Table of Content

    25 January 2019, Volume 41 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Unified management of natural resources: a new era, new characteristics, and new trend
    Xianjin HUANG
    2019, 41 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.01
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    Both the development goal of beautiful China and the national strategy of ecological civilization construction put forward a higher requirement for the management of natural resources in the new era. It is an inevitable requirement for the harmonious coexistence between human beings and nature to unify management of natural resources. In addition, it is a basic character for the sustainable development of mankind. This study has revealed basic characteristics and significance of natural resources based on integrality, region, systematisms, and property. We also summarize the strategies, foundation, and applications of natural resources science and technology support in the new era of land maintenance. Through the accumulation of relevant study, we further explore the new trend of scientific and technological support for the unified management of natural resources in three aspects: the revelation of the overall characteristics, the recognition of systematic laws, and the discovery of correlation relations.

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    Study on the transformation of cropland protection under the background of rehabilitation system
    Yuzhe WU, Zhiyi XU
    2019, 41 (1):  9-22.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.02
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    China has implemented the most stringent cropland protection system in the world with remarkable results. On the background of the new era, the government has initiated a implementation plan for the rehabilitating of cultivated land, grassland, rivers and lakes, as well as the protection and improvement of the "trinity" of the quantity, quality, and ecology of cropland. However, the supporting cropland system is obviously lagging, which seriously affects the promotion of cropland protection. This paper analyzes the realistic pulse of the protection system of cropland from the following aspects: the analysis of the rehabilitation concept, the problems such as the inconsistency of basic data in the system of cultivated land protection in China, the unscientific system of occupation and compensation, and the failure to establish a spatial planning system for cultivated land and the evolution of the protection system of international farm land. We also characterize the institutional mechanism of the transformation of cropland protection from four aspects: the temporal and spatial pattern, the quality, the security, and the incentive mechanism of farm land. It is the time-space pattern of “one line, one belt, three districts, and six spaces,” the quality management of refined farmland, the incentive mechanism of cultivated land security protection, ecological compensation, and ecological cultural cognition based on Living Cropland Index. From the forward-looking vision of ecological integration and cultural development, the framework of the ecological pattern of sustainable development of farm land has been constructed. It has a significant reference to improve the current farm land protection system in China, to adapt to the implementation of practical work, and to promote to the overall goal of ecological civilization-oriented cropland protection system in China.

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    Issues regarding on spatial pattern change of national land space and its overall implementation onbeautiful vision in new era
    Wenhui KUANG
    2019, 41 (1):  23-32.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.03
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    Accurately delineating the background of China's land space pattern change since the 21st century and planning the future control of national land space scientifically and effectively is an important measure to realize the centralized management of landscape natural resources and China's beautiful vision. This study systematically identified the scientific connotation of the spatial pattern optimization and regulation. Then, the spatiotemporal characteristics of the national land space change since the 21st century were analyzed. Finally, we proposed the optimal allocation of the 2035 and 2050 beautiful vision and regulating modes of the realization of this vision. China has experienced rapid urban and industrial land expansion, arable land reduction, "grain for green" and other modes of land development and ecological protection in the 21st century. In the new era, it is necessary to strengthen the land space management and control of different development intensity types (artificial constructing activities, agricultural developing activities and natural ecosystem protection). It is also essential to strengthen the optimization of the internal structure of each ecosystem type and the improvement of quality to achieve the national food security, ecological security and sustainable development goals. At the same time, on the basis of the state detection, problem diagnosis and controlling threshold definition of the national land space background, the beautiful vision of 2035 and 2050 will be achieved. On the background of unified management of natural resources and the integration of multiple plans, the basic farmland protection and quality improvement, ecological grass and animal husbandry construction development, and the "target-oriented high-ranking examples" livable urban environment should be attached to the realization of the future vision of the national natural ecosystem protection.

