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    25 November 2019, Volume 41 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Regional convergence of cultivated land multifunctions in China
    XIANG Jingwei, LIAO Xiaoli, SONG Xiaoqing, XIONG Jinhui, MA Weirui, HUANG Jingmeng
    2019, 41 (11):  1959-1971.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.01
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    The coordinated development of regional cultivated land multifunctions is of great practical significance for the sustained economic growth, social harmony, and stability of the country. In this study, by constructing a multifunction evaluation index system of cultivated land, we tested the cultivated land functions of basic living guarantee, contribution to the agricultural economy, and ecological security maintenance in China and the east, central, west, and northeast regions from 2000 to 2015 by using σ, β convergence methods. The main influencing factors are expounded and several suggestions are put forward. The results show that: (1) The spatial heterogeneity and fluctuation of cultivated land in different regions of China were significant, and there is no σ convergence feature of the three major functions of cultivated land and the four regions; the gap of multifunction level of cultivated land among the provinces showed a certain expanding tendency. (2) Except for the agricultural economic contribution function of cultivated land in the eastern region, the multifunctions of cultivated land in the whole country and each region have the characteristic of absolute β convergence, which indicates that under the assumption of the other conditions being the same, the multifunctions of cultivated land in different regions show the characteristic of convergence. (3) After adding the control variables of forest coverage, land-use intensity, and road density, the multifunctions of cultivated land in various regions of China show the characteristic of conditional β convergence mostly, which shows that the overall ecological situation, the degree of human interference, and the status of regional development can drive the multifunctions of cultivated land in different regions to converge to their steady status. (4) Different variables have different effects on multifunctional convergence of cultivated land in different regions, so it is necessary to carry out targeted control strategy according to the actual situation of different regions. According to the research conclusion and the actual development situation, the article puts forward the policy recommendations of focusing on the effective utilization of cultivated land and the coordinated development of the society and economy in China and its eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions, respectively. The research results can provide some scientific reference for the sustainable use of cultivated land, and coordinated and healthy development of the society and economy.

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    Effect of stability of land contract and land-use rights on straw retention of rural households
    GAO Li, ZHAO Congyu, SONG Yu
    2019, 41 (11):  1972-1981.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.02
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    The third plenary session of the 18th central committee of the Communist Party of China proposed the transformation of rural land from “separation of two rights” to “separation of three rights” to promote land transfer and agricultural marketization, but it may also lead to the decline of farmers’ overall expectation of the stability of land contract and land-use rights, which may affect the enthusiasm of farmers to take long-term land investment, such as straw retention. Based on a rural household survey of straw treatment in Henan Province in 2016 and a dataset of 565 plot-level observations, we constructed a three-stage framework of households’ straw treatment and examined the effect of stability of land contract and land-use rights on adoption of straw retention using a binary probit model. The empirical results reveal that own-contracted plots are associated with higher willingness of adopting straw retention than those without land contract rights by rural households due to the difference in land tenure stability. Specifically, the surveyed households with land contract rights have on average 7.7 percentage points higher probability of adopting straw retention than those without. According to the conclusions, we put forward the following policy recommendations: the government may take further actions to stimulate farmers’ willingness of straw retention on plots without land contract rights, such as rented and trusteeship plots, in order to reduce the potential risk of deterioration of rural land and environment due to the expansion of land transfer market and the decrease of farmers’ willingness to adopt conservation tillage.

