Loading...

Table of Content

    25 July 2019, Volume 41 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Classification of ecosystem services and a reclassification framework of watershed ecosystem services
    Yang LIU, Jun BI, Jianshu LV
    2019, 41 (7):  1189-1200.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.01
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (5167KB) ( )   Save

    Application of ecosystem service theory to management practice is an important trend of research. Such application depends on the classification system of ecosystem services that meets human management needs. This article reviewed international and Chinese classifications of ecosystem services, and found that current works focus on the characteristics of ecosystem output and its correspondence to human benefits, but lack a system specific to a certain management target and conducive to human management decision. Therefore, based on water environment problems and management demands, this study developed a new classification system of ecosystem services suitable to water environment management at watershed scale, and discussed the similarities and differences with several other classifications. This proposed classification system took water environment health as the management target. According to the relationships with this target, ecosystem services were divided into three categories: direct services, indirect services, and ecological benefits. Direct services were defined as the ecosystem processes and functions that directly reflect the management target, and were measured by physical quantity. Indirect services were the processes and functions that support the achievement of the management target, and were quantified using multidisciplinary methods. Ecological benefits indicate the final effect of the management target and were calculated by valuation methods. This classification system can help identify and analyze critical ecosystem services in watersheds, which lays a foundation for subsequent simulation, mapping, and evaluation of ecosystem services.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress of research on carbon emissions of urban household consumption
    Yue WANG, Feng LI, Xiao SUN
    2019, 41 (7):  1201-1212.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.02
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (6840KB) ( )   Save

    Carbon emissions from household daily consumption are an important part of global carbon emissions and have become a new growth point. The direct and indirect energy consumption and carbon emissions of Chinese households are gradually expanding, which poses a problem for the country to achieve emission reduction targets. This study used bibliometrics and comparative analysis to clarify the progress of research on carbon emissions of household consumption in order to determine the main contents and applicability of carbon emission coefficient method, input-output model, life cycle assessment, and consumer lifestyle approach. The advantages, disadvantages, and applicable situations of different carbon emission quantitative analysis methods were compared. The four main factors influencing the results of research in empirical analysis are validity of questionnaire data, difference of behavior patterns of household consumption, community impact, and rebound effect. Since 2009, the total amount of research on household carbon emissions has increased year by year, and the number of research based on macro-statistical data is significantly higher than that based on household surveys. Carbon emission coefficient method and input-output method are the two most common carbon emission accounting approaches, the choice of which depends on the purpose of the research and the availability of data. Full consideration of the factors affecting household carbon emissions and proper optimization of accounting methods are useful in improving the accuracy of the research results. Our research provides a reference for future research perspectives and accounting methods of carbon emissions of urban household consumption. It also provides a scientific basis for carbon emissions management of urban household.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Household welfare change of migrant workers returning home to build houses:Based on a survey of migrant worker source areas in Fujian Province
    Guoyong YANG, Qiang JIANG, Tian TIAN, Wenxing XU
    2019, 41 (7):  1213-1226.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.03
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3443KB) ( )   Save

    Residence is an important part of welfare and the basis of overall well-being. Based on Amartya Sen’s theory of feasible capability, this study constructed a welfare evaluation index system for migrant workers in rural areas. Using fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation method and questionnaire survey data of migrant workers in Fujian Province, this study evaluated household welfare change of migrant workers who returned home to build houses. Lorentz coefficient was used to compare the differences in family welfare before and after returning to the countryside. The study found that returning home to build a house has a positive effect on the welfare of migrant workers’ families and to some extent narrows the welfare difference between these families, but family welfare is still below the medium level and family economic situation gets worse. With the goal of improving the welfare of migrant workers’ families, we should promote the urbanization of migrant workers on the spot and improve the actual living condition, strengthen the guidance and management of migrant workers returning to the countryside to build houses, advocate reasonable and moderate housing construction, alleviate the economic burden caused by housing construction, revitalize idle homesteads and housing resources, and increase property-related income of migrant workers. Comparing the welfare changes before and after the construction of a house can improve understanding of the impact of returning home to build a house on migrant workers’ families and provide a basis for the government to formulate policies.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Impact of informal institutions and environmental regulations on farmers’ green production behavior: Based on survey data of 1105 households in Hubei Province
    Fenni LI, Junbiao ZHANG, Ke HE
    2019, 41 (7):  1227-1239.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.04
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3071KB) ( )   Save

