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Table of Content

    25 September 2019, Volume 41 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Ten relations of territorial planning in the new era
    DONG Zuoji
    2019, 41 (9):  1589-1599.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.01
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    Territorial spatial planning, as a main aspect of the “integration of multi-planning,” has addressed the fundamental requirements of constructing an ecological civilization and the practical needs of changing the governance mode of land and space. Numerous theoretical and practical issues need to be studied in depth. This article focuses on ten basic relations. Among them, the two major relations are planning versus market and spatial planning versus development planning, which constitute the basic relations of territorial spatial planning. Only by properly handling these two relations can we reasonably determine the functional orientation and responsibility boundary of territorial spatial planning and ensure the healthy development of the “integration of multi-planning” reform. Four other major relationships surrounding spatial planning are high-quality development versus high-quality national space, agglomerated development versus balanced development, new urbanization versus rural revitalization, and new town development versus urban renovation, which constitute the themes and main contents of land spatial planning. Only by dealing with these four relations properly can we give full play to the role of land spatial planning. From an methodological perspective, the four important relations include the division of “three zones” (urban space, agricultural space, ecological space) versus the delimitation of “three lines” (ecological protection, permanent basic agricultural land, urban development boundary), standardization versus special characteristics, policy innovation versus technological innovation, and planning versus planning implementation, which make up the key approaches of territorial spatial planning. Dealing with these four relations well is the premise and basis of scientific compilation and effective implementation of territorial spatial planning.

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    Legislative logic and framework design of spatial planning law
    YAN Jinming,DILISHATI· Yakufu,ZHANG Dongsheng
    2019, 41 (9):  1600-1609.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.02
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    Spatial planning law is an important guarantee for the scientific development of the planning, orderly implementation of the plan, and its effective management. Based on the summary of the Chinese and international spatial planning laws and regulations, this study analyzed the legislative logic of the national spatial planning law and discussed the legislative framework of the national spatial planning law. In terms of legislative orientation, the spatial planning law belongs to the category of public law (administrative law) and has the characteristics of promoting public welfare, and being compulsory and administrative; in terms of the legislative intent, it embodies the will of the state, promotes sustainable use, improves governance, and optimizes the spatial pattern of use; in terms of the spirit of legislation, it should pay attention to plan administration and power allocation, space justice and administrative efficiency, planning guidance and space control, and the rule of law and procedural justice. The overall framework of legislation can be designed from the aspects of planning system, plan development, plan review, plan implementation, and plan supervision. According to the legislative sequence and the urgency of legislation, this article proposes a gradually advanced legislative path from simple to difficult, in order to provide references for the formulation of the national spatial planning law.

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    Balanced, compact and networked national land spatial planning:Japan’s practice and implications
    LI Guoping
    2019, 41 (9):  1610-1618.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.03
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    Since the promulgation of the “Comprehensive National Land Development Act” in 1950 and the subsequent release of the “Comprehensive National Development Plan” in 1962, Japan has made and implemented a number of national land development plans in the past 70 years, and formed a comprehensive national land development and spatial planning system. In response to the new and constantly changing internal and external environments and the emergence of new challenges in the national land development, Japan changed the “Comprehensive National Land Development Act” to the “National Spatial Planning Act” in 2005, which emphasized the use of the stock of national land and improving the quality and efficiency of land development instead of quantitative expansion. Thereafter, the new “National Spatial Strategy (National Plan)” has been updated twice, which was dedicated to creating a balanced, compact, and networked national land use pattern. In the next 10 to 20 years, China’s population will decrease and the country will enter the super-aging society. The planning and development of national land will inevitably be adapted to the new situation. Based on the review of Japan’s practice in the national land development and spatial planning, this study proposes new strategies for China’s national land development in the new era, which emphasize the transformation from large scale national land development to national land preservation, and national spatial planning should be transformed from the traditional incremental planning approach to the stock planning then to the reduction planning approach, focusing on the optimal utilization of the stock of land and the improvement of the quality and efficiency of land development instead of quantitative expansion. Meanwhile, efforts should be made to construct the multiple-scale compact and networked national land spatial structure, and create a balanced, secure, and sustainable national land use pattern.