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    Study on the resource environment, economy and urbanization situation and green rise strategy in Central China
    Suocheng DONG, Dan SHI, Fujia LI, Jiajun LIU, Fei LI, Zhenyu YE, Zehong LI, Yu LI, Rongxia ZHANG, Yang REN, Jingnan LI, Wenbiao ZHANG
    2019, 41 (1):  33-42.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.04
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    Central China has the geographical advantages of locating at the transition point of the east and the west of China, and connecting the south and north of China, which is a key development zone for the regional harmonious development of the country. The central region is the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the Yellow River Economic Belt crossing the driving region. It is the regional development strategy of the country's overall development strategy. It is the rising and radiating region of the central urban agglomerations. It is an important industrial transfer bearing area and a regional coordinated development of China. In recent years, the level of urbanization in the central region has been continuously improved and the economic strength has been greatly improved. It has entered a new stage of accelerating development and comprehensive rise. A series of serious environmental problems have emerged. It is urgent to seek a green road to rise. Based on the judgment of the basic situation of economic and social development and urbanization in the central region, this study conducts a comparative analysis of the typical resource and environmental problems. We further identify that its pollution situation is aggravating. Based on the environmental Kuznets curve and the system dynamics model, the analysis shows that the economic growth and environmental pollution in the central region continue the trend of traditional “first pollution after treatment” model. The main pollutant emission reduction input path is refined. In the future, the central region should actively respond to the green rising strategy, establish and improve the ecological compensation and pollution joint prevention and control mechanism, promote the optimization of industrial structure, and explore a new mechanism for coordinated and sustainable development of the economy, society and resources.

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    Study on the coordination mechanism between strategies of Northeast China revitalization and development of RussianFar East and Baikal region
    Yang YANG, Suocheng DONG, Fujia LI, Hao CHENG, Qian LIU, Zehong LI, Yu LI
    2019, 41 (1):  43-52.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.05
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    Under regional development strategies such as the construction of China—Mongolia—Russia Economic Corridor, the revitalization of Northeast China and the development of Russian Far East and Baikal region, strengthening coordination mechanism study between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region is of great significance to promote the mutual development of the above regions. This paper comprehensively evaluates the economic development level of Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal Region. It is concluded that the economic aggregate level, industrialization level, and infrastructure level of Northeast China is much higher than that of Russian Far East and Baikal Region. However, the degree of opening—up and economic growth potential is lower than that of Russian Far East and Baikal Region. Based on this, the current study deeply analyzed the coordination of Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region in the aspects of economic development demand, resource advantage, production capacity demand, and regional development strategies. It is found that the economic development demand, resource advantage, production capacity demand, and regional development strategies are highly coordinated. Strengthening cooperation between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region will not only alleviate the problems of economic downturn, resource exhaustion, and production overcapacity in Northeast China, promote its economic recovery, but also greatly promote the economic development of Russian Far East and Baikal region. Then, six cooperation priorities between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region including the interconnectivity of transportation infrastructure, energy and mineral resources cooperation, ports construction, superior productivity cooperation, agricultural cooperation, and labor service cooperation are proposed. This study will provide scientific support and theoretical guidance for the practical cooperation between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region.

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    Framework and basic issues of promoting development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing
    Chang WANG, Hongjun GENG, Huiling SONG, Qiao SUN, Fenghua LU
    2019, 41 (1):  53-62.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.06
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    With the next science and technology revolution and the industrial transformation background, intelligent manufacturing has become the mainly focused development trend of China's manufacturing industry. However, the lagging development of advanced materials has restricted China’s manufacturing industry structure adjustment and upgrading transition process. It has recently become an urgent concern to promoting development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing. Previous studies mainly focused on the innovation evolution, technological innovation, commercialization, national policies of advanced materials; little attention was paid to the identification of the strategy and development direction of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing. Based on advanced materials intrinsic characteristics of technology uncertainty and market uncertainty, this study argues that the development of advanced materials is determined by its technological innovation capacity and commercial capability. Thus, to promote the breakthrough development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing, we should clearly characterize the following basic problems: "how to recognize the law of innovation of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing and grasp the trend of advanced materials innovation " and "how to identify the strategic intervention link of promoting breakthrough development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing and construct the national strategy system of promoting breakthrough development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing." According to the two basic problems, we suggest that future research on advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing should focus on development rules and trend, technological innovation breakthrough path, commercialization mode, strategies and polices. This study can provides a theoretical and policy support for the industrial development of China's advanced materials and realization of the strategic goal of manufacturing power.

