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Table of Content

    25 May 2019, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Strategic considerations and path selection for China’s participation in global energy governance
    Limao WANG, Qiushi QU, Chufu MOU, Yebing FANG, Chenran XIONG
    2019, 41 (5):  825-833.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.01
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    The current global energy governance system lacks authority, unity, and coordination and the governance structure has been in a fragmented state. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) are the world’s most influential governance organizations, representing the energy consumer and energy exporting countries respectively. The International Energy Forum (IEF) is a communication platform for energy production and consumption countries, but it is only a mechanism for dialogue and lacks organizational framework and control mechanism. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) was confined to Europe and lacks participation of big oil production and consumption countries; and the G7 and the G20 only have the function of high-level coordination, lack of practical operability, and they are a global governance system but not specific energy governance organizations. How can China play a role and participate in the current global energy governance framework? In this article, we put forward a general framework for China’s participation in global energy governance. China should use the exiting international Energy Charter Treaty as the basis of future energy governance, rely on the Belt and Road initiative, and take the energy Internet as the breakthrough point. The roadmap would be participation-integration-reforming-reshaping. China as a big energy consuming state should play a key role to improve the global energy governance system, and ultimately achieve the goal of a fair and more reasonable global energy governance system.

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    National energy efficiency of countries in the “Belt and Road”region and its decoupling from economic growth
    Li YUE, Yaqiong SONG, Lingfeng JIANG
    2019, 41 (5):  834-846.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.02
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    Increasing energy efficiency can reduce energy consumption and promote sustained economic growth in all countries. The coordinated development of energy efficiency and high quality economic growth is an essential requirement for enhancing the well-being of people in all countries. This study used Directional Distance Function (DDF) and Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index to calculate the energy efficiency of 50 countries along the Belt and Road initiative region from 1995 to 2015, and constructed a model to explore the “decoupling” relationship between economic growth and energy consumption and energy efficiency. The study found that: (1) From 1995 to 2015, the overall energy efficiency of the countries in the Belt and Road region averaged 0.682, first falling then rising, reaching a peak of 0.833 in 2008, and then fluctuating with a falling trend; (2) In 1995-2015, energy efficiency of these countries increased by 17.5%. The catch-up efficiency and technological progress contribution rates were 7.2% and 10.0%, respectively, which jointly promoted the improvement of energy efficiency. Except for the negative growth of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Energy efficiency in other regions has increased to varying degrees; (3) Decoupling between economic growth and energy consumption and energy efficiency of the Belt and Road countries is determined by continuing to reduce energy consumption, improve energy efficiency, and promote economic growth, and it has gone through a process of drifting away from weak decoupling, weak decoupling, and again drifting away from weak decoupling. Therefore in the future, countries should start with focusing on catching-up efficiency and technological progress, improve energy efficiency, and achieve a strong decoupling between economic growth and energy consumption, a weak decoupling between economic growth and energy efficiency, or a negative decoupling relationship.

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    Measurement and influencing factors of the growth drag of energy in China
    Pinjie XIE, Zhuowen MU
    2019, 41 (5):  847-859.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.03
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    Studying the influencing factors and the mechanism of growth drag of energy can provide new ideas for solving the problem in China’s economic development. Based on provincial panel data, this study measured the growth drag of energy of 30 provinces in China from 1997 to 2016 by using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The dynamic panel model was used to empirically analyze the influencing factors at the national and group levels. The results show that: (1) Growth drag of energy is a constraint in China, which shows different characteristics in different development periods. (2) The results of the national level analyses show that lag term of growth drag, industrial structure, economic development level, and energy price have a significant positive effect on the growth drag of energy. The level of input in science and technology, level of urbanization, and energy structure have negative contributions, which are conducive to the reduction of grow drag. (3) The results of the group level analyses show that lag item of growth drag, economic development level, and energy price are still unfavorable factors that promote growth drag, while industrial structure, level of input in science and technology, level of urbanization, and energy structure have double sided effects, which differ in different groups. Based on these conclusions, this article provides some recommendations with regard to the quality of economic development, price regulation of the energy market, and urbanization development, in order to find reasonable methods to reduce the growth drag of energy.