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    Comparison of economic benefits and embodied carbon emissions of intraregional value-added trade in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    LI Yanmei,NIU Miaomiao,ZHANG Hongli
    2019, 41 (9):  1619-1629.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.04
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    Under the background of value chain division of labor, value-added trade accounting system can more accurately measure trade gains and embodied carbon emissions. Referring to this accounting system, this study used a multiregional input-output analysis method and a structural decomposition analysis model to calculate the economic benefits and implied carbon emissions of intraregional trade in Beijing Municipality, Tianjin Municipality, and Hebei Province, and compared their differences. The results show that: (1) The economic benefits obtained from intraregional trade are highest in Beijing, followed by Tianjin, and then Hebei, while the order of implied carbon emissions is the opposite; (2) Economic benefits of Beijing are highly concentrated in the services sector, while that of Tianjin and Hebei are in different sectors. Embodied CO2 emissions are concentrated in the middle trade sector, with the highest proportion in the energy sector; (3) The differences in economic benefits and carbon emissions obtained from trade between Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei are mainly due to the intensity of complete CO2 emissions, trade scale, and trade structure. Therefore, in the process of integrated development, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region should strengthen coordination and cooperation, jointly formulate carbon emission reduction targets, and assume responsibility for carbon emission reduction, and all regions should seek the best cooperation mode according to the development stage and characteristics.

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    Meta-analysis of the effects of different farmland management measures on soil carbon intensity
    LI Hanbing,JIN Xiaobin,YANG Xuhong,XU Weiyi,ZHOU Yinkang
    2019, 41 (9):  1630-1640.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.05
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    Farmland soil is an important part of the carbon cycle, and soil carbon emission accounting is a key topic of current research. In order to effectively identify the impact of different farmland management measures on soil carbon emission intensity and improve the reliability of regional farmland carbon emission accounting, this study applied the meta-analysis method based on relevant research literature in China and internationally, and quantitatively analyzed the impact of fertilization, no-tillage, straw returning, and organic fertilizer application on soil carbon emissions. Soil types, crops, and other variables were introduced to build the statistical analysis models of the effect of various influencing factors on farmland soil carbon emission intensity for different regions. The results show that the application of chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer application, and traditional tillage will increase soil carbon emission intensity compared with no fertilization and no-tillage, and the combined effect values are 0.62, 0.64, and 0.23, respectively. No straw returning will reduce carbon emission intensity, and the combined effect value is -0.17. The simulation results show that the coefficients of variables are consistent with the results of the meta-analysis and pass the normality test of the cumulative probability. By establishing a partition function model, it can provide references for the targeted accounting of carbon emissions of farmland in different regions, and with different soil types, different crops, and different management measures.

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    Research progress of forestry carbon issues related to land use, land-use change and forestry
    XU Enyin,TAO Yun,YANG Hongqiang
    2019, 41 (9):  1641-1654.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.06
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    The carbon issues associated with land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) is an important issue affecting adaptation and mitigation of climate change. Clarifying the international research progress related to forestry and carbon issues in the past 20 years is of great significance for the formulation and adjustment of forestry policies in response to climate change. This article analyzes 175 documents in the Web of Science database from 1999 to 2018 and summarizes the research trends of LULUCF carbon research with the CiteSpace tool. The results show that: (1) The current research topics of LULUCF are “improvement of systems and methods,” “forest management behavior,” and “environmental objectives.” (2) Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States are the main countries studying LULUCF. They focus on deforestation, forestry projects, economic issues, and sectoral response mechanisms respectively. (3) The focuses of social science research on LULUCF are land use management, response mechanism of policies, and economic problems. The main methods are engineering management and economics approaches represented by scenario analysis and general equilibrium models. This article provides some relevant suggestions for future research on LULUCF: improving LULUCF carbon accounting methods and the theory and means of monitoring land use and dynamic changes; paying attention to the scientific evaluation of forest management projects and its influence on the adjustment of forestry policies; and accelerating LULUCF carbon budget research and the formulation of emission reduction plans by land use sectors.

