Table of Content

    25 November 2020, Volume 42 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Analysis and enlightenment of knowledge map of marine resources research at home and abroad
    PENG Fei, FU Ningning, HU Wei, HU Jinlin
    2020, 42 (11):  2047-2061.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.01
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    Marine economy has become an important engine of global economic development, the utilization of marine resources is related to the sustainable development of marine economy and the construction of maritime power. Using CiteSpace literature measurement method, and taking the marine resource literatures in CNKI and Web of Science databases research objects. Through the analysis of publishing institutions, publishing journals and keywords, this paper summarizes the general characteristics of marine resources research at home and abroad from 2000 to 2019. The results show that: (1) In the field of foreign marine resources research, the major countries (regions) that have published the largest number of articles and participated in more cooperation between countries (regions) are from Europe and North America. In China, the difference in scientific research output of various institutions is obvious, and the network of co-published articles presents a loose structure. (2) Foreign marine resources research mainly involves ecology, environmental science and oceanography, while domestic marine resources research is dominated by resources science, environmental science and human geography. (3) Foreign research tends to be mature with diversified research perspectives, paying more attention to issues such as integrated management of marine resources, marine resources and marine ecosystem, marine biological resources, sustainable development of marine resources and deep marine resources. Chinese research has great potential, and the phased research shows obvious policy guidance. Topics such as marine resources and marine economy, sustainable development of marine resources, marine resources and ecological environment, and governance of marine resources have become research hotspots in different periods. It is suggested that the development and utilization of marine resources should have the overall view and global vision, strengthen the basic research and practice of marine resources, transform the development mode of marine resources under the framework of human sea relationship, and strengthen the theory of marine resources.

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    International regime for the use of Arctic marine resources and China’s response
    CHEN Yitong, GAO Xiao
    2020, 42 (11):  2062-2074.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.02
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    Climate change has made it possible for the human being to use the Arctic marine resources, but few studies have addressed the value and role of the international regime, including the Arctic Council, in the use of Arctic marine resources, as well as the dynamics of the interactive mechanism with environmental protection. The study of the international regime for the use of Arctic marine resources will be conducive to better utilization of Arctic marine resources and provide a scientific basis and reference for safeguarding China’s rights and interests in the Arctic. Under the impact of climate change, opportunities and potential for the exploitation of marine resources, such as shipping, oil and gas, and fisheries, which were previously unavailable due to sea ice, have attracted keen interest from various stakeholders. Through the analysis of the potential for the use of Arctic marine resources and environmental risks and the corresponding international governance regime, it was found that the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which has a sectoral character that divides the whole ocean into different maritime zones, and a series of issue-based international organizations and international legal instruments together constitute the international regime for the use of Arctic marine resources. The Arctic Council plays the role of providing knowledge products, coordinating the consensus of Arctic States, promoting political will, and liaising with relevant competent international organizations in the governance of Arctic marine resources, but its regional approach lacks consideration of external interests, the common interests of mankind, and the overall interests of the ocean. On the cross-sectorial issue of the use of Arctic marine resources, the existing international regime neglects the wholeness of the overall ocean, and it has not been able to address the relationship between resource use and marine ecological and environmental protection. The existing international regime is in dire need of international cooperation that can accommodate external stakeholders. Under the guidance of the concept of a community of maritime destiny, China should continue to expand the multidimensional channels for participation in Arctic governance within and outside the Arctic Council, and skillfully safeguard its national interests in the Arctic region.

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    Progress and prospect of research on the Arctic Passage based on CiteSpace
    WANG Wulin, GONG Jiao, WANG Chengjin
    2020, 42 (11):  2075-2091.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.03
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    The Arctic Passage has become an important issue of global shipping in recent years. It is of great scientific significance to examine the research progress and trend and gain insights for future theoretical research and practical exploration. Based on the Arctic Passage literature search from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Web of Science Core Collection, the cooperative network graph and keyword co-occurrence network graph of the Arctic Passage research in China and internationally were drawn by the CiteSpace software, and the knowledge structure relationship and pattern of change of the Arctic Passage issue are revealed. The following results are derived: (1) The Chinese and international research of the Arctic Passage began in 2007 and 1991 respectively, and became a research hotspot in 2014 and 2015, then the annual distribution trends of Chinese research literature were basically the same as the latter two stages of international research; (2) Scholars in different fields are actively involved in related research, and the most published scholars in China and abroad are Zhenfu Li (Dalian Maritime University) and Ehlers S. (Russian Academy of Sciences) respectively. The academic research was mainly done by individual scholars with limited teamwork; (3) Transportation Management College of Dalian Maritime University and the Russian Academy of Sciences are the core of the cooperative network of Chinese and international research institutions respectively. There is little cooperation among research institutions and cross-regional and cross-sectoral; (4) The lexical categories of keywords are becoming more diversified, and the research topics and methods increasingly vary. The Arctic Passage research topics focus on the following four aspects: economic feasibility of the Arctic Passage, the impact of the Arctic Passage on the economic and trade and shipping networks, navigation environment and safety of the Arctic Passage, and national policy and implementation with the consideration of the Arctic Passage. The focus of Chinese and international research differed, future hotspots that may appear in the field of the Arctic Passage research include the integration of the Arctic Passage and Polar Silk Road, the humanistic environment of the Arctic Passage, the Arctic Passage safety and joint research, among others.