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    Non-equilibrium and early warning research on the supply and demand of China’s rare earth market
    Jingjing SUN, Yutao LEI
    2019, 41 (5):  860-871.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.04
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    China’s rare earth plays a mainstay role in the world, but there are few systematic studies on the non-equilibrium state of supply and demand in the market. This study extended the application of non-equilibrium theory and its model to analyze the non-equilibrium state between effective supply and effective demand of the rare earth resources market in China, establishing hyperbolic equations and conducting empirical analysis by using the 2000-2016 macro-level data on China’s rare earth market supply and demand, industrial enterprises and mining industry, and finally analyzing the crux of long-term imbalances between supply and demand. The results show that China’s rare earth market is characterized by decentralization, buyer monopoly, low prices, rampant smuggling, and strong policy intervention, which are important causes of its non-equilibrium condition. Based on grey relational analysis, rare earth price, production technology and cost, enterprise income and debt, macroeconomic policy, and industrial development are sensitive factors of rare earth’s effective supply and demand. Non-equilibrium degree calculation results indicate that the non-equilibrium trend of supply and demand in rare earth market is changing from oversupply to excessive demand. Based on the early-warning threshold values, in many years the market was in a serious warning state where supply exceeded demand by more than 35%. The conclusions may provide some basis for warning and decision support for promoting a balanced development of China’s rare earth market.

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    An innovative allowance allocation method in China’s unified national emissions trading scheme
    Yongbin ZHAO, Jianhui CONG, Jun YANG, Yixuan ZHANG
    2019, 41 (5):  872-883.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.05
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    The imbalance of regional emissions is a peculiarity for China’s unified carbon market. However, neither grandfathering method nor benchmarking method can avoid punishing good performers and applying too much pressure on poor performers. By examining existing research on allowance allocation, we found that in China’s carbon market, the grandfathering method faces a dilemma of choosing a fixed-base-year or a rolling-base-year, and the benchmarking method faces a dilemma ofwhether to apply the principle of “one benchmark for one product.” Based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibility for emission reduction, this studyproposeda new method of allowance allocation, that is, grandfathering-benchmarking approaching method. Then, using this method to simulate the allowance allocation and comparing the result with the methods of grandfathering and benchmarking alone,the results show that the grandfathering-benchmarking approaching method not only can avoid punishing good performers and applying too much pressure on poor performers, but also work in coordination with carbon reduction target. Comparing with the other two methods, itsemission control coefficientis fair, the allocation resultis more accurate, and the cost of emission reduction is more acceptable. It has better performance in reducing the risk of worsening regional economic imbalance.The conclusion of the study shows thatgrandfathering-benchmarking approaching methodcan deal with the situation of strong regional emission disparity. It can be used as a reference for the selection and optimization of allowanceallocation method in the initial stage of China’s unified carbon market.

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    Change in agricultural green productivity in China considering the cost of carbon emissions
    Jintao ZHAN, Yujiao XU, Jihong GE
    2019, 41 (5):  884-896.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.06
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    Green development will become the key component of China’s future agricultural growth. Measuring green productivity of agriculture is conducive to identifying its current development stage. By introducing carbon emissions trading theory and taking agricultural green GDP considering carbon emission cost as output, nitrogen and phosphorus losses as an input factor, and using parameter stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model, this study calculated and analyzed the provincial-level green total factor productivity (GTFP) change index of China’s agricultural sector from 2000 to 2015, then compared it with the traditional total factor productivity (TFP). The results show that the average annual decline of China’s agricultural GTFP was 0.14% during the study period, mainly due to the “retrogression” of environmental technologies before 2008/2009. The temporal trend fluctuated and the spatial distribution varied between regions. In addition, the index of TFP in agriculture was superior to GTFP’s, with an average annual increase of 0.02%,mainly due to technological progress, but the average traditional technology efficiency is declining. The key to improving the green productivity of agriculture in China in the future is to shift the focus of research and development investment away from overemphasizing output, strengthen the research and development of agricultural environmental technologies, and improve the technical efficiency of the traditional input factors.