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    Trend of ecological degradation and restoration technology requirement in typical ecological vulnerable regions
    Lin ZHEN, Yunfeng HU, Yunjie WEI, Qi LUO, Yueqi HAN
    2019, 41 (1):  63-74.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.07
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    Over the past decades, ecological degradation was grim on global level, especially in typical ecological vulnerable regions. To combat such degradation issues, tremendous efforts have been made among the scientific community, decision makers, and practitioners in the world. A lot of restoration technologies have been developed and applied, which played a key role in restoring and mitigating degraded ecosystems. However, some of the restoration technologies ignored the real needs on the ground and thus affected their applications. This paper aims to describe the trend of ecological degradation at the global level in general and China in specific, assess the technological needs for restoration using data and information from interviews of stakeholders from 18 countries, and 21 assessment reports from international organizations. The results illustrate that the major degradation issues in the vulnerable regions include soil and water erosion, desertification, rock desertification, and ecosystem degradation. Over the past 15 years (2000-2014), degradations in overwhelming majority of the regions remained unchanged or improved, about 22% (global level) and 11% (in China) of the regions exhibited a worsening trend. Technology needs for restoration varied among the regions, indicating an increasing trend in demanding combination of different technologies, rather than single technology, which gave the complexity of degradation issues and their impact on socio-economic development of the region. It is recommended that selection and application of restoration technology shall consider specific degradation issue, phase and drivers of degradation, as well as local conditions including economic, cultural, policy, and institutional settings. Technology required assessment is vital for identifying suitable restoration measures, investigating potential areas for exporting and importing technologies, and promoting ecological construction of China.

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    Evaluation and spatio-temporal analysis for agricultural water poverty in China
    Hua ZHANG, Lili WANG
    2019, 41 (1):  75-86.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.08
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    In this paper, the concept of "agricultural water poverty" is put forward under the guided by the idea of improving the efficiency of water use in agriculture. Based on the conceptual definition and evaluation index system of agricultural water poverty, the POME-two-level fuzzy pattern recognition model was used to evaluate the agricultural water poverty index of 30 provinces (cities) in China from 2000 to 2016 under the common constraints of existing water resource endowment, water supply facilities, water resource use, ecological environment and social economy, education and people's life. Then calculated by Exploratory Time-space Data Analysis (ESTDA) to analysis its dynamic spatial and temporal pattern from the perspective of time and space coupling. The results show that: Although China has a serious problem of agricultural water poverty, the degree of agricultural water poverty in most provinces (cities) is alleviating. The agricultural water poverty of provinces (cities) in most years has a significant spatial negative correlation, and the spatial difference is gradually expanding. Compared with the southwest region, south China and east China have more dynamic local spatial structure. The spatial and temporal dependence is weak in northeast and northwest China. The spatial pattern of agricultural water poverty has strong spatial integration, the provinces (cities) that showed the same trend increased are mainly distributed in East China and South China, and the provinces (cities) that showed the same trend decreased are mainly distributed in the northern regions. The local spatial linkage of agricultural water poverty in provinces (cities) is relatively weak, and the spatial clustering has relatively high path-locking characteristics. In addition, the countermeasures and suggestions for reducing agricultural water poverty are put forward to provide reference for China's agricultural water resources management and sustainable development.