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    Aging of agricultural labor, agricultural capital investment and land use efficiency: Based on a longitudinal survey of farmers in Shandong, Henan and Anhui
    QIU Junjie, REN Qian, YU Jin
    2019, 41 (11):  1982-1996.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.03
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    Under the background of the continuous reduction of cultivated land and the aging problem of the agricultural labor force, improving land use efficiency become great significance for safeguarding agricultural output and national food security in China. However, the impact of the aging problem of the agricultural labor force on land use efficiency has not yet reached a consensus in academia. This article expounds the mechanism between agricultural labor aging, agricultural capital investment, and land use efficiency, and uses the mediation model and panel threshold model to conduct empirical analyses based on a five-year longitudinal study of farmers in the main grain producing provinces of Shandong, Henan, and Anhui. The results show that the aging of agricultural labor not only directly promotes the improvement of land use efficiency, but also indirectly affects land use efficiency through agricultural capital investment. That is, agricultural capital investment has a mediating effect between the aging of agricultural labor and land use efficiency, and this effect accounts for 70.286% of the total effect. At the same time, the promotion effect of agricultural capital investment on improving land use efficiency is affected by the double threshold effect of agricultural labor age. The thresholds are 47 and 70 respectively, and the marginal return of agricultural capital investment shows a “U” pattern of change. Therefore, pessimism about the impact of the aging of the agricultural labor force in the short term is unsupported. We should improve the utilization rate of agricultural capital and improve the agricultural social service system. In the long run, we need to improve the rural old-age support system and cultivate new agricultural management entities.

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    Interaction effect of local government transferring newly-increased construction land and its regional difference
    WANG Jian, WANG Peng, PENG Shangui, ZHANG Yong, WU Qun
    2019, 41 (11):  1997-2007.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.04
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    Local government land transfer behavior plays an important role in China’s economic development, and its negative impact is also widely criticized. Therefore, it has attracted much attention of scholars and the research focus has gradually changed from individual local government level to the effects of interaction among local governments. This study distinguished the stock construction land, examined the interaction effect of local government transferring newly-increased construction land, and analyzed its regional differences and usage differences in order to comprehensively understand and form targeted regulations of newly-increased construction land transfer behavior. The empirical analysis of the data of 279 prefecture-level cities from 2007 to 2016 based on the spatial econometric model generated the following conclusions: (1) Local governments transferring newly-increased construction land exist significant interaction influence; (2) Regionally, the interaction effect of local government transferring newly-increased construction land is particularly obvious in the eastern region; (3) With regard to land-use types, the interaction effect of local government transferring newly-increased construction land is more obvious in commercial and industrial land; (4) Based on the traditional method of regional division, dividing the eastern, central, western, and northeast regions to analyze the interaction effect of local government transferring newly-increased construction land in different regions, respectively, will result in the interaction coefficient of each region being smaller than the national average. This article provides a more precise policy implication for the central government to regulate the expansion of construction land, which should focus on the following key areas: (1) newly-increased construction land; (2) eastern region; (3) commercial and industrial land. This study provides some important reference for future research on the interaction effect of local government transferring construction land and its regional differences.

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    Spatiotemporal feature of the water footprint of energy and its relationship with water resources in China
    GUAN Wei, ZHAO Xiangning, XU Shuting
    2019, 41 (11):  2008-2019.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.05
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    Energy and water resources are very important for human survival and social development. Energy and water footprint can reflect the real situation of water resources occupation in the process of energy production. With the help of the water footprint assessment model, this study measured and calculated the life cycle water footprint of fossil energy and electricity production in 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in China. It examined the spatiotemporal patterns of water footprint of raw coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, and thermal power in China from 2004 to 2016, and analyzed the spatial matching relationship between water footprint and water resources. The results show that: During the study period, the water footprint of fossil energy production increased before 2012 and decreased thereafter, and the rapid growth of water footprint of hydropower contributed to the continuous growth of water footprint of power. Spatially the water footprint of fossil energy production increased west of the Aihui-Tengchong Line and decreased to its east, and there is a high-value cluster in the Inner Mongolia-Shanxi-Shaanxi area. With regard to the water footprint of power, there is a clear spatial division between hydropower and thermal power, and the rapid growth of the water footprint of hydropower makes the Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, and southeastern coastal areas gradually form high value concentration areas of water footprint of power. The spatial matching degree of water footprint and water resources fluctuates downwards from the south to the north, and the matching degree of water footprint of fossil energy production is lower than that of the water footprint of power and water resources. The contradiction of energy-water between raw coal production and thermal power generation is most prominent. There is a problem of energy-water mismatch in one third areas of China, and the energy-water matching pressure in North China with high water footprint is large. The contradiction between energy production and water resource endowment still exists. Reflecting on the matching relationship between energy water footprint and water resources will help optimize the comprehensive management of energy and water resources and provide a quantitative basis for maximizing the synergy of energy and water.