    Relying on informal institutions and environmental regulations to regulate farmers’ green production behavior is of great significance for promoting the green transformation of agriculture and realizing agricultural sustainable development. Taking no tillage technology, organic fertilizer application technology, and “straw return to soil” technology as an example, based on the survey data of 1105 farming households in Hubei Province, and by constructing a multivariate probit model, this study analyzed the impact of informal institutions and environmental regulations on farmers’ green production behavior. The result shows that: (1) Informal institutions and environmental regulations play a significant role in promoting farmers’ green production behavior. Informal institutions promote farmers’ green production behavior through developing a new value system, monitoring and penalty, and dissemination and internalization. Environmental regulations promote farmers’ green production behavior through guidance-oriented regulation and incentive-focused regulation. (2) Prohibitive regulation in environmental regulations did not passed the significance test, which indicates “relative institutional failure” of current environmental regulations in restraining farmers’ production behavior. (3) Informal institutions and environmental regulations have certain interactive effects on farmers’ green production behavior. Informal institutions can be used as a substitute mechanism for environmental regulations to promote farmers’ participation in green production. We argue that the reason that environmental regulations show “relative institutional failure” is that informal institutions have not been given enough attention. In the future, we should not only continue to strengthen the role of environmental regulations in green production of rural households, but also cultivate informal institutions, and induce the formation of an impact mechanism in which informal institutions and environmental regulations mutually support and supplement each other.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of land management scale on fertilizer use efficiency: Taking Jiangsu as an example
    Wei ZOU, Xiaoyuan ZHANG
    2019, 41 (7):  1240-1249.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.05
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3623KB) ( )   Save

    Moderate management scale is an inexorable trend of modern agriculture development. Examining the effect of management scale on fertilizer use efficiency and whether moderate management scale can improve fertilizer use efficiency and realize zero growth of fertilizer application is of great significance for promoting sustainable development. Based on farm-level data collected from Jiangsu Province and a stochastic production frontier model, this study estimated the fertilizer use efficiency and the elasticities of land, fertilizer, and labor with respect to output. Furthermore, this study adopted the Tobit model to estimate the main factors influencing fertilizer use efficiency. The empirical results show that the average fertilizer use efficiency was 0.53 in Jiangsu, implying that about 47% fertilizer was not effectively absorbed by crops. Farm size has significantly different impacts on fertilizer use efficiency, expansion of large-scale farms would increase fertilizer use efficiency, whereas expansion of small-scale farms would decrease fertilizer use efficiency, which would result in a serious waste of fertilizer. In general, the fertilizer use efficiency of Jiangsu Province is generally low, but expanding the scale of operation will help to improve the fertilizer use efficiency under certain conditions. Based on these results, we conclude that it is necessary to promote the reduction of farmers’ fertilizer use costs through the economy of scale and division of labor, guide small-scale farmers to outsource services in the fertilization process, thus reducing the once for all and over-fertilization tendency; promote precision fertilization technology by local governments to reduce the unintended excessive fertilization of farmers; and make full use of the scale of economy effects and further promote appropriate scale management.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Economic performance of livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment and influencing factors: Based on data of farms in Beijing
    Xu ZHANG, Juan QIAO, Xinqi SHEN
    2019, 41 (7):  1250-1261.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.06
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (5405KB) ( )   Save