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    Path characterization of water resources scarcity perception's effects on farmers' groundwater usage efficiency——empirical study based on 1168 survey data of Well-irrigated District in North China
    Xin WANG, Qian LU
    2019, 41 (1):  87-97.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.09
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    This study classified water scarcity perception into five dimensions: water quantity shortage recognition, water table decline recognition, risk recognition, well usage experience, and irrigation experience. Then, we characterized the water scarcity perception's effect path on groundwater use efficiency (GWUE) through theoretical and empirical approach by the application of marginal structure model (MSM) reverse weighted probability (IPW) estimation which erased the influence of pseudo-correlation factors such as climate and resource endowment based on 1168 farmers' survey data Well-irrigated District in North China. The results demonstrated that: the average score of farmers' groundwater use efficiency was 0.743. There is still a large space for improvement in the utilization of groundwater resources. Water scarcity perception would have a direct and or indirect effect on GWUE, while indirect effect plays a more important role than direct effect. Direct effect on GWUE was identified positively through two factors: water quantity shortage recognition and water table decline recognition, that is, the higher level of water quantity shortage recognition and water table decline recognition, the higher GWUE. Indirect effects of water scarcity perception on GWUE are observed through farmers' behavior such as groundwater over-exploitation, water-saving behavior, and water conservancy facilities maintenance. There are interactive effects among risk cognition, irrigation experience, and behavior decision. High level of risk cognition leads to frequent groundwater over-exploitation behavior, which reduces GWUE. Farmers with worse experience in using irrigation systems would have a stronger willingness to maintain water conservancy facilities, so as to improve GWUE. Farmers' water-saving behavior is beneficial to increase GWUE. In addition, the level of farmers’ education has a significant positive effect on the groundwater usage efficiency. If the levels of education are improved in one degree, the utilization efficiency of groundwater increases by 0.026 units.

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    Study on the improvement path of water resource utilization efficiency from the perspective of public products
    Junpeng LI, Fengyi ZHENG, Zhongchao FENG
    2019, 41 (1):  98-112.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.10
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    Based on the variable capital depreciation rate (capital depreciation rate changes with time, space, and specific infrastructure) and the SBM model considering unsatisfactory output, the capital stock and water resource utilization efficiency of China's inter-provincial water conservancy facilities were estimated in this study. On the basis of controlling variable such as the structure of water resources utilization and government regulation, this paper implemented a Tobit Spatial Dobbin Econometric Model (Tobit-SDM) to analyze the provincial panel data of China from 2002 to 2016 and explore the spatial impact (direct influence and spillover effect) of water conservancy facilities on water resources utilization efficiency. It is found that: (1) the impact of water conservancy facilities on water resources utilization efficiency was obviously lagging behind, and it exhibited an "inverted U type". (2) the level of water conservancy facilities in China is still on the left side of the "inverted u-shaped" curve, i. e. , water conservancy facilities improve the allocation efficiency of water resources among regions, reduce the unsatisfactory output of water resources utilization, and improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in the local region and other regions. In other words, the impact of water conservancy facilities demonstrates a significant positive direct influence and spillover effect. Based on the conclusions above, it is believed that the construction of regional water conservancy facilities needs to be placed in a broader perspective, to achieve the support and coordination of regional construction, to avoid duplication or excessive investment and construction, and to make full use of the spillover effects of water conservancy facilities. In addition, it is also a feasible measure to optimize the industrial allocation and realize the rational allocation of water resources to promote the endogenous growth of water use efficiency.

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    New energy technology innovation effect of key industrial policy
    Le XU, Lingdi ZHAO
    2019, 41 (1):  113-131.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.11
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    Could industrial policy successfully induce new energy technology innovation plays an important role in building a clean energy system and a green technology innovation system. It is vital to promote China's industrial energy revolution and green development. Establishing the Quasi-Natural Experiment according to the key industrial policy in national and provincial governments’ “Five-Year Plan” and combining the panel data of new energy patents which is matched to the industrial sectors of use in China during 2006 to 2015, the current study examines the impacts and mechanisms of key industrial policy on new energy technology innovation from the demand side with fixed effect model, difference-in-difference method, and triple difference method. The findings show that the key industrial policy significantly promotes new energy technology innovation. However, the effects of key industrial policies differ significantly from each other due to different governments, implemented regions, and industrial characteristics. In terms of different governments, the key industrial policy that promoted by national government and provincial governments synchronously has a stronger impact on new energy technology innovation. In terms of different regions, the implementation of key industrial policy in the eastern region is better. In terms of different industries, new energy technology innovation in high-tech industries requires a higher quality industrial policy environment. From the perspective of mechanisms, the key industrial policy promotes new energy technology innovation by foreign investment and inhibits new energy technology innovation through environment regulation. However, the market competition mechanism is polarized. On the one hand, it can positively promote municipalities’ new energy technology innovation. Alternatively, it postpones new energy technology innovation in general provinces. The central government and local governments should combine development practices and form the “industrial policy synergy” to promote new energy technology innovation.