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    Competition among trade passages between Northeast China and Europe:An analysis under the opening of the Arctic shipping route
    LI He
    2020, 42 (11):  2092-2105.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.04
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    The opening of the northeast Arctic shipping route provides a new opportunity for the organization and optimization of the trade passages between Northeast China and Europe. Taking transport time and transport cost as the core indices to reflect the competitiveness of different trade passages, this study analyzed the competition among traditional shipping routes, China-Europe Railway Express, and the northeast Arctic shipping route, and identified the optimal paths connecting inland cities with the northeast Arctic shipping route. The results show that compared with the traditional shipping routes and the China-Europe Railway Express, the northeast Arctic shipping route has more advantage in terms of balanced transport time and transport cost. During the seaworthiness period, the northeast Arctic shipping route only has obvious competition with the traditional shipping routes and potential competitions with the China-Europe Railway Express in the coastal logistics nodes of Liaoning Province. For inland cities in Northeast China, connecting with the northeast Arctic shipping route via Liaoning coastal nodes or the Sea of Japan has significant comprehensive advantages. Yingkou, Hunchun, and Suifenhe are the most competitive connecting nodes, with some competitions between the latter two nodes. Northeast China should give full play to the comparative advantages of each trade passage, avoid unreasonable competitions, and form a trade transportation pattern with complementary advantages.

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    Strategy of China’s investment in Arctic Passage development based on Stackelberg game theory
    PAN Changhong, LI Zhenfu, SUN Dongshi
    2020, 42 (11):  2106-2118.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.05
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    In the context of the construction of the Silk Road on the Ice, the use of the Arctic Passage is of great significance for the development of China’s international trade. Considering China and Russia’s joint development of the Arctic Passage, this study examined how China can use its capital advantage to invest in port development along the route to obtain long-term stable returns. Using Stackelberg game theory, an independent game model between China and Russia and a mixed game model when other investment countries are involved were established. Representative ports were selected for evaluation using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and data were collected for empirical research. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) Port operating costs are a key factor that affect the final profit. When investing, it is necessary to reduce operating costs through intelligent equipment and information platforms. When multiple countries are involved in investment, China should strive for early-start advantages or choose to form an investment alliance instead of engaging in price wars by reducing returns; (2) Port investment strategy must ensure that port development level matches port development potentialport development level too high and too low both will affect the return on investment. Through the effectiveness evaluation of DEA, we can identify the shortcomings of the existing development level and make targeted adjustments. Ports that cannot be adjusted for facilities due to political reasons are not regarded as priority investment objects; (3) When the investment amount increases from a low level, it will bring a decline in income. Joint investment is an effective means to solve this problem. The total scale of investment ports affects returns. It is necessary to balance port upgrading difficulty and the total scale of ports. Priority should be given to large-scale port clusters with lower upgrading difficulty, rather than to individual ports that are difficult to upgrade and have a higher degree of modernization.