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    Spatiotemporal distribution and provincial contribution decomposition of carbon emissions for the construction industry in China
    Jianshuang FAN, Lin ZHOU
    2019, 41 (5):  897-907.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.07
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    As an important pillar industry in the rapid urbanization process of China, the construction industry has been facing the problems of high energy consumption and high emissions, and reducing carbon emissions in the construction industry is of great significance for China to achieve its goal of energy conservation. Based on the accounting of construction carbon emissions of 30 provinces in China’s mainland, this article describes and analyzes their spatiotemporal characteristics using the spatial autocorrelation and kernel density function, and the multiplicative logarithmic mean Divisa index (M-LMDI) method to decompose the contribution of energy consumption of construction industry and other related variables for 30 provinces of China’s mainland to national carbon emissions. The results show that: (1) Construction carbon emissions in China showed an upward trend, with positive spatial correlation across the country and spatial agglomeration. Centers of construction carbon emissions gradually moved to the central and southern regions, and the spatial agglomeration effect became increasingly more clear. (2) There were significant differences in construction carbon emissions in the 30 provinces, the gap between regions has continued to expand, and polarization has aggravated; (3) In 1997—2015, construction carbon emissions increased by 115% in the 30 provinces, and the development level of the construction industry and the population employed in the industry were the major contributors to the increase in construction carbon emissions, which led to an increase in construction carbon emissions by 106.52% and 85.43% respectively. On the contrary, the intensity of energy consumption in the construction industry has an constraining effect on construction carbon emissions, reducing carbon emissions by 77.33%; (4) The top two provinces that made the largest contribution to the decline in construction carbon emissions were Heilongjiang and Hainan Provinces, and the bottom two provinces that made the largest contribution to the increase of construction carbon emissions were Shandong and Zhejiang Provinces.

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    Why urban residents’ deeds do not match their attitude?A dual mediation model of knowledge-behavior in low-carbon consumption
    Lingyun MI, Jinqiu CONG, Chaoqiong DING, Lijie QIAO, Ting XU
    2019, 41 (5):  908-918.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.08
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    In order to explore the reasons that urban residents’ attitude are not matched by their actions and promote the implementation of low-carbon behavior, this empirical research examined what kind of low-carbon knowledge is more conducive to residents’ low-carbon behavior. First, low-carbon knowledge was classified as system knowledge, action knowledge, and effective knowledge. Then, by extending the knowledge-attitude-behavior theory and introducing low-carbon capability (LCC) as a variable on the basis of low-carbon intention (LCI), a dual mediation model for the mechanism of low-carbon knowledge on low carbon behavior was established. Finally, 1339 valid questionnaires were obtained and analyzed using structural equation model. A multiple group analysis was used to test the moderating effect of demographics. The results indicate that: (1) The difference of mechanism between the three types of low-carbon knowledge and low-carbon behaviors is one of the reasons that why urban residents’ attitude are not matched by their actions. LCI and LCC have significant moderating effects on the relationship between system knowledge and residents’ low-carbon behavior. Meanwhile, action knowledge can directly influence two kinds of low carbon behaviors or affect them indirectly through LCI. LCI is not affected by effective knowledge, but effective knowledge indirectly drives two kinds of low-carbon behaviors through LCC. (2) LCI driven by low-carbon knowledge is more often transformed into low-carbon purchasing behavior, while LCC is more often affected by low-carbon habitual behavior. Therefore, in order to form a long-term mechanism of low-carbon consumption and reduce the “rebound effect” of energy efficiency improvement, it is necessary to pay attention to the cultivation of low-carbon capability. (3) Gender, marital status, age, education level, and personal monthly disposable income have significant moderating effects on the relationship between action knowledge and two types of low-carbon behaviors. Relevant government agencies need to guide and promote the integration of knowledge and behavior among residents in low-carbon comsumption according to the mechanism of different low-carbon knowledge.

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    International influences of outbound tourism from China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France:Spatiotemporal analysis based on economic perspective
    Zhongjian LI, Gennian SUN
    2019, 41 (5):  919-930.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.09
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    Since 2000, the rapid rise of China’s outbound tourism has produced huge international influence. Based on a conceptual model of outbound tourism’s international influence, this study used 2005-2016 international statistical data and took China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France as the research object to compare the changes and spatial differences of outbound tourism influence between the five countries. We examined the three dimensions of outbound tourism scale, growth potential, and influence scope, with market share, growth contribution, destination diversity, and average travel radius as indicators. The results show that: With the sustained high growth of the economy, China’s outbound tourism market share and growth contribution have surpassed France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States, which has had a great impact on world and destination tourism. However, due to the low per capita disposable income, China’s outbound tourism was far behind the United States and the United Kingdom in destination diversity and average travel radius. Influenced by economic strength, distance attenuation, cultural identity, and economic and trade ties, the United States and the United Kingdom outbound tourism had the greatest influence; the influence of China’s outbound tourism was mainly concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region, and it also had a greater impact on Europe and North America compared to the rest of the world. Outbound tourism of Germany and France was mainly limited to Europe. China should vigorously develop outbound tourism, increase the import of service trade, balance international trade, reduce trade friction, and use the international influence of outbound tourism to create a favorable international environment and safeguard national interests.