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    The behavior options for energy terminal consumption: flexible driving force of environmental concern
    Haoyue PENG, Guohao ZHAO
    2019, 41 (1):  132-141.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.12
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    The reduction of carbon emissions has been a common vision for the whole world. When the public use much more energy to satisfy their daily life, household energy consumption has become the second largest part in our country. In order to lower down the total carbon emission of China and make a better place to live, it is very important to help the public making rational low-carbon behavior choices. With theoretical analysis and literature review, the article constructed a theoretical framework for the public energy consumption. The results showed that, as the major environmental awareness, the environmental concern quality had deep inner connections with residents’ energy saving behaviors. By using the Grounded theory, from the face to face interviews of 41 interviewees, with the open coding and axis coding technology, the research revealed main factors influencing the formation of environmental concern quality. Further, authors used structural equation to test the influence significance between such major factors and the public energy saving behaviors. From putting forward 6 main hypotheses and building up 3 structural equation models, the article wiped out the wrong hypotheses and calculated each path coefficient. Based on the analysis, there were three conclusions. The first, there were 9 elements, economic development, geographical conditions, household income, the number of family member, education level, age, job type, gender and ecological behavior awareness, affecting the level of environmental concern. The second, the maturity of ecological technology and the convenience of ecological facilities could adjust the driving force of environmental concern for the residents’ energy saving behaviors. The third, shaping the ecological culture, promoting the eco-technological innovation, establishing the post-materialist consumption values and lifting the economic rewarding of energy saving behaviors would contribute to the green energy terminal consumption.

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    Threshold effect of merchandise export structure on carbon productivity
    Guilan SHAO, Yao CHANG, Chen LI
    2019, 41 (1):  142-151.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.13
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    In the face of global warming and the increasing pressure of international carbon emission reduction, the development of a low-carbon economy has become a common concern in all countries. The core of the development of a low-carbon economy is to improve the carbon productivity which can measure the economic benefits of carbon emissions per unit. Therefore, the identification of the factors of carbon productivity will provide an empirical evidence for increasing carbon productivity in various countries and exhibit a reference for reducing carbon emission intensity in China. Based on the 1996-2014 annual data of 36 countries, this study adopted a panel threshold model to study the threshold of merchandise exports structure for carbon productivity by using the economic development level and technology level threshold variables and learn how to use this influence to improve carbon productivity. The results demonstrate that the merchandise export structure has always been an inhibitory effect on carbon productivity, which is strong when the economic and technology development is in a relatively high level. We assume that merchandise export structure adjustment can improve carbon productivity when economic development and technology is in a proper level. In addition, the impact of merchandise export structure on carbon productivity has a significant regional difference. Based on the conclusion of this study, relevant suggestions are put forward. It is essential to optimize the structure of export commodities and improve energy efficiency from different perspectives of variable threshold system. It is also needed to solve the contradiction between carbon productivity increase and carbon emission increase, maintain appropriate economic growth rates, absorb advanced technology spillover, and improve the technical level.