    Pollution of livestock and poultry breeding waste seriously endangers the rural environment, but farms often lack the enthusiasm for the treatment of livestock and poultry breeding waste. Improving the economic performance of livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment will greatly improve the enthusiasm of farm owners, therefore it is very important to fully understand the economic performance of the farms and its influencing factors. In this study, we imported the data from the 2017 survey in Beijing to measure the economic performance of livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment and analyze the influencing factors using the data envelopment analysis DEA-Tobit model. From the results, we found that technology, management, and scale of waste management all have a strong support for the economic performance, and the supporting roles of technology and management are greater than scale. Other factors that have a significant positive impact on the economic performance of livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment include higher business risk preference, long-term experience in breeding, advanced method of clearing the manure, strong willingness of conducting environmental impact assessment, and high enthusiasm of the surrounding farmers to apply manure. Factors such as farmers’ willing to reduce the use of antibiotics on an appropriate basis and the high level of binding policy cognition have a significant negative impact on the economic performance. Although livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment with high environmental performance can directly lower the economic performance of farms, it can also improve social relations. The conclusions of this study have important implications for improving the enthusiasm of farm owners for livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment, thereby improving the environmental and social performance of livestock and poultry breeding waste treatment and promoting sustainable agricultural development.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Urban construction lands and their carbon emission differences east and west of the Hu Huanyong Line
    Mei ZHANG, Xianjin HUANG, Xiaowei CHUAI, Zhenyu ZHU, Yu WANG
    2019, 41 (7):  1262-1273.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.07
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (7544KB) ( )   Save

    The utilization and expansion of urban construction lands produce a large amount of carbon emissions. Revealing the differences of carbon emissions of urban construction lands on the east and west of the Hu Huanyong Line and finding the driving factors can provide important references for the coordinated development of East and West China, carbon emission reduction, and new urbanization. However, there is a lack of comparative research on the changes of urban construction land and carbon emissions in these two regions. With the help of night light remote sensing data and GIS technology, a new method of extracting urban construction land was proposed, and the urban construction lands east and west of the Hu Huanyong Line were extracted and analyzed. The carbon emissions from the urban construction lands were estimated and analyzed through applying the carbon emission estimation methods of relevant literature. Based on these results, the correlations between urban construction lands and carbon emissions were analyzed. Combining with socioeconomic data, the results were discussed in depth. This work indicates that: (1) The results of the boundary-threshold method were better than that of the empirical threshold method and the neighborhood analysis method. (2) The Hu Huanyong Line has the possibility to be broken. From 2000 to 2013, the ratio of the areas of urban construction lands between the east and the west lowered from 95:5 to 92:8. (3) The rapid development of the western regions is at the cost of high carbon emissions. The ratio of annual carbon emissions between the east and the west lowered from 93:7 to 90:10. (4) According to the average level, when the urban construction land in the east and west increased by 1 km2, annual carbon emissions of urban construction land increased by 17.94 thousand tons and 25.75 thousand tons, respectively. While continuing to pay attention to the eastern regions with a large amount of carbon emissions, China should also pay attention to the exacerbating problem of high carbon emissions in the western regions. Methods such as promoting intensive use of urban construction land, optimizing industrial structure, and advocating a green and low-carbon lifestyle can be taken to help the western regions to embark on a new road of intensive and low-carbon urbanization.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Driving factors of carbon productivity changes in China’s construction industry
    Puwei ZHANG, Guangshe JIA, Changquan HE, Nikhaphone MACKHAPHONH
    2019, 41 (7):  1274-1285.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.08
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3660KB) ( )   Save

