallest was in the summer. In recent 20 years, the snow cover increased significantly in the winter in eastern and southern QTP, and decreased significantly in the autumn and the spring. The snow cover decreased in the summer in the whole QTP. (4) The correlations between snow cover and air temperature and precipitation were strong. Snow cover had a negative correlation with air temperature and a positive correlation with precipitation. The results of the study are useful for understanding the situation of ice and snow melting water change and are indicative of the regional water balance and climate change of the QTP.

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    Quantitative assessment of the supply-demand relationship of soil conservation service in the Sushui River Basin
    YANG Liwen, WANG Dayong, WANG Yongzhi, LIANG Ze, WU Shuyao, LI Shuangcheng
    2020, 42 (12):  2451-2462.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.15
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    Soil conservation services is an important ecosystem regulation service. Quantitative assessment of the supply-demand relationship of soil conservation service may play a critical role in the environmental management of watershed. In this study, we calculated the supply of soil conservation service in the Sushui watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and quantified the demand of soil conservation service using the indicators of per unit soil nutrient loss and reservoir silt cleaning cost. Then we analyzed the relationship between supply and demand, which was validated by data from a questionnaire survey. Our results show that: (1) The supply area of soil conservation service was primarily distributed in the Zhongtiao Mountainous area in the upstream of the river, where the land-use types were mainly woodland and grassland. The demand area of soil conservation service was primarily distributed on alluvial plains in the middle and lower reaches of the river, where the land-use type was non-irrigated farmland. (2) The balanced area of supply and demand in 2000 and 2015 were 34.80% and 76.27% of the Sushui watershed area, respectively. The improvement of supply-demand relationship was due to the reduction of demand, which was mainly because of the decrease of rainfall erosivity. Our study revealed the status and influencing factors of the spatial and quantitative relationship between supply and demand, which could provide a theoretical support for land-use planning and natural resources management.

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    Spatial variability of causative factors of heat islands from the perspective of metropolitan functional blocks
    WU Rongrong, XIE Miaomiao, LIU Qi, LI Hanting, GUO Qiang, LI Xinyu
    2020, 42 (12):  2463-2474.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.16
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    In previous urban heat island (UHI) studies, factor interaction and spatial heterogeneity analysis are generally lacking in the exploration of causative factors, which results in difficulties and ineffectiveness in the implementation of UHI effect mitigation strategy. To address this problem, our study used the functional blocks of human activity as study unit based on point-of-interest data, and applied Geodetector to analyze the relationship between the interaction of various causative factors and surface temperature. The metropolitan area of Beijing was taken as the study area. The results show that the influencing degree of individual factors on land surface temperature as well as that of interacting factors varies significantly among the 14 types of functional blocks. Individual factor detection shows that the contribution of vegetation cover is as high as 72.3% in the whole area, while the degree of influence in different functional blocks differs. Population and economic development level are more prominent in functional blocks with frequent human activities. Factor interaction detection shows that the effect of interactive factors can explain much greater amount of the variance of temperature than that of individual factors. The interaction of vegetation and population has the most significant influence on the variation of temperature in the study area. In the commercial activity-related blocks and the public administration-related blocks, the dominant interactive influence is from vegetation and population. But in the industrial-related blocks, the dominant interactive influence is from impervious surface and economic development level, and impervious surface and vegetation. There is a significant nonlinear enhancement effect in 50 % of all blocks. It is also identified that the administration and public services and commercial mixed blocks and commercial blocks are the areas with the highest risk of high temperature in the city. The Geodetector model using functional blocks performed better than the global model at the municipal level, which can better quantify the influence of various factors on the surface temperature in different spatial locations. This study can provide some reference for alleviating the urban heat island effect for different areas within a metropolitan.

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