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    Spatiotemporal variability of temperature and precipitation in typical Pan-Arctic basins, 1936-2018
    HUANG Qiwei, LIU Shiqi, WANG Ping, WANG Tianye, YU Jingjie, CHEN Xiaolong, YANG Linsheng
    2020, 42 (11):  2119-2131.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.06
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    Precipitation is the main source of water resources in the Pan-Arctic regions. Temperature and precipitation are important indicators of climate change, and quantitative analysis of their spatial and temporal variations is important for a deeper understanding of the water cycling process in the Arctic and Pan-Arctic regions. In this study, we used the temperature and precipitation observation data from 167 meteorological stations in the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena River basins during 1936-2018, and combined linear trend analysis and Mann-Kendall change point detection to reveal the spatial and temporal changes of temperature and precipitation in typical Pan-Arctic basins, as well as the interrelationship between temperature and precipitation. The results show that: (1) During 1936-2018, the multi-year mean temperature at the meteorological stations in the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena River basins was 0.06 °C, -2.98 °C and -7.41 °C, respectively, with a significant upward trend in the annual mean temperature, and the warming rate was 0.27 °C/10 a, 0.22 °C/10 a and 0.15 °C/10 a. Temperature increases were greater in the spring and winter than in the summer and autumn, and the TNn warming rate was about 1.3 times that the annual average; (2) The multi-year mean precipitation in the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena of River basins was 496 mm, 428 mm, and 369 mm, respectively, with a significant increasing trend. The increase rate in the Yenisei River basin was relatively slow (3.36 mm/10 a), while those of the Ob (13.02 mm/10 a) and Lena (9.59 mm/10 a) River basin were faster. Precipitation increases more in the spring, autumn, and winter than in the summer. (3) The faster warming regions were mainly in the Central Siberian Plateau and the East Siberian Highlands, with a maximum warming rate of 0.60 °C/10 a, while the warming rate in the West Siberia Plain was relatively low. The spatial differences in precipitation were large, with annual precipitation of about 1000 mm in southern regions of Siberia (altitude >1100 m). These changes in temperature and precipitation indicate that the Pan-Arctic region is warming and wetting, with large spatial variations, possibly related to the “Arctic Amplification” and sub-basin conditions. Under the background of continued global warming, changes in temperature and precipitation of the Pan-Arctic region will require further observation and in-depth study.

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    Impact of foreign direct investment on Small Island States’ economic growth: An analysis based on the threshold effect of tourism
    GUO Yue, HUANG Youxing, YANG Yu, LIU Shuguang, WANG Chang, HUANG Xinrong
    2020, 42 (11):  2132-2144.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.07
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    Tourism and foreign direct investment (FDI) are important aspects of the sustainable economic growth of Small Island States. In this study, 30 Small Island States were selected as research objects, and the panel data of 1995-2015 were used to incorporate the interactive of FDI and tourism revenue into a two-way fixed effects model to explore whether there is a threshold effect between FDI and economic growth using tourism development as a threshold variable. The results show that: (1) Tourism has a significant positive correlation with the economic growth of Small Island States, and is an important industrial support for economic growth of Small Island States; (2) There is a double threshold effect based on the scale of tourism: Before the first threshold is reached, the effect of FDI on economic growth is negative; between the two thresholds, the effect of FDI on growth is not significant; but as the scale of tourism exceeds the second threshold, FDI functions as a clear stimulation for economic growth. The conclusion is helpful to deepen the understanding of the development pattern of island economies, and it has reference value for China’s international investment in small island countries, as well as domestic island tourism development.

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    Change of China-Africa container shipping network and its ability to support economic and trade ties
    GUO Jianke, GUO Shu, QIN Yafeng, LIANG Muxin
    2020, 42 (11):  2145-2157.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.08
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    As an important part of the international shipping network, the China-Africa maritime network is of great significance for ensuring the unimpeded trade between China and Africa. Based on the China-Africa shipping container data in 1998, 2008, and 2018, this study explored the spatial pattern of China-Africa shipping network and its characteristics of change under the background of the Maritime Silk Road construction, and revealed the influencing factors of the strength of China-Africa geo-economic ties. The results show that: (1) On the whole, the complexity of the network has grown, the breadth and strength of China-Africa port connections have increased significantly, and the “small world” and scale-free characteristics of the network are obvious. The network presents a “spindle” structure and has not yet formed an integrated hub-spoke structure. (2) From the perspective of network node development and functional differentiation, Chinese ports are relatively stable. The ports of Shanghai, Ningbo, and Shenzhen have always been among the top three in China-Africa ties; Singapore and Port Klang occupy a dominant position among the transit ports; and there has been a significant shift of African ports. South Africa, North Africa, East Africa, and West Africa have each formed a regional hub port, but a hub port with a continent-level integration effect has not been formed. (3) Shipping betweenness is an important driving force of geo-economic ties between China and Africa; shipping proximity plays a significant role in geo-economic relations between China and Africa, while shipping directness plays a limited role in geo-economic relations between China and Africa. China and Africa have a long history of friendship and mutual assistance. With the deepening of the Belt and Road initiative and the strengthening of geo-economic ties between China and Africa, corresponding measures should be taken to improve and optimize the maritime transport structure to enhance the supporting capacity of economic cooperation and ties.