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    Energy substitution path optimization under supply and demand mismatch
    YAN Liang,XIONG Weiwei,WANG Xiaolin,WANG Teng
    2019, 41 (9):  1655-1664.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.07
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    The conflict between the demand of upgrading industrial structure and the condition of energy consumption in China is becoming increasingly more prominent. The imbalance of energy supply and demand structure restricts the support of energy industry for national economic development. It is imperative to form a set of policy tools to guide the formation of supply-side price and capacity replacement mechanism from the bottom. Based on the price substitution mechanism of inter-energy demand and the capacity substitution mechanism within each energy source, this study simulates the trend of energy substitution in China from 2017 to 2050 and takes it as a benchmark scenario. On this basis, the scenarios of price, market, cost, subsidy and carbon trading are set from the supply side. The results show that under the benchmark scenario, coal is the main energy consumption for a long time, and the pressure of structural adjustment and emission reduction is greater. Under the subsidy strategy and carbon trading strategy, the level of clean energy utilization has been significantly improved. Therefore, we must boost the incentive level of natural gas to ensure a smooth transition and reduce the cost of new energy acquisition, improve the reform of energy pricing mechanism, and broaden the scope of carbon trading price change in order to effectively achieve a supply-demand coordinated energy substitution path.

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    Evaluation on energy geo-economics cooperation relations of Russia with China and Japan
    XIONG Chenran,WANG Limao,ZHANG Chao,QU Qiushi,XIANG Ning
    2019, 41 (9):  1665-1674.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.08
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    How to evaluate energy geo-economics cooperation relations of exporters and importers have become the important research issues for geography. Russia is one of the most important producers and exporters of crude oil and natural gas in the world, and has been the main source of imports of crude oil and natural gas in china and Japan since 1990s, which resulted in the certain structure of energy geopolitical and energy geo-economics relations among the three countries. This article attempts to build an evaluation model for evaluating energy geo-economics cooperation relations between energy exporter (Russia) and energy importers (China and Japan) in the Russian Far East-Pacific crude oil pipeline construction from 1995 to 2016. The results show that: (1) The scissor difference has been recorded between the rising energy geo-economics cooperation relations index of Russia with China and the declining that of Russia with Japan, and its intersection appeared in 2012. (2) Sino-Russian energy geo-economic cooperation relations have undergone an increasing variation, namely from wave shape variation (1995-2002) and oblique “N” shape variation (2003-2008) to rapidly rise variation (2009-2016), and Sino-Russian energy geo-economic cooperation has entered a stage of rapid development since 2008. (3) During the same period, variation of energy geo-economic cooperation relations between Russia and Japan has showed a downward trend, namely from wave variation and rapidly drop variation to fluctuating decline, and Japan has become one of the energy importers with less volume from Russia. The increasing sustainable progress of energy geo-economic cooperation relations between Russia and China will be recorded in the perspective of the Sino-Russian comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination in the future.