    Under the requirements of green development, the driving factors for the change of carbon productivity in China’s construction industry should be analyzed in great depth. This study measured single factor carbon productivity (SFCP) and global total factor carbon productivity (GTFCP) of the construction industry in China from 2005 to 2016. Correlation test was used to verify the relationship between SFCP and GTFCP, additive logarithmic mean Divisia index (A-LMDI) method was applied to decompose the driving factors of SFCP changes, and data envelopment analysis (DEA) method was applied to decompose the driving factors of GTFCP changes. The results show that: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between SFCP and GTFCP. (2) Technological innovation was the positive driving force, and regional adjustment was the negative driving force of SFCP. Between 2008 and 2011, technological innovation and regional adjustment had the greatest impact on SFCP. Technological innovation in Sichuan Province and regional adjustment in Guangdong Province had the greatest impact on SFCP. (3) Technological progress was the positive driving force, and management efficiency and scale efficiency were the negative driving forces of GTFCP. Between 2011 and 2014, technological progress and management efficiency had the greatest impact on GTFCP. Between 2005 and 2008, scale efficiency had the greatest impact on GTFCP. Technological progress in Jiangxi Province, scale efficiency in Hainan Province, and management efficiency in Guizhou Province had the greatest impact on GTFCP. Based on the above conclusions, corresponding management implications and limitation were summarized.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Simulation of greenhouse gas emission reduction years after the conversion of cropland into paddy field in southern China
    Miaomiao ZHAO, Rui SHAO, Renqiang LI, Jilin YANG, Ming XU
    2019, 41 (7):  1286-1294.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.09
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4283KB) ( )   Save

    Agricultural production activities are one of the main sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Different crop cultivation systems and management methods will affect greenhouse gas emissions. There have been a lot of researches on the laws and control mechanisms of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions at home and abroad, but there are relatively few studies on the laws and influence mechanisms of greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, greenhouse gas fluxes new paddy fields (just converted from paddy fields to rice fields) in 2013-2016 and old paddy(which have been rice fields for the past 20 years) fields in 2016 as well as soil micro-meteorological and other physical and chemical properties were observed using a field plot experiment at the Qianyanzhou Ecological Station of the Chinese Academy Sciences in southern China. Then, seasonal and annual variation of greenhouse gas fluxes and the main factors that impacting greenhouse gas fluxes were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the dynamic changes of greenhouse gas emissions in rice fields are predicted. The results show that in the first four years after land-use conversion, CH4 emission fluxes in the new paddy fields were significantly lower than that in the old paddy fields, and annual emission increased with the extension of farming period, while the CH4 emission rate of old rice fields is not obvious, whereas the difference in emission of the greenhouse gases CO2 and N2O were not significant. Moreover, soil pH and the soil organic carbon content of new rice fields were lower than that of old paddy fields. The model simulation results show that shortening paddy field rotation (water-dry rotation) period (less than 7 years) can effectively reduce CH4 and total greenhouse gas emissions in paddy fields. The results suggest that using the CH4 emission coefficient of old rice fields may significantly overestimate CH4 emissions from new rice fields. This study may provide new insights for understanding the impact of land- use change on greenhouse gas emissions, and provide a basis for accurate estimation of regional agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and the development of emission reduction policies.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Convergence analysis of interregional differences of economic growth pattern and energy intensity:An empirical study based on provincial data from 2001 to 2016 in China
    Wangsheng MENG
    2019, 41 (7):  1295-1305.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.10
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2972KB) ( )   Save

    The economic growth pattern transformation and energy use efficiency are the two important aspects of high-quality development, their convergence analysis among different regions has a great significance to resolving the main social conflicts effectively, enhancing the quality of economic development and residents’ happiness. This study iintroduces the intensive degree of economic growth as an indicator of economic growth pattern transformation and construcs a panel data model with lagging adjustment based on the provincial data from 2001 to 2016 in China, to analyze the convergence of economic growth pattern transformation among different regions, the convergence relationship between the difference of energy consumption intensity and the difference of economic growth pattern transformation among different regions. The reasons of the observed relationship are analyzed from the perspective of influencing factors of the transformation of economic growth pattern. The conclusions are as follows: (1) In the whole country and in the three regions of the east, the middle and the west, the intensive degree of economic growth tends to converge; (2) In the whole country and in the regions of the middle and the west, energy consumption intensity shows a divergent trend with the convergence of economic growth intensive degree; In eastern region, energy consumption intensity shows a converging trend as economic growth intensive degree converges; (3) Differences in industrial structure, fixed asset investment structure of energy and non-energy industries, and energy price in different regions, are important reasons for the different convergence characteristics that of the energy consumption intensity changes along with the intensive degree of economic growth in different regions.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Impact of government policy and market competition on renewable energy innovation in EU countries
    Yang LI
    2019, 41 (7):  1306-1316.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.11
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (5072KB) ( )   Save