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    Spatial disequilibrium of mariculture areas utilization efficiency in China and causes
    XU Yao, JI Jianyue, XU Yujie
    2020, 42 (11):  2158-2169.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.09
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    Improving mariculture area utilization efficiency is a key measure to realize the sustainable development of marine resources. It is of great significance to explore the spatial disequilibrium of mariculture area utilization efficiency and causes in order to develop and use mariculture area rationally. This study took the data of 10 coastal regions from 2008 to 2017 as a sample, applied a stochastic frontier model in the form of a transcendental logarithmic production function to measure the mariculture area utilization efficiency. It then used the kernel density estimation, GINI coefficient, logarithmic average deviation, Theil index, and center of gravity-standard deviation ellipse to analyze the spatial disequilibrium state of utilization efficiency and change, and analyzed the causes of the spatial disequilibrium pattern. The results indicate that the mariculture area utilization efficiency in China is 69.85%, and there are significant differences in time and space. There is a clear spatial disequilibrium pattern. The center of gravity of the mariculture area utilization efficiency in China shows a "first south-next north-then south" zonal pattern, and the overall mariculture area utilization efficiency in the southern coastal areas has improved. The causes of the spatial disequilibrium pattern of utilization efficiency mainly include difference in the training level of producers, difference in the coverage of extension services, difference in the educational level of extension service employees, and difference in economic development levels. Based on the results, relevant recommendations for improving the spatial disequilibrium pattern of mariculture area utilization efficiency in China are put forward from three aspects: tapping into the potential of low-efficiency provinces, formulating local characteristics of mariculture development and utilization policies, and improving the mariculture promotion system.

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    Carbon emission reduction allocation strategy based on the context-dependent DEA method
    ZHU Weiwei, MIAO Ziyang, GAN Guisheng
    2020, 42 (11):  2170-2183.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.10
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    Carbon emission control is an important part of the global response to climate change under the new situation of development. It is urgent to establish a set of carbon emission reduction distribution plans that takes both efficiency and fairness into account. Based on the efficiency evaluation results, this study adopted the context-dependent data envelopment analysis (DEA) method that is fair in nature and introduced the emission reduction capacity coefficient that can ensure fairness in constructing an improved central resource allocation model. It used the data of 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) of China’s mainland in 2016 as an example to carry out the carbon emission reduction allocation, and finally measured the fairness of the allocation scheme by Gini coefficient. The results show that: (1) The carbon emission efficiency of the eastern region is significantly better than that of the central and the western regions, and the amount of emission reduction required is also higher than that of the central and the western regions. (2) The actual carbon emissions of some large traditional energy provinces (autonomous regions) show a large gap from the target carbon emissions, which are in a state of serious over emission and low carbon emission efficiency, and it is necessary to accelerate the pace of economic transformation and implement emission policies strictly in these provinces (autonomous regions). (3) The carbon emission reduction distribution plan reasonably improves the carbon emission efficiency of the provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and reduces the Gini coefficient to a certain extent. The research results not only provides a new perspective on how to allocate emission reductions effectively and fairly, but also provides a reference for the decomposition of emission reduction targets at the national level and the formulation of emission reduction policies at the provincial level.

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    Impact of low-carbon subsidies and green innovation on total factor productivity in view of the threshold effect of carbon emission reduction
    XIONG Aihua, DING Youqiang, HU Yufeng
    2020, 42 (11):  2184-2195.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.11
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    This study examined the effect of green innovation with low-carbon subsidy on enterprise total factor productivity (ETFP) and green total factor productivity (GTFP) when the enterprise development models shift from high carbon to low carbon. Differences of decision making between enterprise and government were taken into account, and total factor productivity was divided into ETFP without environmental factors and GTFP with environmental factors. We analyzed the panel data of listed companies in key carbon emission industries of Chinese provinces from 2006 to 2017 by the threshold effect of carbon emission reduction. The results show that: carbon emission reduction has a significant threshold effect on ETFP (GTFP) with green innovation and low-carbon subsidy, which have a positive impact on ETFP (GTFP) when the total carbon emission is low and would change when it is above a certain level. The low-carbon subsidy also has a direct positive effect on GTFP when the carbon emission intensity is in the valid median interval; otherwise, it would have an indirect positive impact on GTFP through mediating the action of ETFP. There is an S-shaped relationship between carbon emission reduction and GTFP, a U-shaped relationship between carbon emission reduction and ETFP, and a U-shaped relationship between GTFP and ETFP. Therefore, low-carbon subsidy and green innovation should be designed in accordance with the characteristics of carbon emission reduction to choose effective paths, which can provide an important reference for the coordinated growth of ETFP with GTFP.