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    Impact of centralization degree of transfer-in land on production efficiency
    LI Bowei
    2019, 41 (9):  1675-1689.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.09
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    The imperfection of rural land market mechanism makes it difficult to achieve centralized land transfer. Clarifing the influence of transfer-in land’s centralization degree on production efficiency is beneficial to the healthy development of agriculture operation at moderate scales. This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of transfer-in land dispersion on production efficiency and used the survey data of large grain farmers in Anhui Province in a simultaneous equation model to perform an empirical test. The main results include: (1) The output elasticity of capital and labor of farmers is 0.5246 and 0.0405 measured by a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model based on the yield of unit land area, and average technical efficiency of the farmers is 0.75. (2) The total effect of average size of transfer-in land on technical efficiency is 0.1132, in which the direct effect is 0.0827, the indirect effect on technical efficiency caused by reducing the number of employees is 0.0305, and the direct effect accounts for 73.06% of the total effect. (3) The result of robustness test with the number of transfer-in land parcels as an independent variable shows that the total effect of the number of transfer-in land parcels on technical efficiency is -0.3032, in which the direct effect is -0.2692, the indirect effect on technical efficiency caused by rising number of employees is -0.0340, and the direct effect accounts for 88.79% of the total effect. The main conclusions are: (1) With the present scale of farmland management capital is a more scarce factor than labor, farmers are generally experiencing diminishing returns to scale, and there is a relatively serious loss of technical efficiency. (2) Centralization of transfer-in land is conducive to improving technical efficiency, indirectly promoting technical efficiency by reducing the number of employees at the same time. On the contrary, dispersion of transfer-in land parcels leads to the loss of technical efficiency, including not only the direct loss of efficiency caused by the increase of production costs, but also the indirect loss of efficiency caused by the decrease of labor quality, moral hazard, and the rise of supervision costs caused by the increased number of employees, and comparatively the direct effect is greater than the indirect effect. This article clarifies that the key to further enhance the production efficiency of agriculture operation at moderate scales lies in promoting the centralized land transfer through improving the land transfer market.

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    Multiscale analysis of poverty creation for farming households in different geographical environments: A case study of Henan Province
    GAO Junbo,YU Chao,GE Dazhuan,CHEN Jianhua
    2019, 41 (9):  1690-1702.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.10
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    Multiscale exploration of the poverty-inducing factors of farming households in different geographical environments is of great significance for revealing the causes of rural poverty and improving the effectiveness of poverty reduction. Based on the hierarchical linear model and multidimensional data on poverty, the differences of poverty-inducing factors of farming households in Henan Province and their mechanisms are comparatively studied. The spatial scales include household, village, and county, and the geographical environments cover plain region, hilly areas, and mountain land. The results show that: (1) There are significant differences in the poverty-inducing factors at various spatial scales. For Henan Province as a whole, 82.0% of the poverty variances can be explained at the household scale, while 10.6% and 7.4% can be explained at the village and county scales, respectively. The main poverty-inducing factors concentrate at the household scale under all geographical environment conditions. Factors at the village scale play a more important role in leading to poverty than at the county scale. (2) Poverty-inducing factors differ significantly in different geographical environments. Dependency burden with children, income dependence on planting, and dependence on transferable payments are the main poverty-inducing factors for poor farming households. The direct poverty-inducing factors in plain areas are high medical expenses and dependency burden with children. Income dependence on planting is the key poverty-inducing factor in hilly and mountainous areas. (3) The macro-background of farming households’ poverty is the geographical and geomorphological conditions and agriculture-related investments at the county scale. Income dependence on traditional agriculture and heavier family burden are individual factors for poverty. The average elevation of villages and the amount of per capita arable land have aggravated the effect of individual factors. (4) Regional poverty reduction policies should not only emphasize the regional differences at the county level, but also pay attention to the characteristics of households and villages. The dominant position of farmers in overcoming poverty should be supported, and the demand-oriented policy system of poverty reduction and implementation need to be improved.

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    Rural revitalization strategy based on the perspective of rural multifunctions: A case of the mountainous areas in Yunyang District of Shiyan City,western Hubei Province
    ZHANG Liguo,WANG Zhanqi,WEI Chao,GAO Yunxiao
    2019, 41 (9):  1703-1713.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.11
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    Under the background of China’s rapid urbanization, rural areas are still facing a severe situation of lagging behind or even backward development. Rural revitalization strategy is a significant strategic decision for China to properly solve the “Three Rural Issues.” The multifunctional development and its management of villages will be a focal point and a new path to realize the overall revitalization of the countryside. This study established a systematic evaluation index to evaluate the multifunctions of village space, and used the horizontal and vertical comparison methods to identify dominant functions and weak functions of each village, determine the development type of the village, and finally put forward different development strategies for the villages. The results are as follows: (1) The agricultural production function, living function, social security function, and ecological conservation function are spatially different in the mountainous rural areas; (2) The multifunction index values are low overall and show little variations for the villages; (3) Through identifying the dominant functions and weak functions, the study established a set of criteria to classify development types for villages, and then divided the villages of the study area into polarized development type, leading development type, and comprehensive development type. Next, the polarized development villages were divided into four subtypes of development, and the leading development villages were divided into three subtypes. Finally, we put forward the corresponding development strategies for various types of villages. This study explored the strategies of rural revitalization from the perspective of village space multifunctions, which may provide some practical reference for rural revitalization strategy in the new era, expand the perspective of regional multifunctional research, and enrich the theoretical framework of multifunctional study.