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    Comprehensive assessment of water quality based on evidential reasoning: Taking the Xiangjiang River as an example
    HU Dongbin, CAI Hongpeng, CHEN Xiaohong, MENG Fanyong, LUO Yueping, PAN Haiting
    2019, 41 (11):  2020-2031.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.06
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    Comprehensive evaluation of water quality is an important basic work in the integrated improvement of water environment. Reliable and accurate assessment facilitates the development of scientific management plan and effective control measures for water quality. This article proposes a comprehensive assessment method of water quality based on evidential reasoning. Through establishing a water quality comprehensive evaluation model and belief distribution function, the observed values of water quality indicators can be transformed into the confidence degree of each evaluation grade. Combining the synthesis rules and algorithms of evidential reasoning, the probability distribution of each evaluation grade is calculated by synthesizing recursively the indicators that belong to the same evaluation grade. Then the comparison of water quality is realized by introducing the utility theory. Finally, this article takes the Xiangjiang River as an example to comprehensively evaluate its water quality from 2011 to 2017, and compares this method with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and grey clustering method, which have been widely used in water quality assessment. The results show that the comprehensive assessment method based on evidential reasoning is more accurate, and can effectively reflect the actual situation of water quality. This study is important in the multi-index data fusion and uncertainty data processing of water quality in different space and time, and also provides support for managing water quality precisely and for environmental management policy and decision making in the Xiangjiang River Basin.

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    Driving factors and spatiotemporal differentiation of irrigation water use efficiency in China
    CHANG Ming, WANG Xiqin, JIA Baozhen
    2019, 41 (11):  2032-2042.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.07
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    Under the background of increasing imbalance between grain production and water resource distribution in China, it is imperative to improve irrigation water use efficiency to guarantee food security and water resource security.Using input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel Tobit model, this study explored the spatial and temporal characteristics and driving factors of irrigation water use efficiency of China’s rice, wheat, and corn in 2008-2017. The results show that irrigation water use efficiency of rice, wheat, and corn in China had a largeroom for improvement. Among these crops, the water use efficiency of rice and wheat showed an upward trend during the study period, while corn showed an inverted “U” trend. In terms of spatial distribution, the irrigation water use efficiency of the main production areas of corn was basically higher than the national average level, butthe efficiency value fluctuated greatly. Among the main production areas of rice and wheat, the irrigation water use efficiency values and growth rates ofdouble cropping rice areas in South China, winter wheat areasin North China, and winter wheat areasin the middle and lower Yangtze River Basin were relatively low. Further driving factor analysis showed that the change of resourcesand environment was more likely to affect the irrigation water use efficiency of corn; under the existing water-saving irrigation conditions, farmland water conservancy works had differentdriving effects on irrigation water use efficiency of the different types of graincrops; economic and social developmentisa great driving force for the irrigation water use efficiency of the three graincrops. Based on the above conclusion, this article put forward some targeted suggestions for formulating and implementing agriculturalwater management policies based on local conditions.

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    Environmental effects of bidirectional FDI in China
    HAN Yonghui, LI Ziwen, ZHANG Fan, SHEN Chen
    2019, 41 (11):  2043-2058.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.08
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    China’s inward foreign direct investment (IFDI) and outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) play an important role in the strategies of building a high level and open economy. Based on the present situation of China’s dual identity as the host country and home country, this study took the time-series data of bidirectional FDI and pollutant emission from 1995 to 2015 as a sample and used threshold cointegration, error correction model, and pulse response function to test the relationship between China’s bidirectional FDI and environment quality. The results show that: (1) In the short term, IFDI promoted the improvement of environment, but OFDI had an inhibitory effect on the environmental improvement; (2) In the long term, IFDI inhibited the continuous improvement of the environment, while OFDI had a significant effect on promoting the environmental improvement; (3) From the perspective of dynamic impact, bidirectional FDI will transfer their external shocks to the change of environment quality, but the response to IFDI is negative, and the response to OFDI is positive. (4) After differentiating labor and resource-intensive industries from capital and technology-intensive industries, bidirectional FDI shows obvious heterogeneous effects across industries in both the short term and the long term. In the new era of development, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to clarify the relationship between bidirectional FDI and environment in order for China to deepen the overall opening-up strategy, formulate the international investment policy of “for our use,” coordinate the development of “bringing in” and “going out,” and realize sustainable green development and build ecological civilization.