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    Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of annual temperature in China's first-level basin
    Bin WANG, Peng LI, Guoce XU, Yuting CHENG, Binhua ZHAO, Fang WEI
    2019, 41 (1):  152-163.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.14
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    Temperature is one of the main factors causing the difference between the natural landscape and the ecological environment. Based on the annual temperature data of 735 meteorological stations during the period from 1951 to 2013 in China's first-level basin, the relative difference method, Hurst index and other methods were employed to identify the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of annual temperature. The results illustrated that the annual temperature in China generally showed a significant upward trend, but the annual temperature in the middle of the Yangtze River region did not change significantly. The whole China, Liao River, Hai River and Huai River, Yellow River, Yangtze River, Southwest River, Southeast River, and Pearl River region all existed the best representative meteorological sites for annual temperature. The best representative meteorological sites were Tieganlike, Zhangwu, Laoting, Heze, Haiyuan, Jinggangshan, Jiacha, Wuyishan, and Liuzhou, respectively. The main period of annual temperature change in first-level basin regions in China is approximately 40~50 years. The last 20~30 years were the warmer period, Hurst index analysis showed that the temperature will continue to rise in future for the most parts of China. The annual temperature and the annual precipitation near the connection of “Harbin-Beijing-Shijiazhuang-Xi'an-Chongqing-Guiyang” exhibited a (highly) significant negative correlation. The connection is close to “Hu Line.” The study of the climate near “Hu Line” is of great significance to the ecological environment protection and the Belt and Road strategy of our country. The Hurst index analysis, Mann-Kendall test, and Morlet wavelet analysis of the annual temperature series demonstrate that the best representative meteorological stations can reflect the regional annual temperature trends and major cyclical changes. The method of estimating the annual average temperature of a region using the annual temperature of a representative meteorological site is meaningful. The method is also of great significance for rapid assessment of regional mean annual precipitation and scaling scales.

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    Analysis on climate change characteristics in the distribution area of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) on Tibet
    Kanshe ZHOU, Jianchang HONG, Zhen LUO, Lei SHI
    2019, 41 (1):  164-175.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.15
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    It is very important to understand the climate change about distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus for the local ecological environment protection and the sustainable use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Tibet. In this paper, temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours data of 24 weather stations in the distribution area from 1981 to 2015 were analyzed with linear trend analysis, Mann-Kendall break detector based on the average annual temperature, average rainy season temperature, annual precipitation and rainy season precipitation and other data. Climate model simulation was used to estimate average annual temperature and annual precipitation in the future under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios in the distribution area. The results showed that the average annual temperature of O. sinensis in Tibet has been increasing significantly, and the warming rate in the rainy season is lower than the annual warming rate. The warming is more significant in winter or spring than summer and autumn. Simultaneously, the average maximum temperature and average minimum temperature in the annual and rainy seasons showed a significant increase trend, and the warming rate had obvious regional characteristics. The increase rates of average annual minimum temperature and average annual maximum temperature in most stations are significantly greater than the increase rate of average annual temperature. The annual rainfall is increasing at most sites, but there are large regional differences, and it was found that the annual average sunshine hours and the rainy season hours showed significant reduction trend. It is estimated that the temperature in different areas in this century will increase significantly and precipitation will increase in different periods in the future. With the local climate warming and humidity, the suitable range of elevation of O. sinensis will rise. However, There is no suitable living condition for it, the lower limit of elevation will rise directly, and the range of suitable O. sinensis will be reduced to pose a serious threat to the inducement and growth of O. sinensis.