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    Effect of transregional fiscal payment system for cultivated land protection: Taking new construction land compensation fees as an example
    CAO Ruifen,ZHANG Anlu
    2019, 41 (9):  1714-1723.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.12
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    Transregional fiscal payment system is an important tool for addressing the issue of regional imbalance brought by cultivated land protection. Through horizontal fiscal transfer between areas with different regulatory intensity, the system enables different regions to share the dividends of land-use optimization, which is helpful to the implementation of cultivated land protection. This study comprehensively considered the processes of collecting and distributing the fees for new increased construction land and took the whole process as a kind of transregional fiscal payment, that is, the fees are transferred from the nonagricultural development zone with higher quota of construction land to the cultivated land protection zone with heavy farmland protection task. On this basis, it examined the arable land protection effect of this kind of transregional fiscal payment system with the fees for new increased construction land as the carrier. A dynamic panel data model and system generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM) estimation are employed to verify the theory by using the provincial level panel data in China from 2005 to 2015. The results show that the interprovincial horizontal fiscal transfer payment system based on the fees for new increased construction land could help to mobilize the local governments to protect cultivated land and serve the purpose of protecting arable land, but its role is very limited. Among the two components of the fees, compared to fee distribution, the cultivated land protection effect of fees collection is better in China. This research may contribute to improving the interprovincial horizontal fiscal transfer payment system based on the fees for new increased construction land and promote cultivated land protection.

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    An evolutionary process model of tourism resource curse: Based on path dependence theory
    LI Wenjing,ZHANG Chaozhi
    2019, 41 (9):  1724-1733.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.13
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    The application of tourism resource curse hypothesis in tourism research can explain the nonlinear relationship between tourism development and long-term economic growth, but how this process came about is unclear. This article examines the existing studies in the tourism resource curse research field by a systematic review. The study shows whether the resource-dependent tourism development hinders economic growth is the basis for judging the establishment of tourism resource curse. The crowding out effect to other industries is the principle of tourism resource curse. The classic path dependence model is the generation mechanism of the tourism resource curse. Based on these, this article analyzes the dynamic characteristics of tourism resource value and the complex characteristics of the tourism industry. Combined with the composite-standard model of path dependence, this article establishes a tourism resource curse evolutionary process model by combining macro-level and micro-level path dependence evolution. At the macro-level, due to the abundance of tourism resources, tourism destinations will be locked into a tourism development path. At the micro-level, however, due to the changes in the boundary of tourism resource value, tourism destinations will continue a hierarchical evolution according to the change of market needs and institutions, and transform the tourism development path. Facilitated by the evolutionary process, tourism destinations try to break through the tourism resource curse through different development paths. This study has deepened our understanding of the complex evolution process of tourism resource curse, and may provide some reference for promoting sustainable tourism.