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    Spatiotemporal change and influencing factors of participatory sport tourism resources in Beijing suburbs
    ZHANG Xin, LIU Jiaming, ZHU He, LI Tao
    2020, 42 (11):  2196-2209.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.12
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    Spot tourism has become a hotspot in the transformation and upgrading of China’s current sports industry and tourism consumption. To scientifically understand the spatial distribution characteristics of sport tourism resources around metropolises and optimize their development layout, by choosing Beijing suburbs as the study area, based on the classification of the participatory sports tourism resources (PSTR), using the spatial analysis method and other methods, this study examined the spatiotemporal change and influencing factors of sport tourism resources in 1998, 2008, and 2018. The study found that: (1) Participatory sport tourism resources are mainly divided into three types: leisure and entertainment sport tourism resources, outward-bound sport tourism resources, and exciting adventure sport tourism resources, among which the amount of leisure and entertainment sport tourism resources was the largest, while the amount of exciting adventure resources was the smallest according to statistics, but its growth rate was the highest; and in terms of concentration degree, from 1998 to 2018, concentration degree of the exciting adventure sport tourism resources>concentration degree of the outward-bound sport tourism resources>concentration degree of the leisure and entertainment sport tourism resources; (2) PSTR presents a distribution pattern of “dense in the southeast and sparse in the northwest”, and with the increase of distance from the central urban area, the number of PSTR in the suburbs of Beijing fluctuated and showed a general declining trend; from 1998 to 2018, PSTR development evolved from northwest to southeast, and the concentration towards the central urban area were apparent, the peak value moved from 30~40 km to 20~30 km; there were significant differences in the spatial and temporal pattern of change between the three types of resources; (3) The formation of the spatial pattern of PSTR in the suburbs of Beijing was jointly influenced by natural and human factors such as topography, water system, population, transportation, policy and planning, among others. The three types of resources showed different spatial distribution patterns under the influence of different factors. Transportation is a fundamental factor affecting the spatial distribution of PSTR, and policy and planning factors play a critical guiding role, shaping and strengthening the spatial pattern of PSTR in Beijing suburbs to a certain extent. The above findings have important theoretical and practical significance for further optimizing the development of sports tourism resources and the rational distribution of the sports tourism industry in Beijing suburbs.

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    A review of research on national park recreation in the past 20 years
    LI Hongyi, WU Rulian, TIAN Fengjun
    2020, 42 (11):  2210-2223.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.13
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    The research on national park recreation is of great significance for protecting the national park ecosystem and meeting public recreation needs, and has recently become a hotspot in resource economics and recreation ecology. This article summarized and reviewed the status and achievements of national park recreation research between 2000 and 2019. The results show that: (1) Research on national park recreation in China and internationally has received extensive attention and the number of publications has shown a rapid growth. The existing research mainly focuses on the following seven aspects: national park recreation functional zoning, recreation industry, construction of recreation facilities, recreationist, recreation evaluation, environmental impact, and management. A research framework of “one foundation, four major themes, and two tools” was formed. (2) National park recreation research is mainly based on quantitative methods, supplemented by qualitative research. Research using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods based on national park big data and GIS spatial analysis technology needs to be focused on in the future. (3) Research on national park recreation in Europe and the United States developed earlier than in China, and a relatively complete set of national park recreation theories and management frameworks has been established. In contrast, research in China is still in the exploratory phase. More localized explorations have been carried out in the field of national parks recreation, providing Chinese cases for international research, but theoretical development is relatively insufficient. Based on these findings, the article proposed the following research focus on national park recreation in China in the future: strengthening basic theoretical research, improving evaluation methods, conducting multidisciplinary research on visitors, and improving research on recreation management. It is hoped that this study will contribute to enriching the research on China’s national parks and providing some guidance for Chinese national park recreation management.