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    International research and application of habitat and resource equivalency analyses
    LI Jingmei, LI Yichun
    2019, 41 (11):  2059-2070.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.09
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    Equivalency analysis method is a damage assessment method based on habitat/resource restoration objectives. This method determines the scale or cost of restoration project through service equivalence assumptions. It was first used by the United States for oil spill damage assessment and has become one of the mainstream methods for habitat and resource damage assessment and restoration in the world in recent years. It is widely used in the protection and restoration of habitats and resources such as estuarine wetlands, forests, and marine ecosystems. Since 2007, Chinese scholars have introduced equivalency analysis method, but the current research is only a simple extension of its application fields, lacking theoretical discussion. Under this background, this article systematically presents the background, conceptual principles, key assumptions, and input parameters of the equivalency analysis method, then summarizes its application fields in habitat and resource damage assessment, and finally discusses the controversies in the application of this method at this stage. Through examining the theoretical aspects of the ecological restoration methods, we hope that international research and management experiences can provide important references for relevant government authorities in China to manage ecological restoration.

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    Willingness and influencing factors of innovation and entrepreneurship of new agribusiness entities
    LI Dongxuan, LIU Pingyang
    2019, 41 (11):  2071-2082.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.10
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    Innovation and entrepreneurship plays a critical role in the implementation of rural revitalization strategy.In practice, innovation and entrepreneurship in agriculture, based on its essence of creating new added values, has its own connotation and characteristics, and its forms, scale, and participants are diversified. Based on the result of a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews of a typical case of Shanghai suburb, this study analyzed the willingness of new agribusiness entities to engage in innovation and entrepreneurship and its influencing factors. A bivariate Probit model and interpretative structural modeling (ISM) method were applied to explore the influencing factors and the mechanism of interaction. The results show that age, local social network, time limits of land transfer, and the availability of capital, technology, and labor are the main influencing factors for quality agriculture related creative activities; and age, location, local social network, policy supports, and the availability of capital and labor are the main influencing factors for service agriculture related creative activities. Personal characteristics and input factors function at the superficial level, location and policy factors function at the middle level, while local social network is the most fundamental deep-seated factor.

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    A review on the collective forestland tenure reform and changes in forest resources
    HE Wenjian, WANG Yuyang, JIANG Minxing
    2019, 41 (11):  2083-2093.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.11
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    The reform of collective forestland tenure is important for realizing the sustainable growth of forest resources. In order to clarify the controversies of the research on the impact of collective forestland tenure reform on forest resources and analyze the disadvantages and future research directions from the perspectives of collective forest property rights and its structure, this article summarizes and analyzes the literature about the impact of collective forestland tenure reform on forest resource changes and the security of forest property rights from both the theoretical and empirical aspects. Most studies have found that collective forestland tenure reform can encourage farmers’ afforestation and forestland management and reduce deforestation and forest degradation, effectively increasing the forest resources. Existing literature has provided valuable clues for further research, but the theoretical framework of analysis fails to consider the reality of off-farm employment in China and the interactions between various forest property rights. Moreover, the empirical research neglects the dynamic effects of forest property rights on the forest resources and fails to effectively avoid the endogeneity problem of forest property rights in the model. Therefore, this article suggests that future research should: (1) be based on the actual situation of laborers’ non-agricultural employment in China, construct a theoretical model in line with national conditions and explore the interactions between various forest property rights; (2) scientifically identify the dynamic effects of forest property rights on the forest resources; and (3) pay attention to the endogeneity problems such as measurement bias of systems, variable omissions, self-selection bias, and reverse causality.