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    Inbound tourism from destination countries in the “Belt and Road” region and corresponding outbound tourism from China during 2001 to 2015
    Xiaojin WEN, Yiyi JIANG, Yanxu LIU
    2019, 41 (5):  931-942.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.10
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    The “Belt and Road” initiative ushered in a new opportunity for the development of China’s tourism industry internationally. A comparison of the spatial pattern of change between outbound tourism from China and inbound tourism from the destination countries in the “Belt and Road” countries can provide some guidance on the overall arrangement to broaden the space for the development of China’s outbound tourism market. In this study, using multiple spatial analysis methods such as coefficient of variation, average annual growth rate, spatial hot spot, trajectory of gravity center change, and standard deviation ellipse, the spatial pattern and change of outbound tourism from China and inbound tourism from the corresponding destination countries from 2001 to 2015 were identified. Three main results were obtained. (1) Cambodia and Vietnam received rapidly growing Chinese outbound tourists, while Thailand is an important destination favored by both Chinese and foreign tourists. (2) China’s outbound tourism is still dominated by tropical and subtropical island countries around Asia; distant tourism markets in other countries have always been cold spots; the Southeast Asian tourism market is a joint hot spot for both China’s outbound tourism and global tourism destinations, such as Thailand and Malaysia. (3) Spatial distribution of Chinese outbound tourists gradually developed from south-north to northwest-southeast; the spatial distribution of inbound tourists from corresponding destination countries remained in northwest-southeast direction, and the spatial variation of Chinese outbound tourists was much larger than that of inbound tourists from destinations. While maintaining the scale advantage of the Southeast Asia tourism market, China’s outbound tourism can pay attention to other mature tourism markets such as Eastern Europe and the Middle East in the context of the “Belt and Road” initiative.

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    Attitude of Taiwan residents towards tourism from China’s mainland
    Yiyi JIANG, Zhongjuan JI, Ting XIE
    2019, 41 (5):  943-954.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.11
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    Since the official opening of mainland residents’ travel to Taiwan in 2008, the mainland of China has gradually become an important tourist source market of Taiwan. The support of residents in Taiwan will not only affect the perception and satisfaction of mainland tourists, but also largely influence the tourism market policy between mainland and Taiwan, thus affect the normal communication between the two sides. It is of great academic value and important practical significance to understand Taiwan residents' support of mainland tourists to Taiwan. To reveal the impact of destination residents’ attitude to tourism development, this research built a structural equation model between community attachment, community concern, residents’ perceived benefit, residents’ perceived cost, and support of tourism based on social exchange theory. An on-site questionnaire survey was used to collect data. After excluding incomplete and unusable responses, a total of 341 usable questionnaires were retained for the analysis in SPSS23.0 and AMOS 20. The results of the study indicate that residents’ perceived benefit, perceived cost of tourism, and community concern were positively associated with their support of tourism. Community concern had both direct and indirect effects on attitude and it also affected tourism support attitude through perceived benefit. Community attachment had negative effect on tourism support attitude through perceived benefit. The interaction between community attachment and community concern did not positively affect their support. The relationship between Taiwan residents and community had both direct and indirect impacts on tourism development support. Tourism related policy attaches great importance to the protection of residents and community relations, and actively improve the residents’ participation in tourism development. Tourism managers can improve residents’ support for tourism development by improving the relationship between residents and communities. With increased awareness of the positive role of mainland’s tourism to Taiwan in regards to employment opportunities of ordinary people and youth, development space of Taiwan travel agencies and related industries, protection and revitalization of local culture, stimulating community vitality, optimizing infrastructure development, and other positive effects, support of Taiwan residents for mainland’s tourism may increase. Efforts should be made to expand Taiwan residents’ participation in order to further their understanding of and support to cross-strait economic and social developments.

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    Effects of rural pro-poor tourism on farming households’ income: A study based on the PSM-DID method
    Lihong YU
    2019, 41 (5):  955-966.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.12
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    Rural pro-poor tourism is one of the important means of poverty alleviation in China, and its effects on farming households’ income is of great concern. Based on the questionnaire survey data from Qingbao Village of Longfeng Town and Jizhidu Village of Yangping Town in Enshi City, this study compared the changes of family income, agricultural income, wage income, operating income, and other incomes of farming households between the experimental group and the controlled group before and after the implementation of the rural pro-poor tourism policy, by adopting the propensity score matching and difference-in-differences (PSM-DID) method for analysis. The results show that rural pro-poor tourism has significant effects on family income, wage income, and operating income. By using the DID method to estimate the effect of rural pro-poor tourism on family income, the result is “artificially higher” by 13.1% (716 yuan), while the estimation from the PSM method is 6.6% (361 yuan) higher. In order to overcome the biases of the DID and PSM models, PSM-DID was used, and it produced more accurate results. The result indicates that the rural pro-poor tourism policy has increased average farming households’ income of the experimental group in the sample area by 5467 yuan. Of this, agricultural income only insignificantly increased by 172 yuan, while wage income and operating income increased significantly by 2132 yuan and 3128 yuan respectively, but there are still significant growth potentials. Based on these results, some corresponding policy recommendations are put forward to improve the efficiency of rural pro-poor tourism in increasing farming households’ income: the government should take various measures to guide the local communities to rely on the overall tourism development based on local resources in order to obtain sustained growth of all kinds of tourism income; support the participation of all farmers in rural tourism and ensure that relatively poor farmers also have the ability to benefit from income-generating opportunities brought about by tourism development; guide farmers to set up cooperative organizations and further process local Se-rich organic agricultural products into characteristic tourism products in the light of implementing the “tourism poverty alleviation reserve box” project, and so on.

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    Evaluation and comparison of tourists and residents’ urban leisure satisfaction:Taking Beijing as an example
    Ning LYU, Xinfang WU, Xiao HAN, Yaru ZHAO
    2019, 41 (5):  967-979.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.13
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    This study followed the conceptual framework of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) and applied it to urban leisure satisfaction research. The urban leisure elements were reorganized, and an improved system of urban leisure satisfaction evaluation index system was established for the study area. Based on the survey data of leisure satisfaction of tourists and residents in Beijing, objective weighting based on mean square error and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) methods was used to analyze the leisure satisfaction level, mechanism, and influencing factors for tourists and residents. The results were compared to comprehensively understand the perception of urban leisure experience of different leisure subjects in order to provide a basis for improving urban leisure satisfaction. The results are as follows: (1) The leisure satisfaction index value of Beijing tourists was 3.9016, and the leisure satisfaction index value of residents was 3.6616, which is slightly lower than that of tourists but both are at a medium to high level of satisfaction and still have room for improvement. (2) Perceived quality of leisure activities was the main influencing factor of leisure satisfaction. Food and beverage, entertainment and leisure activities, and leisure service level had a significant impact. Air quality, climate comfort, less recommendation to others, complaints to others, and complaints to related government authorities all affected leisure satisfaction. Leisure consumption price and leisure consumption goods with excellent value for money were relatively important. (3) There was a certain difference in leisure satisfaction between tourists and residents. The resident samples believed that urban leisure atmosphere, service level and support of personnel, and transportation convenience also significantly affect satisfaction. Residents showed lower overall satisfaction with leisure experience, worse actual experience of leisure compared to previous and ideal leisure experiences, and lower willingness to consume again. Visitors paid more attention to the city's tourism facilities and services as well as urban leisure atmosphere, and their evaluation of the importance of urban tourism landscape quality and leisure activities was low. This study constructed a model of urban leisure satisfaction assessment, which may provide a basis for improving the quality of urban leisure experience.

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    Sand-fixing function of the grassland ecosystem in Ningxia based on the revised wind erosion model
    Yangyang WANG, Yu XIAO, Gaodi XIE, Jie XU
    2019, 41 (5):  980-991.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.14
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    Grassland in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region plays a crucial role in sand-fixing. But most of the existing studies are based on micro-scale research, therefore the temporal and spatial patterns of grassland wind-breaking and sand-fixing functions at the regional scale in Ningxia are still unclear. Based on the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, we quantitatively estimated the sand-fixing function of the grassland ecosystem in Ningxia from 2000 to 2015 with ArcGIS and ENVI. The results show that: (1) The amount of total potential wind erosion ranged from 1028.30×104 t to 7540.50×104 t while the amount of total actual wind erosion was calculated to be from 269.75×104 t to 3318.71×104 t. (2) The total amount of fixed material of the grassland in Ningxia ranged from 729.80×104 t to 4120.04×104 t, increased by 124.13×104 t through the study period, and the average amount of fixed material per unit area ranged between 0.33 kg/m2 and 1.77 kg/m2, with a spatial distribution pattern of high in the central region and low in the north and south. Retention rates increased and averaged between 0.65 and 0.79. (3) The levels of sand-fixing function of grassland in Ningxia from 2000 to 2015 were mainly moderate and weak, accounting for 47% to 65% of the total amount of sand fixation. The area of grassland with moderate and above levels of sand-fixing function increased, while the area with weak and relatively weak grades kept reducing. (4) The proportion of sand-fixing function in the grasslands of the southern mountainous areas and the central arid areas was more than 90%, while that in the northern irrigation grassland decreased first and then increased. The northern and central arid areas need more attention on the management of sandstorm in the future. This study revealed the temporal and spatial patterns of sand fixation of grassland in Ningxia, providing a reference for future wind and sand management.

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    Land-cover classification of random forest based on Sentinel-2A image feature optimization
    Yun HE, Chong HUANG, He LI, Qingsheng LIU, Gaohuan LIU, Zhenchao ZHOU, Chenchen ZHANG
    2019, 41 (5):  992-1001.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.15
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    Due to the suitable hydrothermal conditions, vigorous vegetation growth, high land use intensity and complex spatiotemporal variation of spectral characteristics of surface cover types, it is difficult to guarantee the accuracy of remote sensing classification using traditional spectral characteristics in tropical and subtropical regions. Multi-spectral, high spatial resolution Sentinel-2A imageries provide a new source of data for land-cover classification. In order to improve the speed and accuracy of land-cover classification using Sentinel-2A images, we propose a classification method with feature-optimized random forests. In this study, we took the Mun River Basin of Indo-China Peninsula as our research area and made full use of the rich spectral characteristics, normalized vegetation index (NDVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI), difference vegetation index (DVI), normalized water body index (NDWI), and texture features including contrast, correlation, energy, mean, and entropy, of Sentinel-2A images for the analyses. We used the average impurity reduction method in random forests to evaluate the importance of different spectral features, indices, and texture features. Combining the out-of-bag (OOB) error to select features, the results of land-cover classification with feature-optimized random forests were obtained. They show that the spectral features and texture features of Sentinel-2A images play an important role in our classification compared with the original random forest land-cover classification results. The short-wave infrared, visible, and vegetation red-edge bands are of greater importance in spectral features, and the mean and energy are of high importance in texture features.The accuracy of OOB is the highest when the top 9 important features are selected. Sentinel-2A images have good adaptability in tropical and subtropical region land-cover classification. It can effectively improve the accuracy of land-cover classification in tropical and subtropical regions. The accuracy of our classification method reaches 87.53%, and the Kappa coefficient reaches 0.8461, better than the original random forest method. The random forest method based on feature optimization not only has a fast classification speed, but also can guarantee high classification accuracy under the condition that the sample is representative, especially suitable for the land-cover classification of medium and high spatial resolution images of Sentinel-2A.

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    Change of remote sensing ecological index of an oasis city in the arid area
    Xuande ZHOU, Huadong GUO, ·Simayi Zibibula, Zutao DENG, Bin LIANG
    2019, 41 (5):  1002-1012.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.16
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    Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is a typical arid area, and its ecological environment is extremely fragile. It is of great significance to understand its ecological environment changes in a timely and accurate manner.This study chose the oasis city Urumqi in Xinjiang as the research area and used the remote sensing images from the same month of 2004 and 2016 to calculate the remote sensing ecological index (RSEI), and analyze the present situation, spatial distribution, center of gravity, landscape features, and driving factors of change of RSEI. The results show that: (1) In 2004—2016, the average remote sensing ecological index value increased from 0.341 to 0.400, an increase of 17.24%. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Wetness (WET), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) showed a certain degree of increase, and Normalized Difference Build-up Soil Index (NDBSI) showed a downward trend; (2) With the classification of ecological index values, the main part of the study area fell within poor and medium ecological index classes. The total area of these classes is obviously growing.The classes mainly remained unchanged or improved, and the areas with improvements of ecological index mainly moved up for one class; (3) The center of gravity of all types of ecological index classes shifted, and the distance of gravity center shift of the poor ecological index class was the longest, reaching 2.82 km. The distance of shift was relatively small for other classes; (4) Landscape pattern of different types of remote sensing ecological indices changed, complexity of shape of patches increased, the spatial connectivity and agglomeration were significant.This study analyzed the spatial characteristics and changes of the ecological index and found that the process of gradual change of the ecosystem under the premise of maintaining stability with human activities is closely related to urban expansion.

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