    Renewable energy technological innovation plays a key role in coping with climate change and promoting energy transformation. The report of the 19th National Congress of China proposes to build a market-oriented green technology innovation system. To examine whether market force can promote renewable energy technological innovation more effectively than government policy, we made an empirical analysis by linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic panel empirical methods based on transnational panel data of the European Union, which is the world leader in renewable energy technology, environmental policy implementation, and energy market liberation. The results show that: (1) On the whole, both government environmental policy and market competition have a positive impact on renewable energy patents, that is, they have significant inducing effects on renewable energy technological innovation. (2) Both government environmental policy and market competition have significant non-linear threshold effect on renewable energy patents. With the increasing intensity of the government’s environmental policy, its positive impact on renewable energy technological innovation gradually decreases, that is, the inducing effect of policy is limited. With the deepening of energy market competition, the positive impact of market competition on renewable energy technological innovation increases, that is, market competition is effective and continuous in inducing renewable energy technological innovation. (3) By comparing the current situation and threshold values, we found that the majority of countries have crossed the threshold. That is, environmental policy intensity is too high, but market competition is in the appropriate threshold regime. (4) By examining renewable energy policy, we found that the impacts of different renewable energy policies on renewable energy technological innovation are heterogeneous. The results can provide some policy basis for China to achieve energy transformation, deepen the reform of electric power system, and establish a unified green certificate trading system of renewable energy.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Safety assessment and countermeasures of nickel resource supply in China
    Yufang MA, Jinghua SHA, Jingjing YAN, Quanwen LIU, Songmei FAN, Gengyu HE, Ping ZHOU
    2019, 41 (7):  1317-1328.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.12
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (5492KB) ( )   Save

    Nickel is a scarce mineral resource in China. In recent years, China’s nickel resources are facing a severe supply situation due to the extensive use of nickel in stainless steel and new energy batteries. In order to study the supply security of China’s nickel resources, an evaluation index system for the supply security of nickel resources in China from domestic safety sources and foreign safety sources is constructed in the paper. The two security sources include five security categories: resource stock, resource supply and demand, resource development, international production and marketing, and international market price. There are one or two safety indicators in each security category, and there are eight safety indicators in total. According to the index system, the comprehensive score of China’s nickel resources supply security from 2000 to 2016 is calculated by using the entropy method, and then the radar method is used to try to find out the main factors affecting the safety of China’s nickel resources supply in 2016. The evaluation results show that the comprehensive score of China’s nickel resources supply security continued to decline and the supply risk continued to increase in 2000-2016. In 2016, factors affecting supply safety were mainly reduced reserves, increased consumption, great dependence on foreign resources, reduced investment in exploration, great policy changes in major importing countries, and the concentration of world nickel production. According to the results of the evaluation, a number of security measures were put forward: increasing the investment in exploration, improving the development level, improving the two recovery rates, strengthening the research and development of nickel resource saving technology in the stainless steel industry, and developing a foreign market of nickel resources. The targeted policy recommendations will help to improve the safety level of nickel supply in China in the future.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Differences in farming households’ cognition of ownership adjustment benefits in rural land consolidation and causes
    Wenxiong WANG, Zhiqiang LIU
    2019, 41 (7):  1329-1338.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.13
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4013KB) ( )   Save