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    Spatial differentiation of the anti-poverty effects of traffic accessibility at the county level: A case of Fujian Province
    HOU Xiuying, QIU Rongzu, LIN Yuying, WANG Jiankai, HU Xisheng
    2019, 41 (11):  2094-2106.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.12
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    The knowledge on the effects of transportation infrastructure on regional economic development is the basis for implementing the rural revitalization strategy. Taking Fujian Province as a case, the weighted average travel time was used to represent the counties’ accessibility level, and a multidimensional poverty index was employed based on the livelihood pentagon method to measure the counties’ poverty, then the geographically weighted regression analysis was adopted to explore the spatial differentiation of the relationships between county traffic accessibility and multidimensional poverty. The results show that: (1) Traffic accessibility of counties in Fujian Province tends to show a layered structure, descending from the coast to inland mountainous areas, and the overall accessibility level is relatively low; (2) There exist great variations in single-dimensional poverty across the counties, and multidimensional poverty shows a strong regional differentiation, with poor counties mainly distributed in the eastern and northern parts of the province; (3) The effect of traffic accessibility on anti-poverty efficiency is complicated, which shows that the development of the traffic infrastructure may either succeed or fail to promote the anti-poverty efficiency. In other words, the effect of transportation infrastructure on anti-poverty efficiency is characterized by spatial heterogeneity. For example, in 43 counties of Fujian Province, the higher the traffic accessibility level, the better the anti-poverty efficiency. However, the opposite cases of the other 15 counties are also discovered, and they are mostly located in northern and western Fujian. This study has implications for enacting an effective countermeasure to mitigate poverty at the county level, for example, for the counties identified as with a trade-off relationship. Developing transportation may not achieve the goal of poverty alleviation, and the single-dimensional poverty identified for each county in this study should be taken into consideration for the precise alleviation of poverty.

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    Impact of new energy demonstration city construction on regional environmental pollution control
    LU JIN, WANG Enze
    2019, 41 (11):  2107-2118.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.13
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    The pilot construction of new energy demonstration cities is an important policy for deepening the development of the Chinese ecological civilization. Objectively assessing its effect on environmental pollution is of great significance for further promotion of the pilot projects. Based on the panel data of 261 prefecture-level cities in China from 2002 to 2016, this study evaluated the effect of new energy demonstration city construction on environmental pollution by applying the propensity score matching method and the double difference method, and introduced the nonparametric deviation correction based on this. The nonparametric percentile Bootstrap method analyzes the intrinsic mechanism of effects. The conclusions of the study indicate that: First, the construction of new energy demonstration cities will significantly reduce the discharge of wastewater and waste gas, thereby effectively reducing urban environmental pollution. Second, the new energy demonstration cities can achieve environmental pollution control through energy innovation effect, industrial structure optimization effect, and financial support effect. Third, the pollution control effect generated during the construction of new energy demonstration cities is heterogeneous, mainly reflected in that on the one hand, new energy demonstration cities with lower economic growth levels are more effective in controlling pollution; on the other hand, the higher the human capital level of the new energy demonstration cities, the more effective it can suppress pollutant emissions. These conclusions provide an important basis for China to further promote the construction strategy of new energy demonstration cities, improve the quality of new energy demonstration cities, disseminate the experiences of constructing new energy cities, and deepen research and development and promotion of new energy technologies.

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    Spatiotemporal change of coastal blue carbon and its service value evaluation:A case study of Jiaozhou Bay
    SUI Yuzheng, CHEN Xiaoxuan, LI Shujuan, SUN Dapeng, MA Xinning, ZHOU Tao
    2019, 41 (11):  2119-2130.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.14
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    Coastal blue carbon is a carbon pool similar to marine blue carbon and terrestrial green carbon, which has huge carbon sink potential and it is of important practical significance to study its carbon sequestration capacity. In this study, remote sensing data of the Jiaozhou Bay in 1997, 2007, and 2017 ,were used for interpretation and acquisition of coastal wetland data in the Jiaozhou Bay area by ArcGIS,.Based on the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs(InVEST) model, this study evaluated the change of spatial and temporal patterns of blue carbon distribution and its service value in the Jiaozhou Bay coastal zone. The results show that: (1) In terms of time: the total blue carbon in 1997-2007 and 2007-2017 was 3.49 × 10 8 and 2.32 × 10 8 tons respectively, showing a decreasing trend. (2) Spatially, from 1997 to 2007, the maximum blue carbon was mainly distributed in the sub-tidal zone and the areas of reed, suaeda salsa, spartina and aquaculture ponds in Hetao, Shangma, Jiuhongtan, Jiulong Street, and in the areas of aquaculture ponds and reeds in Jiulong, Liuting, Jinghongtan and Shangma Street from 2007 to 2017. (3) The total value of blue carbon in the Jiaozhou Bay in recent 20 years is 8522.13×10 8 CNY, it is urgent to protect the coastal blue carbon ecosystem because of its huge carbon sink potential.