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    Filling and comparison of the growth period data of agricultural meteorological stations
    Zhe LIU, Xuli ZAN, Wei LIU, Diyou LIU, Shaoming LI, Xiaodong ZHANG, Dehai ZHU
    2019, 41 (1):  176-184.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.16
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    Accurate data of growth period are the basis for crop growth and production process information service. The crop growth period data recorded by agricultural meteorological include a lot of growth stage period information missing. Taking the Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize area as an example, this study calculated the accumulated temperature distribution ratio combining with the daily average temperature, and filled the information of the missing stage from 2002 to 2011. Ultimately this method filled the original growth period data of 13.8%, and the error of filling method was characterized. The results demonstrated that the errors in different growth stages were inconsistent, of which the error in milky maturity stage and maturity stage was the largest. In order to compare the difference between the growth period data of agricultural meteorological stations and the national maize regional test data, a variety of interpolation methods were applied to the two sets of data. By comparing MAE (Mean Absolute Error) and RMSE (Root Mean Square Error), we chosen the Ordinary Kriging method. We compared the interpolated insults and defined difference values between [0, 5] indicating a small difference, large difference at (5, 10], and extremely difference at (10, +∞). Our result shows that, with the exception of 2006 and 2007, the majority of the two sets growth period data difference are limited, in which the difference between the two sets of growth period data was the least appeared in 2003, 2005. The difference between the two sets of growth period data was the largest in 2006. In terms of average of multiple years, there is not a significant difference in most parts of the study area, accounting for 53% of the total number of the agricultural meteorological stations. This study can be used in the filling and comparison of growth stages data in other maize growing areas or other crops.

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    "Race to the bottom" test of collaborative management in haze pollution area
    Huajun LIU, Ying PENG
    2019, 41 (1):  185-195.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.17
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    The local government’s choice in the process of regional collaborative governance of haze pollution plays an important role in haze pollution governance and even environmental governance effect. There are many studies on the competition of environmental regulation by local governments. However, the existing research on the regional strategic interaction of haze pollution governance in China has not been involved. This study extends the “race to the bottom” theory of environmental regulation to regional collaborative governance of haze pollution. From the theoretical analysis, it derives the change of local government’s behavior in the regional collaborative governance of haze pollution under the situation of different performance evaluation system. The provincial data from 2000 to 2016 in China were used to build a two-regime spatial durbin model to empirically test the “race to the bottom” in the collaborative governance of haze pollution areas in China. The results show that the local governments have the characteristics of “race to the bottom” in the regional collaborative governance of haze pollution. When the performance evaluation standard is of economic benefits, local governments will compete to relax the haze pollution governance and appear “race to the bottom” in order to take advantage of the promotion championship. With the central government taking environmental quality into the performance evaluation system, the phenomenon of “race to the bottom” has weakened. However, the existence of haze pollution spillover effects will also lead to the tendency of local governments to tackle free rides and there is still “race to the bottom”. The results of robustness test show that the conclusion of this study is robust. Therefore, in order to curb the occurrence of “race to bottom”, the central authority should be strengthened, various systems and mechanisms should be improved, and a joint effort should be formed in the process of collaborative governance of haze pollution.

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    Does the Rocky Desertification Control Project promote county economic development? An empirical analysis based on DID methods using 88 counties' panel data of Guangxi
    Juan PANG, Ruiping RAN
    2019, 41 (1):  196-206.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.18
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    The Rocky Desertification Control Project (RDCP) has become a major ecological restoration and livelihood project in the karst areas of Southwest China, which could prevent soil erosion, restore ecological environment, promote social and economic development, and improve household's livelihood. The impact of the RDCP is a major issue worthy of attention. This study theoretically analyzed the influencing mechanism of the RDCP on the development of County economic and evaluated the RDCP's economic impact based on panel data collected from 88 counties of Guangxi province from 2006 to 2016, using the Difference-in-Difference (DID) method. We first estimated the average impact of the RDCP on county economic development. Then we evaluated the dynamic impact of the RDCP, using the panel fixed effect model. The results illustrate that RDCP has a sustainably positive and statistically significant impact on the county economic development. Regardless of whether other variables are controlled, the economic development level of the treat group is significantly higher than that of the control group. Furthermore, the longer the RDCP is implemented, the greater the impact is. It means that with the help of various favorable policy measures for the RDCP, the rocky desertification areas can continuously accumulate favorable factors for economic development and form a “cyclical accumulation. ” With conducting the robustness test, we found that the results of the empirical analysis are reliable. The DID method can indeed give a reasonable estimate of the causal effects of the RDCP and county economic development. The results confirm the positive impact of the first phase of RDCP on the economic development. RDCP will have an important policy implication for the second phase of the RDCP and the establishment of relevant policies.

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