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    Impact of administrative approval reform on land leasing in industries with overcapacity
    XU Shengyan, WU Jingwei
    2020, 42 (11):  2224-2236.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.14
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    Based on the micro-level data of China’s industrial land transfer and the data of prefecture-level municipal administrative approval centers from 2007 to 2017, this study analyzed the impact of the administrative approval reform on industrial land transfer in overcapacity industries, and evaluated the effect of local governments on implementing capacity-removal policies. Using the difference-in-difference model, we found that (1) The establishment of administrative approval centers in prefecture-level cities has prompted local governments to significantly reduce the supply of land for industries with overcapacity. (2) Considering the type of cities, we found that the establishment of administrative approval centers has a greater effect on the suppression of land supply to industries with overcapacity in ordinary prefecture-level cities than in provincial capital cities. (3) There is heterogeneity across regions and industries. The establishment of the administrative approval centers significantly reduces the transfer of industrial land to industries with overcapacity in the central and western regions, but has little impact on cities in the eastern region; it significantly reduces the transfer of industrial land to industries with overcapacity in the manufacturing industry, but has less impact on non-manufacturing industries. Within the manufacturing industry, the effect in the final product industry was significantly greater than the intermediate product industry. This research concludes that standardizing administrative approvals helps local governments to reduce land transfer in overcapacity industries. From the perspective of land supply, it provides new microscopic evidence for local governments to implement overcapacity reduction policies in overcapacity industries. The reform of administrative approval should be further deepened in the future by focusing on deepening the reform in the central and western regions; adopting special policies to promote the reform of non-manufacturing industries led by state-owned enterprises; paying attention to industrial differences within the manufacturing industry, especially de-capacity in the intermediate product industry.

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    Impact of contract stability on farming households’ inter-temporal technology adoption:An analysis based on the data of 2271 plots
    WANG Zhenhua, LI Mengmeng, WANG Canglin
    2020, 42 (11):  2237-2250.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.15
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    This study systematically analyzed the impact of farmland property right arrangement on farming households’ inter-temporal technology adoption, and discussed the possible loss of income from the perspective of contract duration and contract forms. Finally, an empirical test was carried out based on 2271 plot-level protective tillage technology data records of six main grain-producing provinces in China. The results show that: (1) Property right arrangements have an important impact on farming households’ inter-temporal technology adoption, and the adoption rate for their own land is 25.11%higher than that of transferred land. The impact of property right arrangements on inter-temporal technology adoption is related to the scale of cultivated land, and large scale of cultivated land will reduce the negative impact of land transfer on inter-temporal technology adoption. (2) For transferred land, the probability of farming households’ adoption of inter-temporal agricultural technology can be increased by contract duration. For every 10 years of contract duration increase, the adoption rate will increase by 4.6%. For land transfer contracts signed through a formal transfer platform, the adoption rate of inter-temporal technology will increase as well.

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    Research progress on farmland ecological compensation mechanism based on ecosystem service evaluation
    LI Shuang, NIE Xin, ZHANG Anlu
    2020, 42 (11):  2251-2260.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.16
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    In order to promote the ecological protection and restoration, the Party Central Committee has put forward new guidelines for the construction of ecological compensation system, and has carried out practice in key areas. However, the misalignment of supply and demand of ecosystem service leads to the uncertain participants and the inconsistent ecological compensation standards hinder the stable operation of the mechanism, which affects the implementation effect of the ecological compensation mechanism. Therefore, this paper analyzes the concept of ecosystem service supply and demand, summarizes the relationship between them, analyzes the definition and transport process of ecosystem service flow, introduces the main modeling methods of ecosystem service, and summarizes the current situation of farmland ecological compensation mechanism, compensation standards and identification of participants. Based on these, the shortcomings and future directions of ecosystem services assessment are pointed out, and the development trend of modeling methods of ecosystem services is summarized. Furthermore, this paper proposes feasible directions and ideas for the design and improvement of agricultural land ecological compensation mechanisms. According to the analysis, the main research progress is as follows: (1) The current ecosystem service assessment focuses on the function and potential, and ignores the intermediate process of ecosystem service delivery; (2) The modeling methods of ecosystem services are constantly improved, the technical threshold is raising, and more attention is paid to the integration of diversification and cross-discipline; (3) The scheme design of farmland ecological compensation mechanism needs to be improved in combination with spatial flow attributes. Therefore, to reasonably improve the agricultural land ecological compensation mechanism, the ecological compensation standard can be measured according to the spatial flow distribution of the agricultural land ecosystem service flow, and the participants can be determined by identifying the recipients of the ecosystem service benefits.

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