Under the new situation of socioeconomic development in China, natural resource management is being transformed from managed by individual resources and single government departments into a centralized management of “two unifications” guided by the principle of “land, water, forest, agricultural field, lake, and grassland life community” of the earth system science. In this process, not only the impact on and planning of the ecological environment of the territorial space, but also the future state of resources must be considered to ensure the safety of major decisions in the country. Therefore, the construction of a national comprehensive observation system of natural resources is very important for the orderly development of the country’s ecological civilization. The construction of a nation-wide natural resources observation system is meaningful to a nation’s ecological progress. This research examined the traits and shortcomings of the Chinese and international observation networks. Based on the analysis, necessity, basic ideas, and principles of the system were developed. The framework of the observation network includes five parts: factors, technologies, quality control, services, and operation and maintenance. Four types of technologies are used, which include natural resources zoning and observation station layout technique, coupling mechanism of natural resource elements and indicator selection technique, multi-source data integration and data processing technique, and simulation technique and comprehensive evaluation of natural resources. The observation network will provide long-term, stable, and constant comprehensive observations of natural resources, in order to explore the coupling relationships of the factors of natural resources, driving factors and mechanisms of change, and trends. The network serves to protect and manage the environment of the country, provide data support for solving the global climate issues, and finally to contribute to the nation’s centralized management of natural resources and resource-related strategic decisions.