Precipitation is the main source of water resources in the Pan-Arctic regions. Temperature and precipitation are important indicators of climate change, and quantitative analysis of their spatial and temporal variations is important for a deeper understanding of the water cycling process in the Arctic and Pan-Arctic regions. In this study, we used the temperature and precipitation observation data from 167 meteorological stations in the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena River basins during 1936-2018, and combined linear trend analysis and Mann-Kendall change point detection to reveal the spatial and temporal changes of temperature and precipitation in typical Pan-Arctic basins, as well as the interrelationship between temperature and precipitation. The results show that: (1) During 1936-2018, the multi-year mean temperature at the meteorological stations in the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena River basins was 0.06 °C, -2.98 °C and -7.41 °C, respectively, with a significant upward trend in the annual mean temperature, and the warming rate was 0.27 °C/10 a, 0.22 °C/10 a and 0.15 °C/10 a. Temperature increases were greater in the spring and winter than in the summer and autumn, and the TNn warming rate was about 1.3 times that the annual average; (2) The multi-year mean precipitation in the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena of River basins was 496 mm, 428 mm, and 369 mm, respectively, with a significant increasing trend. The increase rate in the Yenisei River basin was relatively slow (3.36 mm/10 a), while those of the Ob (13.02 mm/10 a) and Lena (9.59 mm/10 a) River basin were faster. Precipitation increases more in the spring, autumn, and winter than in the summer. (3) The faster warming regions were mainly in the Central Siberian Plateau and the East Siberian Highlands, with a maximum warming rate of 0.60 °C/10 a, while the warming rate in the West Siberia Plain was relatively low. The spatial differences in precipitation were large, with annual precipitation of about 1000 mm in southern regions of Siberia (altitude >1100 m). These changes in temperature and precipitation indicate that the Pan-Arctic region is warming and wetting, with large spatial variations, possibly related to the “Arctic Amplification” and sub-basin conditions. Under the background of continued global warming, changes in temperature and precipitation of the Pan-Arctic region will require further observation and in-depth study.