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    Influence of participation motivation of virtual travel community members on their engagement behavior: Taking an outdoor travel virtual community as example
    ZHOU Zekun,WU Tiehong,TANG Wenyue
    2019, 41 (9):  1734-1746.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.14
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    Today, virtual communities have become an important space for tourists. Tourists publish information, organize activities, seek help, share their lives, and show other non-trading behaviors (engagement behaviors) in virtual communities. Clarifying the motivation of participation in tourism virtual community and examine the relationship between motivation and engagement behavior are important for the operation and development of virtual communities. This study employed quantitative analysis methods based on data from a questionnaire survey on a virtual tourism community in Inner Mongolia, investigated the main psychological motives of people participating in the tourism virtual community, and explored the influence of participation motivation on engagement behaviors. The research results show that the motivation of participating in tourism virtual community can be divided into four types: self-achievement, socializing, learning, and practical benefits. Virtual community participation motivation has significant impacts on engagement behaviors, but it has a direct impact only on the attitude engagement. Group identity is an important variable between participation motivation and engagement behavior; and only if attitude engagement happens, will the engagement behavior be achieved for the virtual communities’ members. The relationship chain of “participation motivation-group identity-attitude engagement-behavior engagement” has been clarified, and we have identified the universal path from motivation to engagement behavior. This research may enrich the study of tourism virtual community engagement behavior, and has certain reference value for the management of tourism virtual communities.

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    Impact of individuals’ environmental attitude on the perception and satisfaction of urban forest
    HUANG Yuan,ZHAO Zheng,YANG Jie,DUAN Mengjiao,WEN Yali
    2019, 41 (9):  1747-1757.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.15
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    Urban forest is an important part of sustainable development in modern cities, which can provide a variety of functional services for the cities. In the context of the new era of ecological priority, the impact of citizens’ environmental attitudes on the perception and satisfaction of urban forests is of great significance to the construction of modern urban forests. Based on the existing theories, a conceptual model of environmental attitude including environmental belief, environmental affection, and environmental concern on two-way perception and satisfaction of urban forests was constructed, and empirical studies were carried out by using the structural equation model. The results show that environmental belief had a positive and significant impact on environmental affection. Environmental affection in turn had a positive and significant impact on environmental concern, while environmental concern had a positive and significant impact on two-way perception of urban forest. We also found that urban forest satisfaction was affected positively and significantly by positive perception of urban forest. Environmental concern showed mediating effects in the path of environmental affection to positive perception of urban forest, while the suppressing effects was found in another path of environmental affection to negative perception of urban forest. The purpose of this study was to further improve the existing theoretical system of environmental attitude, environmental perception, and satisfaction, and to provide a scientific reference for the optimization of modern urban forest construction system.

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    Impervious surface extraction in Shenyang Citybased on OLI/TIRS data
    GUO Yiyang,LEI Guoping,ZHANG Luyang,ZHAO Mingzhao,YU Hao,DAI Jiguang
    2019, 41 (9):  1758-1768.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.16
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    Impervious surface is a key indicator for evaluating urban development and ecology. The method of extracting impervious surface is mainly four endmembers model. However, it is not possible to effectively distinguish between bare soil and high reflectance. Taking a representative old industrial city in the Northeast— Shenyang City— as an example, and based on the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data, this study optimized the four endmembers linear mixed spectral decomposition method, extracted impervious surface, and analyzed its spatial distribution. After using four endmembers linear mixed spectral decomposition to obtain the high and low reflectance fractions in the study area, we derived surface temperature, obtained bare soil coverage by five endmembers linear mixed spectral decomposition, optimized the high and low reflectance fractions using land surface temperature and bare soil coverage threshold , calculated impervious surface coverage of Shenyang City and its spatial distribution, and analyzed its overall and local spatial characteristics. In precision test of the extracted impervious surface, the root mean square error RMSE=13.14% and correlation coefficient R=0.9076, indicating that the method used in this study can effectively extract the impervious surface. Based on the analysis of the spatial pattern of impervious surface, in the central urban area of the city in general, the proportion of non-construction areas is 79.04%, the proportion of high-density areas in the old central urban area is relatively high, and a reasonable layout of the new urban expansion area has not been formed. The result of local characteristic analysis shows that the development of Shenyang City in the east-west direction is asymmetric and in the south-north direction ecological environment is superior to the east-west direction. This study can facilitate a scientific understanding of the development status of Northeast old industrial cities and provide a scientific basis for future urban expansion and development.

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