    As the core link of rural land consolidation work, ownership adjustment plays an irreplaceable role in reducing land fragmentation, improving mechanization of agricultural production, and resolving disputes over the ownership of agricultural land. As the main beneficiaries of rural land consolidation project, farmers’ cognition of ownership adjustment is the key to promoting their participation. Based on the field survey data of 11 counties of Hubei Province, this study examined differences of various types of farming households in their cognition of ownership adjustment in rural land consolidation and influencing factors by applying ordered logistic regression analysis. The results show that: (1) The behavioral attitude of four types of farming households (agricultural, heavily agricultural-oriented, lightly agricultural-oriented, and nonagricultural) are generally high, the subjective norms are generally not high, while the perceived behavioral control are generally low; (2) Different types of farming households showed significant differences in behavioral attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, as well as their influencing factors. Based on these results, policy recommendations were put forward, including strengthening the differentiation of public campaign work for different households in rural land ownership adjustment, as well as mobilizing various rural social economic organizations in coordinating the interest of farmers, strengthening relevant training of ownership adjustment, and the full demonstration of farmers with higher cognitive attitudes, to improve farmers’ understanding and facilitate ownership adjustment in rural land consolidation work.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Rent-free land transfer in mountainous areas and its explanation
    Yahui WANG, Xiubin LI, Liangjie XIN
    2019, 41 (7):  1339-1349.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.14
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4381KB) ( )   Save

    In recent years, rent-free land transfer in mountainous areas is increasingly prominent. Clarifying the extent of land transfer without rent in rural China and its explanation is of great value for the development of land rental market. On the basis of theoretical inference, the extent of rent-free land transfer was estimated at the land parcel scale and the Logit model was developed to empirically evaluate the impact of transaction costs on such transfer based on the survey data of farming households from Yongchuan District, Zhongxian County, and Youyang County of Chongqing Municipality. The results show that the proportion of the land parcels transferred at zero rent in the case study areas reached 78.62%, among which 75.47% of the land parcels were transferred to relatives or acquaintances. The empirical modeling results show that the existence of three types of transaction costs significantly increased the probability of rent-free land transfer. Low-cost brokerage, third-party coordination organizations, and signing of standardized written contracts in the process of land circulation can significantly reduce the probability of rent-free land transfer. The decline in rent caused by the marginalization of mountainous land is the root cause of rent-free land transfer, and high transaction cost is one of the important reasons for this type of transfer. The policy implication is that the reform of land system should focus on reducing all kinds of transaction costs faced by land transfer in mountainous areas. Low-cost transfer platforms as nodes at the county or township level should be established and guide the parties to sign standardized written contracts. In addition, the government should pay attention to the abandonment of cultivated land in mountainous areas and the depreciation of farmers’ cultivated land assets.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Land demands for food consumption in Beijing during 1980-2016
    Jiajing DONG, Yang ZHAO, Chongyang WANG, Xiao XIAO, Dan ZHANG, Litao LIU, Xiaojie LIU, Yali ZHANG, Fei LUN
    2019, 41 (7):  1350-1358.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.15
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4092KB) ( )   Save

    The contradiction between socioeconomic development and land demands for food consumption has become one of the key issues for sustainable development. However, there is a lack of studies on land demands for food consumption at the urban level. Therefore, this study used the CPI index method to estimate food consumption of urban and rural residents in Beijing during 1980-2016. Based on the concept of virtual land, it revealed land demands as well as pressures due to human dietary change. We also explored land demands for food consumption under different scenarios in the future. Our results are as follows: human food consumption in Beijing has changed to more vegetables, fruits, and livestock products, and there are obvious differences in food consumption of urban and rural residents. Land demands for food consumption presented a U-shaped trend during this period. The per capita land demand for meat, eggs and milk, vegetables, and fruits increased significantly, while land demands for cereals have been decreasing. In 2016, land demands per capita for food consumption amounted to 1227.04 m2/a, resulting in the total land demands of 266.62×104 hm2, with animal product consumption accounting for 70.36% and urban consumption accounting for more than 95%; and the pressure index for land demands reached 14. With a healthier diet, it could save 95.20×104 ~153.32×104 hm2 of land, equivalent to 5~8 times of present arable land area in Beijing. Thus, to some extent, a healthy food dietary structure could also alleviate the pressure of land demands for human food consumption.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Zoning of agroecological management based on the relationship between supply and demand of ecosystem services
    Qingchun GUAN, Jinmin HAO, Yueqing XU, Guoping REN, Lei KANG
    2019, 41 (7):  1359-1373.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.16
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (11057KB) ( )   Save