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    Multi-scale periodic variation of NDVI in July and its response to climatic factors in the Taibai Mountain area
    ZHANG Chenhua, LI Shuheng, BAI Hongying, ZHU Xianliang, YANG QI
    2019, 41 (11):  2131-2143.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.15
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    Multi-scale periodic variation is one of the important frontier issues of vegetation research. It is of great significance to revealing the pattern and complexity of vegetation system changes. Based on the NDVI in July data of recent 172 years reconstructed by using the tree-ring width chronology of the Taibai Mountain area, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used in this study to analyze the response of NDVI to climatic factors and to analyze the variation characteristics of NDVI’s time series at different temporal scales. The results indicates that the NDVI in July showed a weak nonlinear upward trend for the north and south slopes of the Taibai Mountain area. The NDVI on the north slope/south slope showed interannual scale periods of 3.3 a/3.5 a, 8.1 a/8.8 a, and interdecadal scale periods of 18 a/19.1 a, 36 a/34.4 a, and 64.8 a/68.8 a, respectively. The interannual scale changes reveal the details of the fluctuations of the original sequence of NDVI, while the interdecadal scale changes reveal the alternation of increase and decrease in different periods. The interannual scale of NDVI on the north slope fluctuated greatly, while the interdecadal scale of NDVI on the south slope fluctuated strongly. The main factor affecting NDVI on the interannual scale is precipitation, while the main factor affecting NDVI on the interannual scale is temperature. The NDVI on the north slope is controlled by hydrolic factors and the NDVI on the south slope is more affected by heat factors. The analysis of the multi-scale period of NDVI is of great significance for studying the variation characteristics of vegetation growth in the Taibai Mountain area.

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    Relationship between drought/flood and ENSO events in Southwest China
    LIU Lin, XU Zongxue, YANG Xiaojing
    2019, 41 (11):  2144-2153.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.16
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    Under the background of climate change, drought and flood occur frequently in Southwest China, and El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important indicator of climate change. Based on the data of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), precipitation, and temperature during 1960-2016 in Southwest China, the correlation between ENSO events and precipitation, temperature, and drought/flood index was analyzed by using wavelet analysis and mathematical statistics. The results show that: (1) The ENSO events have quasi-periodic changes of about 9 a, 24 a, and 3~4 a. (2) There is a significant correlation between precipitation and ENSO event intensity, and temperature is also obviously correlated with ENSO event intensity, both with a certain lag of time. In the EI Nino event years, the precipitation and temperature in Southwest China are negatively correlated with SSTA with a lag of 2~4 months. In the La Nina event years, the precipitation and temperature in Southwest China are significantly positively correlated with SSTA with a lag of 2~4 months. The correlation between temperature and ENSO events is more obvious. (3) There was a negative correlation between the ENSO intensity and drought/flood grade. When the EI Nino event intensity increased, the number of drought events in the southwest region increased, and when the intensity of La Nina events increased, the number of flood events in the southwest region increased. The drought/flood index of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and SOI also showed a very significant negative correlation, and the impact of ENSO on drought and flood had a lag of 1~4 months, with the greatest impact at 3 months lag. Therefore, drought and flood disasters are likely to occur in strong ENSO event years or the following year in the southwest region. This study may provide some reference for enhancing the vigilance against droughts/floods and strengthen flood control and drought relief work in Southwest China.

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