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Table of Content

    25 April 2019, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spillover effect of cross-regional direct investment in resource industries in China
    LI Cunfang, WANG Wei, DU Shenyue, DONG Mei
    2019, 41 (4):  613-626.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.01
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    The spillover effect of cross-regional direct investment in resource industries is an emerging practical management science issue. Based on the theory of economic statistics and economic growth,this study analyzes the mechanism of spillovers in the intra-industry and inter-industry cross-regional direct investment in resource industries under the influence of the government’s science and technology project funds, using the 1997-2016 data on investments from eastern provinces to Shaanxi Province in the coal industry for the empirical test. The results indicate that: (1) Cross-regional direct investment in resource industries has both industrial spillover effect and inter-industry spillover effect on resource-rich areas in the midwest. (2) Government’s science and technology project funds in resource-rich areas in the midwest have a significant strengthening effect on the intra-industry and inter- industry spillover effects of cross-regional direct investment in resource industries, and the promotion of total factor productivity of local enterprises. (3) The intensity of the intra-industry spillover effect of cross-regional direct investment in resource-rich areas in the midwest is obviously higher than that of the inter-industry spillover effect. (4) Fixed assets investment and labor input have little impact on total factor productivity in resource-rich areas in the midwest. The conclusion of this research may provide a theoretical basis and practical support for regulating the cross-regional direct investment of resource-oriented enterprises and promoting the relevant policies of regional innovation, coordination, sustainable development, and high-quality development.
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    Review and prospect of research on the influence of the environment on spatial disparity of urban housing prices
    DAI Qiwen, YAO Yiqi, ZHANG Xiaoqi, WEI Haining
    2019, 41 (4):  627-642.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.02
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    With urban residents’ increasing attention on the living environment and the general improvement of the quality of life, the insufficient supply and uneven distribution of urban environmental resources have intensified the impact of the environment on the spatial differences of urban housing prices. Exploring the impact mechanism of the environment on housing prices will help improve the spatial allocation of high-quality environmental resources and accelerate the construction of livable cities, which also is of great significance for improving urban competitiveness and the level of “new urbanization.” This article firstly briefly reviews the spatial differences of urban housing prices, then systematically summarizes the research progress of the positive impacts, negative impacts, and comprehensive impacts of the environment on housing prices. Finally we examined the prospects for future research in this field. The review of the literature showed that: the positive, negative, and comprehensive effects of the environment on housing prices are systematically analyzed in international literature. Research in China began to pay attention to the positive impact of the environment on housing prices, while studies on the negative impacts and comprehensive impacts are fewer. The accessibility of environmental amenity has become an important perspective and content in the field of environment and housing price research. The attributes of environment and landscape and housing have an important impact on housing prices. The international literature of negative impacts of the environment on housing prices are mainly concentrated on water pollution, noise pollution, solid waste pollution, and electromagnetic pollution. Furthermore, we put forward some thoughts on the prospects of research: The study of the effect of the environment on housing prices needs to improve the systematic analysis framework. The combination of mathematical model and behavioral analysis verification methods should be considered in the research method. People’s subjective environ-mental perceptions and their feedback on housing prices should be paid attention to. The analysis of the impact mechanism of the environment on low-value region of housing prices should be strengthened, and awareness on inequality of the living environment should be raised. Research should concern the impact of the environment on housing prices at the micro household level and in small and medium-sized cities, taking into consideration local-specific characteristics of housing.
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    Effect of prohibition policy of livestock and poultry on alternative livelihood strategies and family income:Based on the evidence of pig farmers’ in Hebei, Henan, and Hubei provinces
    SI Ruishi, LU Qian, ZHANG Shuxia, ZHANG Qiangqiang
    2019, 41 (4):  643-654.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.03
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    The policy of prohibiting livestock and poultry production is of great significance for regulating the spatial distribution of livestock and poultry industry, strengthening the prevention and control of livestock and poultry pollution, and promoting green and sustainable development of the livestock and poultry industry. However, how to optimize alternative livelihood strategies for farmers in the prohibited farming areas has been a challenge, and it is not clear what impacts this policy has on family income. Little research has been done to address these issues. Using the data collected at 364 pig farms in Hebei, Henan, and Hubei provinces and the Probit model and Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM), this study explored the effect of the policy on alternative livelihood strategies and family income of the farming households. This study also used qualitative and quantitative research methods to explain the model results. The study found that: (1) Farmers in the prohibited area choosing business operation and working as migrant workers increased by 32.70% and 28.20%. Farmers who chose livestock and poultry farming decreased by 71.10%, but the effect of the policy on farmers’ participation in agricultural planting was not significant; (2) The policy raised the income of farmers in the prohibited area engaged in business operation and working as migrant workers, which increased by 22 thousand and 12 thousand yuan respectively. However, total income and per capita income of farmers in the prohibited area decreased significantly, by 23 thousand and 4.6 thousand yuan respectively; (3) The policy widened the gap of family income and per capita income between farmers in the prohibited area and those in the non-prohibited area. Alternative livelihood strategies do not maintain the original livelihood level of farmers in the prohibited area. Therefore, it is necessary and urgent for the government to regulate the policy of prohibition, land reclamation of former animal farms, and industrial transformation.
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    Effect of fishery technology progress on fishermen’s income: Based on tests of provincial panel data in China
    ZHANG Lanting, HAN Limin, YANG Yiwu
    2019, 41 (4):  655-668.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.04
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    Whether fishery technology progress leads to continuous increase in fishermen’s income is contraversial. Based on provincial panel data in China from 2004 to 2014, the two-stage least squares method and a threshold panel model were used to test the effect of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income respectively. The results showed that: (1) Fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress in coastal areas had a significant positive effect on fishermen’s income, while in inland areas, only aquaculture technology progress had a significant effect on fishermen’s income, but the effect of fishing technology progress was not obvious. (2) When the per capita GDP was less than 18792 yuan, the effects of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income were not obvious. When the per capita GDP was higher than 18792 yuan, the positive effects of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income began to appear. The higher the economic development level, the greater the effect of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income is. (3) When the market segregation between urban and rural areas was serious, the effects of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income were not obvious. When the level of integration of urban and rural markets rose to a certain extent, the effects of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income appeared. (4) The effects of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income were related to urbanization rates. When the urbanization rate was higher than 0.46, the effects of fishing technology progress and aquaculture technology progress on fishermen’s income were significant. The study provides empirical support for implementing the strategy of “invigorating fisheries by technology” and increase fishermen’s income.
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    Well-being of forestry workers and affecting factors after complete cessation of commercial logging of natural forests: Based on the data of Northeastern key state-owned forest areas of China
    ZOU Yuyou, QI Yingnan, ZHU Hongge, QI Jiaguo, TIAN Guoshuang
    2019, 41 (4):  669-680.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.05
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    This study systematically examined the subjective well-being (SWB) of the forestry workers in Northeastern key state-owned forest areas of China after the complete cessation of commercial logging of natural forests, in order to provide a scientific plan for the government to implement the supporting policies. It used the data of 1,004 monitoring and survey questionnaires on the policy reform in the study area. Based on the theoretical framework of Amartya Sen’s capability approach and the indicators of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, this study empirically analyzed the influencing factors of the SWB of forestry workers using the Ordered Logit models. The results show that: (1) Longjiang Forest Industry Bureau, Inner Mongolia Forest Industry Bureau, and Changbaishang Forest Industry Bureau performed well in the complete cessation of commercial logging of natural forests and the reform of relevant policies, but Daxinganling Forestry Group and Jilin Forest Industry Bureau lagged behind. Infrastructure development was fast, but improvement in medical care provision was slow, and income and employment also need to be improved after the cessation. (2) 82.77% of the forestry workers indicated reasonably high level of life satisfaction, but lower than the SWB of Chinese farmers and the life satisfaction of urban residents. (3) Health condition, affiliated hospital, total household expenditure, housing satisfaction, price satisfaction, government service satisfaction, social security satisfaction, income satisfaction, and dual employment have positive impact on the SWB of forestry workers in the Northeastern key state-owned forest areas. (4) Although the influencing factors of SWB of workers in remote forest farms and large forest communities are different, total household expenditure, price, social security, dual employment, and income satisfaction are the core areas for improving the SWB of forestry workers in Northeastern key state-owned forest areas of China.
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    Dynamic material stock and flow of Chinese urban household private cars in recent 20 years
    KONG Zike, LIU Jingru, SUN Xin
    2019, 41 (4):  681-688.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.06
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    In the past 20 years, China’s private cars have gone through a rapid growth phase from scratch, and an analysis of the dynamic material stock and flow is undoubtedly of great significance. In this study, the bottom-up metabolic analysis method was used to analyze the material stock and flow of urban household consumption of private cars from 1997 to 2016 and quantify its structure and pattern. The results show that the material stock of household private cars increased rapidly. In 2016, the average urban household private car stock reached 466.62 kg, an increase of 200 times than that of 2.29 kg in 1997. In addition, the private car material flow is in the stage of a net increase in stocks: in 2016, the average household input was more than 9 times the output. At the same time, material composition of the stock is also changing. Ordinary steel and iron ratio decreased from 46.72% and 11.79% in 1997 to 37.96% and 6.80% in 2016, gradually being replaced by high-strength steel and aluminum. Although the output of materials is dominated by ordinary iron and steel, high-strength steel and aluminum will become an important component of scrapped resources. Therefore it is important to pay attention to the recovery and management of the new material component. Considering the lag of automobile scrap, a large number of resources such as high strength steel and aluminum are inevitably exported, which provides a new direction for resource management and recycling in automobile scrap and disassembly industry.
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    Review of data preparation for rural settlement evolution research
    LI Huanhuan, SONG Wei, ZHANG Yan
    2019, 41 (4):  689-700.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.07
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    Accurate and complete spatial distribution data of rural settlements provide a critical support for studying the evolution of rural settlements. Since rural settlements are characterized by small-scale and scattered distribution, it is hard to acquire a long-term and high-resolution rural settlement dataset. Focusing on the development of rural settlement data preparation, this article reviews the sources, acquisition methods, spatiotemporal resolution, and accuracy of different rural settlement datasets for the long-term, medium-term, and short-term temporal spans, respectively. It also summarizes the applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of different data acquisition methods. The results show that for studies on a medium and a long term, historical documents and digitized topographic maps are the main sources for acquiring spatial distribution of rural settlements, and missing regional data is the main difficulty in creating such datasets. For short-term studies, spatial data acquired through modern technologies, such as satellite remote sensing and aerial remote sensing, can provide high-resolution data to delineate rural settlements. However, acquiring high-resolution imageries often becomes the primary difficulty in the process of data preparation owing to its high price and poor accessibility. In response to the above problems, we should pay attention to the integration of history, archaeology, and other disciplines, and expand the sources of historical information about rural settlements. We should also make full use of free high-resolution imageries, such as Google Earth and Gaofen-2, coupled with image interpretation, oral history, field surveys, and household visits in order to construct a complete picture of spatial distribution of rural settlements and fully achieve data sharing.
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    Stationary and systematic characteristics of land use and land cover change in the national central cities of China using intensity analysis: A case study of Wuhan City
    YANG Jianxin, GONG Jian, GAO Jing, YE Qin
    2019, 41 (4):  701-716.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.08
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    We revised the intensity analysis framework proposed by Aldwaik and then applied it to examine the temporal stationary and systematic characteristics of land use and land cover change (LULCC) patterns in the national central cities of China. This hierarchical framework analyzes LULCC at three levels: time interval, category, and transition, based on land use change confusion matrices. Given the inconvenience of transition level intensity analysis in presenting the detailed pattern of LULCC across multiple time intervals, we put forward a new method termed as land transition pattern confusion table to systematically show all the land conversion processes in one figure so as to help link LULCC process to pattern and clarify their driving mechanisms from a bottom-up perspective. Taking Wuhan City as a case study area, this article analyzes the stationary and systematic characteristics of LULCC patterns from 1996 to 2015 with the improved framework. Also, LULCC patterns in other national central cities in recent years were investigated. The results show that the overall LULCC intensity in Wuhan City increased in recent years. The influx of rural residential land, urban construction land, and farmland intensified. The efflux of farmland, water, and unused land grew as well. Notably, the transition from farmland to urban construction land and to rural residential land is characterized by a stable and systematic change pattern. The LULCC patterns and processes in different national central cities show great similarity. This improved intensity analysis framework can be more intuitive in reflecting the stationary and systemic characteristics of LULCC pattern. The research results can play an important role in illustrating LULCC patterns in the national central cities and facilitate linking processes and mechanisms to these observed patterns.
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    Spatial optimization of land use based on the objective of coordinated ecological protection and economic development in Zhengzhou City
    CHEN Hong, SHI Yunyang, KE Xinli, HAO Jinmin, CHEN Aiqi
    2019, 41 (4):  717-728.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.09
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    Ecological land being converted into construction land is ubiquitous under the background of rapid urbanization in China, and coordinating economic development and ecological protection is a great challenge for the country. This study took Zhengzhou City as an example and carried out the spatial optimization of land use with the balance between ecological benefits and economic benefits as the objective, and by using the LANDSCAPE model. The results suggest that: (1) Using 2008 as the benchmark year and simulating the land-use layout in 2020 and with the requirements of cultivated land protection and meeting construction land demand both satisfied, the optimized scenario’s ecological and economic benefits are 31.5 million yuan and 4,900 million yuan higher than the planning scenario. The former can achieve the coordination of economic development and ecological protection; (2) The simulation results under the two scenarios show that the construction land allocation is concentrated in areas with faster economic development and lower ecological benefits. Under the optimized scenario, more construction land is allocated to Xingyang City, Xinmi City, and Dengfeng City. Under the planning scenario, more construction land is allocated to Jinshui District, Huiji District and Zhongmu County because of the already fixed quota. The optimized allocation is more in line with the current economic development trend of Zhengzhou City, better for regional ecological protection, and can alleviate the fragmentation of land use to a certain extent; (3) The problem that the traditional method of urban and rural construction land allocation does not take into account the spatial heterogeneity of ecological and economic benefits can be solved by the LANDSCAPE model, in which the goal of economic and ecological benefits coordination can be achieved. Ecological protection and economic development play an important role in regional sustainable development, and it is beneficial to coordinate the relationship between them by allocating the different types of land use in various regions reasonably.
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    Optimization of land-use pattern based on multi-agent particle swarm optimization in the Song-Nen Plain region
    WANG Yue, SONG Ge, LV Bing
    2019, 41 (4):  729-739.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.10
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    Land-use pattern is an important indicator for the evaluation of land use and useful for analyzing and explaining the spatial phenomena, processes, and mechanisms of regional land use. The main aims of this study were to establish the optimization model of land-use pattern in a typical area of the Song-Nen Plain regionBayan Countybased on GIS and remote sensing technologies, Matlab programming, and multi-agent particle swarm optimization (MA-PSO); to optimize grain production, ecological security, and socioeconomic development with three agents of government, authorities, and individuals; and to assess the optimization schemes of land-use pattern based on the decision of land-use pattern optimization subgoals. The results indicated that the optimization model of land-use pattern based on GIS and remote sensing technologies, Matlab programming, and MA-PSO model could achieve a reasonable matching of the quantitative structure of land-use types in time and space and the rational allocation of spatial configuration and combination. The optimization objective functions of scheme I, II, and III were ecological security, socioeconomic development, and improved grain production, respectively, and the three optimization schemes had significant differences in the realization of the optimization subgoals. The different optimization schemes of land-use pattern had different land-use structures and spatial distribution characteristics. The study has enriched the theoretical basis and research methods of land-use pattern optimization, which can provide powerful technical support for land-use planning.
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    Farmland scale and farmers’ pro-environmental behavior:Verification of the inverted U hypothesis
    CAO Hui, ZHAO Kai
    2019, 41 (4):  740-752.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.11
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    The purpose of this study was to analyze the possible impact of farmland scale on farmers’ pro-environmental behavior based on the dynamic optimization model, to empirically test the impact of total farmland scale and plot size on farmers’ pro-environmental behavior using the data of 549 households and 1417 plots in Shandong Province, and to explore measures for the treatment of agricultural non-point source pollution and the improvement of agricultural sustainable development capacity. The Oprobit model and the Probit model were employed in this study. The results show that total farmland scale has a steady inverted “U” relationship with farmers’ overall pro-environmental behavior. Plot size also has a steady inverted “U” relationship with farmers’ overall pro-environmental behavior. For the contracted plots, the relationship between plot size and farmers’ overall pro-environmental behavior is an inverted “U” type, but a “U” type is observed for the rented-in plots. In conclusion, we should pay close attention to the speed and scale of cultivated land consolidation, and standardize the procedures and management of farmland transfer.
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    Scale effect of soil fertility spatial variability and its influencing factors
    GE Chang, LIU Huilin, NIE ChaoJia, SHEN Qiang, ZHANG Shiwen
    2019, 41 (4):  753-765.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.12
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    In order to reveal the spatial variability of regional soil fertility and its influencing factors, and their change with scale, this study took Pinggu District of Beijing Municipality as the study area, and examined soil fertility and varibility at three spatial scales — the whole district (large), three towns in the western part of the district (medium), and dense sampling in the same three twons (small). The soil Integrated Fertility Index (IFI), which was calculated by the weighted sum method, was used for the characterization of soil fertility. Combined with the methods of variation function and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the spatial variability characteristics of IFI, the contribution degree of each evaluation indicator to soil fertility, and the scale effect were analyzed. Difference of the influencing factors of soil fertility at different scales were identified and characterized. The results show that the difference of soil fertility influencing factors at different spatial scales was obvious, while IFI was around 0.61 at all three scales, and the CV ratio changes of IFI between different scales were different compared to other indicators. The spatial variability of IFI illustrated a significant scale effect. The C0/Sill of IFI increased with the decrease of scale and the proportion of variation caused by random factors increased gradually. IFI showed a strong spatial correlation at the large scale, moderate spatial correlation at the medium scale, and weak spatial correlation at the small scale. The contribution of different soil nutrient contents to IFI varied at different scales. From the large to the small scale, the nutrient coefficients exhibited a decreasing trend, and the range of nutrient coefficients increased slightly from medium to small scale. The effect of a soil property on IFI will be affected by other properties. Factors such as soil subclass and parent material had an obvious scale effect on IFI. As the scale decreases, the influence of various factors on IFI decreased generally. The results provide a technical support for regional soil fertility evaluation and spatial pattern analysis at different scales.
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    Improvement of farmland fragmentation measurement model based on road network analysis
    GE Yujuan, ZHAO Yuluan
    2019, 41 (4):  766-774.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.13
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    This study used GIS network analysis technique to improve the accuracy of an arable farmland fragmentation measurement model. It first summarized the connotation of arable farmland fragmentation and the existing measurement methods. It proposed that the actual road network is an indispensable indicator for the determination of the degree of arable farmland fragmentation. Second, according to the connotation of arable farmland fragmentation, three indicators farmer’s plot road accessibility index, farmer’s plot area index, and farmer’s plot shape index based on road network were selected, and a new arable farmland fragmentation measurement model was constructed. Finally, an empirical analysis of 206 farming households in a typical study area was carried out with the improved arable farmland fragmentation measurement model to confirm the validity of the model, and to compare the Euclidean distance between the farmhouse and the cultivated land and the road network distance. Then we compared and analyzed the difference between the farmer’s Euclidean distance to the cultivated land and the road network distance using the two distance measurement methods. Compared with the road network distance, the Euclidean distance underestimated the level of cultivated farmland fragmentation. The improved measurement model of this study has positive significance for further research on cultivated farmland fragmentation and its impact on agricultural production input-output.
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    Risk assessment of water resource security in China
    LIANG Yuanyi, LV Aifeng
    2019, 41 (4):  775-789.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.14
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    Water resource security risk assessment is an important foundation of water resource risk management. In this paper, based on the definition of water resource security, we combine disaster system theory and risk theory to construct the risk assessment index system of water resources security and the risk assessment model of water resource security. The subjective AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method and objective entropy weight method combined with the optimal combination of deviation square sum weighting method were proposed to determine the index comprehensive weight. And then, the risk level of water resource security of each province was calculated by coupling the above methods and combining with relevant data indexes which were obtained in China’s statistical yearbook, each provincial water resources bulletin and some water resources security research results in recent years. And extreme high risk level, high risk level, moderate risk level, low risk level and extreme low risk level of water resources security risk were calculated through the natural break classification method. Finally, the types of water resource security risks in each research unit with extreme high risk level, high risk level, and moderate risk level were calcounted based on hazard indicators. The water resources security risk statistical results show that the risk of water resources shortage is identified in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong, Henan, Ningxia, and Gansu provinces. Risk of water quality is found in Shanghai, Liaoning, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Shanxi, Henan, and Guangxi provinces. Drought risks is characterized in Heilongjiang, Shanxi, Gansu, Hainan, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces. Flood risk is exhibited in Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Through different risk types of water resources security some risk preventive and controllable measures are proposed to manage China’s water resources security scientifically to remit and solve the water resources security risk level of each research unit.
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    Temperature vegetation water index: A novel stabilized threshold method for lake surface water mapping
    ZHU Xiaoqiang, DING Jianli, XIA Nan, GUO Jiaxin, ZHANG Shuxia, YANG Tongtong, WANG Jingzhe, LI Xiaohang
    2019, 41 (4):  790-802.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.15
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    Considering that the traditional water indices have no exact threshold value to distinguish water body from other land cover types, in this study a novel method was proposed, in which the reflectance value “0” is used as a segmentation line to distinguish water body from other land cover types. Landsat 8 satellite data of Ebinur Lake, Bosten Lake, Poyang Lake, and Alakol Lake from different years were acquired and used to analyze the reflectance value and spectral and principal component space features of water and other land cover types. A novel water index named temperature vegetation water index (TVWI) was constructed. Maximum likelihood classification was used to extract water areas as the ground truth data. Compared with traditional water extraction indices, the results indicate that the overall TVWI water extraction accuracy in May 2013 and May 2016 is 98.51% and 97.33%, and Kappa coefficients are 0.97 and 0.95 correspondingly in Ebinur Lake. The overall TVWI water extraction accuracy in Bosten Lake is 99.66%, Poyang Lake is 98.06%, and Alakol Lake is 99.72%. The overall accuracy is better than the traditional methods, which implies that extracting water information by using TVWI method is feasible. In TVWI the reflectance value of 0 is the segmentation value to classify water and non-water areas. There are higher noise values at the lakefront but the values of water area are higher than 0, so there is a visible distinction between water and other land cover types. As a result, water information can be easily extracted by using the TVWI method. In conclusion, extracting Ebinur water information using the Landsat 8 satellite data from 29 May 2013 and 21 May 2016 yielded better result, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient are the best compared with the three traditional water indices that we compared. The adaptation of TVWI to different lakes was analyzed and the accuracy of water extraction in different types of lake is higher than other methods.
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    Urban stormwater simulation and assessment of the control rate of total annual runoff: A case of the Future Science and Technology Park in Beijing
    PANG Xuan, ZHANG Yongyong, PAN Xingyao, YANG Moyuan
    2019, 41 (4):  803-813.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.16
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    Along with the acceleration of urbanization process, urban impervious surfaces have increased, and the urban rainfall and runoff processes have undergone significant changes, resulting in outstanding flooding problems. Urban stormwater simulation is one of the hotspots and challenges in current urban hydrology research. It is also a key technical means for urban flood control and total annual runoff control rate evaluation of “sponge cities.” In this study, the Future Science and Technology Park in Beijing was selected as the research area. We constructed an urban stormwater model using the stormwater management model (SWMM) to simulate surface and pipe network runoff processes under different rainfall conditions. We designed the precipitation processes corresponding to the control rate of total annual runoff according to the characteristics of different field rainfalls. Moreover, we drove the constructed urban stormwater model to assess the achievement of current land blocks with regard to the control rate of total annual runoff. On this basis, the spatial layout of different “sponge city” measures was proposed to achieve the control rate of total annual runoff. The results demonstrate that the model simulation accuracy was high. The peak errors of the three rainfall and runoff processes were between 8%~26%, and the peak time errors were -8%, -1%, and 0, respectively. Under the current land use conditions, the control rate of total annual runoff of the city of Beijing (80%) has not been reached. With the addition of permeable pavements, green roofs, and sunken green spaces of 20%, 40%, and 40%, respectively on roads, buildings, and green spaces, 90% of the land blocks would reach the control rate of total annual runoff, and the maximum amount of available water would reach 17870 m3. This study can provide a reference for the assessment of the control rate of total annual runoff and specific decision-making basis for the optimization of the spatial layout of urban “sponge city” measures.
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    Changes and causes of water use of star hotels in Beijing
    LIU Huaxian, CHEN Yuansheng, ZHU He, LV Wenfei, LUO Wenzhe, YAO Weiwei
    2019, 41 (4):  814-823.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.17
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    Star tourist hotels are a main water consumption industry in Beijing, and their pattern of water consumption has changed after the enforcement of water quota norm. Through a questionnaire survey of 349 hotels in Beijing, water consumption and structure changes from 2005 to 2015 of hotels in Beijing were analyzed in this study, and the causes of change were explored. The results show that: (1) The total water consumption of hotel has been controlled, and water-use efficiency has greatly improved; (2) Water consumption of hotels changed significantly, and restaurants became an important contributor of water use; (3) Water quota norm, water-saving devices, micromanagement, and unconventional water sources promoted the improvement of water use efficiency of hotels; (4) The classification method and accounting unit of water quota norm (2008 version) could continue to be used.
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