    Ecosystem services are the basis for human survival and development. Clarifying the relationship between supply and demand of ecosystem services and applying differentiated management and control can contribute to human well-being. This research aimed at characterizing the relationship between supply and demand of agroecosystem services and their spatial heterogeneity. It used ecosystem service matrix based on land use and cover change data to obtain ecosystem service capability in different spaces. Two indices—supply and demand matching degree and coordination degree—were formulated to evaluate the agroecosystem service status and sustainability of administrative village units in Quzhou County in 2015. Based on the characteristics of local spatial agglomeration, the agroecosystem management areas of Quzhou County were divided, and the management measures for the districts were put forward by using local spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results show that: (1) Supply and demand matching degree and coordination degree can realize the overall evaluation of natural resources in the region. (2) The spatial differences of the supply and demand matching degree and coordination degree of agroecosystem services in Quzhou County in 2015 were obvious. The matching degree of Quzhou County was 1.0647, which was at the general equilibrium level, indicating that the supply and demand of agroecosystem services was in an equilibrium state. The coordination degree of Quzhou County was 0.8977, which was in a state of good coordination, indicating that the sustainability of regional ecosystem services was high. (3) The 339 administrative village units in Quzhou County can be divided into four primary agroecological management areas and 12 secondary agroecological management subareas. Differential management measures are proposed for the ecological areas: Ecological conservation area shall be protected strictly and large-scale construction is prohibited. Ecological protection area shall be protected comprehensively to improve production efficiency. Ecological improvement area should implement comprehensive improvement measures in order to improve the ecosystem. Ecological reconstruction area should implement overall ecological rehabilitation and targeted ecological reconstruction. This study can provide some references for the fine management and differential protection of regional ecosystem services.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Change of grassland vegetation and driving factors based on MODIS/NDVI in Xilingol, China
    Rong A, Qige BI, Zhenhua DONG
    2019, 41 (7):  1374-1386.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.17
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (10702KB) ( )   Save

    Grassland degradation has become an important ecological problem, seriously affecting the social and economic development of northern China. Based on MODIS/NDVI datasets, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of change in vegetation cover and their linkages with climate change and human activities from 2000 to 2015 in the typical grassland region of Xilingol in northern China. The results indicate that NDVI increased significantly, at a growth rate of 0.0021/a. But the trend of vegetation coverage change differed spatially, especially in some areas of northwest Otindag Sandy Land and Sonid Right and Sonid Left Banners, where grassland degradation has occurred. The degraded area accounted for 1/5 of the total, and the grassland vegetation cover in other areas clearly increased. Compared with temperature, precipitation is the main factor affecting vegetation cover change in the study area. Human activities play both a positive and a negative role in improving and degrading grassland vegetation, and the positive effect of human activities on vegetation is greater than the negative effect in Xilingol during 2000-2015. The area of positive human interference accounted for 34.911% of the total, while human activities led to the destruction of the ecological environment of 19.348% of the area. The returning farmland to forest and grassland program, the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source control project, the Three-North shelter forest project, and other ecological engineering programs promoted vegetation coverage growth. However, the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, overgrazing, excessive land reclamation, and other human activities led to decreased vegetation coverage.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
Share: