Table of Content

    25 February 2019, Volume 41 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Review and prospect of advanced material innovative development
    Chang WANG, Huiling SONG, Hongjun GENG, Yifang ZHOU, Cuihong ZHANG
    2019, 41 (2):  207-218.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.01
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    Advanced materials are the cornerstone and precursor of the future development of high-tech industries. This paper provides a systemic review about the innovation evolution, technological innovation, commercialization, national strategies, and policies of advanced materials. It indicates that industrial upgrading has continuously put forward new requirements and challenges for advanced materials. The advanced materials innovation will further promote industrial upgrading. Therefore, different strategies and policy tools for the material innovation are adopted by countries or regions depending on their national circumstances. However, advanced material is highly uncertain in technology and market, demonstrating that it will face two problems of technological innovation and commercialization. Based on these findings and the development of advanced materials, future study in advanced materials innovation should focus mainly on the following four areas: (1) the in-depth study on the impact of intelligent manufacturing technology economic paradigm change and key areas of intelligent transformation on advanced materials innovation. (2) the emphasis study on the paths design for advanced materials technology innovation under special circumstances in China. (3) the in-depth study on the innovation of commercialization models of different kinds of advanced materials. And (4) the in-depth study on the advanced materials policy design on the synergy between government, market and society.

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    Performance evaluation of rural land contract management right exit in Central District of Neijiang City from the perspective of stakeholders
    Haipeng NIU, Congcong LI
    2019, 41 (2):  219-232.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.02
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    The performance of rural land contractual management right exit is a comprehensive representation of the core stakeholders (farmers, rural collective economic organizations, and agricultural management organizations) in the decision-making. Before withdrawal, behavioral efficiency during exit and the effect after exit, it is to reflect the effectiveness of the implementation of the exit policy for rural land contractual management rights. Based on the perspective of stakeholders, this paper constructs a triangular prism evaluation model for the performance of rural land contractual management right exit and uses the comprehensive index method to scientifically evaluate single performance and overall performance of the rural land contractual management right of Neijiang City Central District to withdraw cash, exchange shares, and change the security model. The results show that: (1) The performance based triangular prism evaluation model and based on the stakeholder perspective is applicable to the performance evaluation of rural land contract management right exit. Its individual performance and comprehensive performance can reflect the effectiveness and deficiency of the land contractual management right exit. (2) The single performance level and the comprehensive performance level of the different exit mode exhibits significant differences. In addition to the performance value of the rural collective economic organization, the exit value is higher than the exit-for-share model. Other perspectives (farmers and agricultural management organizations) and overall performance values are lower than the exit-for-share model. The exit-for-guarantee model has the worst performance. (3) According to the differences of performance levels of different exit modes, it is of great significance to learn from the basis of mutual learning and to optimize the ideal optimization plan for the orderly exit of rural land contractual management rights.

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    Evolution and coordination of spatial pattern of cultivated land management in Hunan Province
    Quanfeng LI, Shougeng HU, Shijin QU
    2019, 41 (2):  233-246.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.03
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    Revealing the characteristics of regional cultivated land management pattern helps to interpret the characteristics of cultivated land management model from the regional level, which will effectively propose the key points and development direction of regional cultivated land use transformation. This study initiated an evaluation model of cultivated land management coordination degree based on the three elements of “intensive-scale-capacity,” and used the coordination degree function and exploratory spatial data analysis method to reveal the evolution characteristics of the cultivated land management pattern in the county of Hunan Province. The results show that: (1) The coordination level of cultivated land management in Hunan Province was high overall from 1990 to 2014. The spatial pattern was significantly different. For example, the “Changzhutan” hilly area did show a higher intensive index. The Dongting Lake plain area exhibited a higher scale index. The main municipal district and its surrounding county capacity index was relatively high. (2) Due to different geographical locations and socio-economic impacts, there were significant differences in the temporal and spatial agglomeration characteristics of cultivated land management elements in Hunan Province. In the spatial dimension, the coordination degree of cultivated land management changed from “large agglomeration” to “small agglomeration.” In time dimension, the scale index autocorrelation was strong, the distribution was concentrated, and the productivity index was weakly correlated and distributed. (3) From the “input-scale-output” process, the plain area exhibited “high-high-high” signs, the hilly areas exhibited “high-low-low” characteristics, and the mountain areas were characterized by “low-low-low.” Combined with the characteristics of the spatial and temporal evolution of cultivated land management pattern, it is suggested that Hunan counties should adopt an intensive management model based on food crops, with economic crops as the main business model and characteristic crop management model.

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    Land compensation standard in ecologic fragile areas of red soil hilly region in the southern China
    Guiping BAO, Xiaoliang LIANG, Ying LIANG, Bin GENG, Baogen XU
    2019, 41 (2):  247-256.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.04
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    Under the condition of the market regulation malfunction, the idle cultivated land aggravated soil erosion and caused the tillage layer thinning in the ecological fragile zone of the southern China. Therefore, government should establish a scientific eco-compensation standard for guiding enterprises to grow crops on a reasonable scale as that is their important function for protecting the ecologic fragile areas of the Southern China. Based on the microeconomic activities of enterprises, this study built a 4D spatial theory of neo-cultivated land in hilly region of the Southern China. The 4D spatial theory is composed of four dimensions, which are respectively four aspects of the eco-compensation standard, the added eco-service value, the ratio of land-use change, and land area. Then, an ecological-restoration oriented eco-compensation standard was creatively constructed for newly cultivated land in ecologic fragile areas of red soil hilly region in the Southern China. This study also made an empirical research on Songyang in Zhejiang Province. The results indicate that the radio of enterprises converting their land-use and the compensation standard increased with the ecological remediation value of ecosystem service. The results specifically shows that: The area of neo-cultivated land is 720 hm2, and when the ecological remediation value of ecosystem service was set as 1000×104 yuan/a. If we use neo-cultivated land to plant tee trees,the conversion ratio of land-use reached 20.29% The required compensation standard of tee trees was 1.88×104 yuan/(hm2a), and the required compensation funds was 1354.71×104 yuan/a. If we use neo-cultivated land to plant navel oranges,the conversion ratio of land-use reached 50% The required compensation standard of navel oranges was 0.51×104 yuan/(hm2a),and the required compensation funds was 368.49×104 yuan/a. It is suggested that the newly cultivated land should be cultivated for ecological restoration in ecologic fragile areas of red soil hilly region in the south. Government should establish a targeted eco-compensation system in an accurate space orientation and optimized ecological compensation standard.

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    The layout of county area cultivated land quality monitoring samples in Huanghua City based on spatial clustering stratified sampling
    Jiangyan YANG, Shouqiang YIN, Li ZHANG, Mingxin MEN, Ying CHEN
    2019, 41 (2):  257-267.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.05
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    Cultivated land quality monitoring is an important strategy to grasp the changes in cultivated land quality and productivity for the country. Arranging cultivated land quality monitoring samples in a reasonable way can greatly improve the efficiency of cultivated land quality monitoring. This study took the typical area of the coastal plain, Huanghua City as an example, generated 20 alternative monitoring area scenarios with the method of spatial clustering. The initial monitoring area plan was selected by comprehensive comparison of variance, sampling error, sampling efficiency, and sampling elastic coefficient, and by partial optimization, the project of the cultivated land quality monitoring area was finally generated. Finally, based on the stratified sampling area, the stratified sampling method was used to lay out the monitoring records of cultivated land quality.The results showed that under the requirement of 1% sampling error, the alternative cultivated land quality monitoring area with a partition number of 65 did exhibit a comprehensive sample capacity of 77 and a relatively high sampling efficiency, which was selected as the initial monitoring area. The difference in spatial position and cultivated land quality between cultivated land units in the same monitoring area decreased rapidly first, and finally remained stable, with the number of cultivated land quality monitoring areas increases from 5 to 100. By laying the same number of monitoring samples, the sampling error in terms of topsoil texture, section configuration, salinization, organic matter content, drainage conditions, irrigation conditions, and national natural index were 0.37, 1.02, 1.39, 0.91, 0.31, 1.53, and 1.27 respectively. Based on spatial clustering stratified sampling proposed in this paper, the observations were lower than traditional stratified sampling, simple random sampling, grid stratified sampling, and had higher sampling efficiency. The results are intended to provide effective guidance for the deployment of relevant work and research on the quality monitoring samples of cultivated land.

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    Inter-regional tactical interaction and construction land index control failure
    Shaoyang ZHANG, Qiong LIU, Minghao OU
    2019, 41 (2):  268-276.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.06
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    The index control of construction land is an important public policy in the field of land management in China. However, in practice, it is faced with the dilemma of index control failure. From the perspective of local government competition, this study analyzed the tactical interaction on implementation of construction land index among regions and further discussed the effect of supervision centralization of central government on the tactical interaction among regions. Then, we constructed a spatial-panel model to test these theoretical hypotheses. The study found that, under the system of Chinese style decentralization, local government would take full use of land policy tools to participate in economic competition, revealing that there existed a tactical interaction on implementation of construction land index among regions, which was shown as the demonstration effect of gained excess construction land using space. It led to prevalent failure of index control. The regulatory pressure from supervision centralization of central government, which is the national system of land supervision, can impel local governments to keep the extent of index control failure within the level of their rivals when they scrambled to gain excess construction land using space. It was conducive to weaken the inter-regional tactical interaction, thus reduced the extent of construction land index control failure. The conclusion of this study means that, "top-down" supervision centralization system should be embedded in the environment of local governments’ competition to containment the "race to bottom" style behavior in the implementation of resource and environment controlling policy among regions. Specifically, this study puts forward the following policy recommendations: to move the supervision to superior government, to set up a vertical management institution, to centralize the supervision from different resource and environment sectors, and to set up a comprehensive institution in department of supervision.

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    Net amount of mariculture carbon sink and its coupling relationship with economics growth of China
    Guilan SHAO, Haizheng KONG, Chen LI
    2019, 41 (2):  277-288.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.07
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    Based on the estimation of the net mariculture carbon sink and the coupling index between carbon sink and economics, this study discussed the coordination between economic and environmental performance of mariculture in China. By using of both national and provincial data from 2008 to 2016 of China, this study came to the conclusions as following: although the net amount of mariculture carbon sink nationwide remained between 430 to 490 thousand tons per year, the environmental and economic performance got out of sync. Each year during 2009-2014 was in either strongly or weakly decoupling status except for 2010 when it came to increasingly coupling, which means that the growth of mariculture of China still relied on scale expansion in this period. Negatively decoupling relationship appeared from 2015 to 2016, which means that an efficient market mechanism was needed to transfer ecological profit into monetary revenue despite the preliminary achievements of the strategy of Marine Ecological Culture. Results differed between provinces. The net carbon sink kept negative in Hebei, Hainan, and Tianjin from 2009-2016. Guangdong, Fujian, Shandong, and Liaoning have made the greatest contribution to the net carbon sink. The majority of years showed decoupling in Fujian, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, meaning the economic subsystem outbalanced environmental subsystem of mariculture in these provinces. The relationship between net carbon sink and mariculture increase did show a negatively decoupling trend, revealing the environmental subsystem preceded economic subsystem in these two provinces. The mariculture systems were basically balanced in Guangdong and Guangxi. Therefore, the key points of healthy development of marine fishery of China are to accelerate the conversion of the driving power of growth, to build a carbon sink market for marine fishery, and to optimize the allocation of marine spatial and producing resources.

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    Impact of the evolution of industry structure on the economic fluctuation of marine fishery
    Bo WANG, Guojiang NI, Limin HAN
    2019, 41 (2):  289-300.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.08
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    The structural adjustment and economic fluctuation is an important research content of economics. Clarifying the relationship between structural adjustment and economic fluctuations plays an important role in deepening the supply-side structural reform. To consolidate the fundamental status of the marine fishery economy, this current study analyzed the driving force of marine fishery economic fluctuation from the perspective of industrial structure according to industrial structure theory and used dynamic panel model to judge whether the evolution of marine fishery industry structure is ironing or amplifying the economic fluctuation of marine fishery. The research results showed that: (1) The evolution of marine fishery industry structure could cause economic fluctuations The differences in the economic fluctuations of marine fisheries affected by different marine fishery industry structures were obvious. (2) The “leverage effect” from the marine fishery industry structure advanced and processing coefficient was obvious. The amplification effect of the advanced industrial structure of marine fishery industry was more significant than processing coefficient. (3) The “ironing effect” of the rationalization, softening, and catching structure of marine fisheries on the economic fluctuation of marine fisheries was significant. The suppression effect of industrial structure rationalization of marine fishery industry was higher than that of the catching structure, but lower than the softening of industrial structure. In order to realize the steady advancement of the structural reform of the supply-side of marine fishery and promote the high quality development of marine fisheries economy, it is essential to promote the advanced industrial structure. It is also necessary to pay more attention to the ironing effect of the rationalization and softening of industrial structure on the economic fluctuation of marine fishery.

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    Factor decomposition and spatio-temporal difference analysis in marine resource consumption intensity in China
    Zeyu WANG, Jing XU, Yanxi WANG
    2019, 41 (2):  301-312.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.09
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    Based on the connotation of marine resources consumption intensity, this study evaluated the marine resources consumption intensity in China’s coastal provinces from 1996 to 2015, revealing its temporal and spatial evolution characteristics. It implemented an improved LMDI to establish a factor decomposition model to analyze the contribution of factors in the change of marine resources consumption intensity and compare the differences. The results showed the following: (1) From 1996 to 2015, the intensity of China’s marine resources consumption demonstrated an overall increasing trend, followed by a gradual decline. For the primary industry, resources consumption intensity exhibited a stable decline, while its fluctuations for the secondary and tertiary industries followed those of China’s marine resources consumption intensity. Regarding the spatial evolutions. Moderately high-intensity provinces gradually declined in number, while low-intensity provinces gradually increased. Further, the variation between regions gradually declined. (2) The technological progress, industrial structure, and regional scale effects had contributed to 78.224%, 18.334%, and 3.442% of the total decline in marine resources consumption intensity. The factor decompostion effects varied significantly across provinces. The technological progress effect influenced marine resources consumption intensity in Fujian, while the technological progress and regional scale effects effected Zhejiang, Shandong, and Hainan. The technological progress and industrial structure effects influenced Tianjin, Hebei, and Jiangsu, while the technological progress, industrial structure, and regional scale effects drove decreasing marine resources consumption intensity in Liaoning, Shanghai, Guangdong, and Guangxi. (3) Among the three marine industries, the secondary industry illustrated the largest contribution with the technological progress effect, accounting for 77.118%; the primary industry did show the largest contribution with the industrial structure effect, accounting for 314.547%. The regional scale effect was not significant within the three industries. Technologies and the measures aim at promoting the intensive use of marine resources should be regionally targeted and differentiated according to each province.

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    Models for differential pricing of bulk water rights trading
    Guiliang TIAN, Yucan HU
    2019, 41 (2):  313-325.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.10
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    The two types of regional water rights and water rights trading modes exhibit a wide range of influence and high social sensitivity, which are the two major modes of bulk water rights trading in China. The price mechanism is one of the core elements of cultivating and activating two major water rights markets. The current study summarizes the adaptability of the existing pricing models and pricing mechanisms in the pricing of bulk water rights transactions, and puts forward that water rights prices reflect the users’ ability to use water resources productively. On the basis of full-cost prices, a negotiated pricing model for regional water rights and a bidding model for water rights are established to demonstrate the mechanism of market competition mechanisms for water rights appreciation. In detail, the price of regional water rights transaction is negotiated by both parties according to the cost evaluation price of the third party organization, while the price of water rights is generated by the buyers’ bidding starting from the cost evaluation price. Taking the transfer of water rights between Inner Mongolian and Yellow River mainstream cities as an example, a case study of the pricing model was conducted. This study argues that the market bidding should be adopted to form the price of 20 million m3/year water rights transaction in the pilot phase of water right transfer between cities in the mainstream of the Yellow River in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Finally, several countermeasures are proposed, e.g., establishing the awareness of commodity attributes of large-scale economic water and water rights, improving basic water price assessment mechanisms for bulk water rights, integrating bulk water rights transactions into bulk commodity trading systems, and establishing various forms of bulk water rights trading platforms.

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    Environmental pollution control by a third party in coal-fired power plants
    Hua HUANG, HuiPing DING
    2019, 41 (2):  326-337.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.11
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    In China, coal-fired power plants still play a major role in the power sector, which is considered as a major emission source of air pollution, such as haze. Meanwhile, the concrete implementation path of the transformation of China’s environmental governance thinking from "who pollutes, who governs" to "who pollutes, who pays" is under way. Although the third party governance of environmental pollution has been popularized in air pollution prevention and control, there are also problems in existence. This study aims to take the flue gas control of coal-fired power industry as the research object. From the perspective of green supply chain, the mathematical models of coal-fired power plants using two modes of self-investment operation and third-party management under four kinds of regulatory constraints and policy incentives, including no subsidy, only electricity sales price subsidy, only extra sales volume ration of electricity are constructed, solved, and analyzed, respectively. Through the calculation and evaluation, the results show that: the simultaneous implementation of regulation and incentive policies can help coal-fired power plants upgrade to green power plants. Since less subsidies can help coal-fired power plants, the government is more inclined to formulate subsidy policies based on the third-party governance model. This model can also make more profits for coal-fired power plants and make the traditional environmental protection enterprises transform into productive service enterprises and obtain stable profits, which is helpful to popularize the idea of "who pollutes, who pays" in practice. As a green service provider, by devoting itself through innovating environmental technology to reduce pollutant emissions, the environmental protection enterprises can also assist the coal-fired power plants to gain additional sales volume of electricity and to maximize the supply chain’s profit as well. Therefore, it puts forward suggestions on strengthening the implementation and supervision of environmental restraint policies, giving precise incentive policies, and promulgating policies to encourage the improvement of environmental performance.

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    Mode of classified treatment of rural domestic wastes and suggestions
    Yajuan JIA, Minjuan ZHAO, Xianli XIA, Liuyang YAO
    2019, 41 (2):  338-351.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.12
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    Classified treatment of rural domestic wastes is an important practice of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, and an important part of improving the quality of human settlement environment and realizing people’s longing for a better life. Based on the survey of pilot areas of rural domestic wastes classified treatment and resource utilization in Shaanxi and from the perspective of supply main body, this paper compares the basic situation, the practice mode of classified treatment, and the main body of supply of the four pilot villages using the case analysis method and further comprehensively evaluates the degree of end classification of domestic wastes, resource utilization rate, annual unit cost resource utilization, reduction and harmless treatment effect of each pilot village. The analysis shows that capital investment is one of the keys to solving the problem of rural domestic wastes. For most ordinary rural areas, the treatment mode cannot be simply copied. Instead, an effective waste classified treatment mode will be selected according to local conditions with reference made to the practice mode of the pilot villages. Therefore, in order to fully realize the classified treatment of rural domestic wastes, it is necessary not only to encourage the government, the market, the third sector, rural communities and farmers to participate in cooperative supply so as to raise funds through multiple channels and in multiple ways, but also to strengthen publicity, reward and punishment, and improve the rural domestic waste treatment system combining the rule of law, the rule of virtue, and self-governance.

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    An empirical analysis of the targeted poverty alleviation of scientific and technical correspondent enterprises from the perspective of social capital
    Jing ZHANG, Yuchun ZHU
    2019, 41 (2):  352-361.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.13
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    Poverty alleviation by science and technology has become one of the important forces for targeted poverty alleviation. Science and technology correspondent enterprise as an important part of science and technology poverty alleviation has played a huge role in poverty alleviation for the poverty-stricken area. Based on the perspective of social capital of science and technology correspondent enterprise, this study uses the samples of 208 rural scientific and technological correspondent enterprises in the contiguous poverty-stricken area of Qinba mountain area to measure the social capital of scientific and technological correspondent enterprise by using factor analysis from the three dimensions of structure, relationship, and cognition. It also uses the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model to empirically analyze the impact of corporate social capital on the targeted poverty alleviation of scientific and technological correspondent enterprise. The research shows that the corporate structural, relational, and cognitive social capitals have significantly positive impacts on poverty alleviation by helping and promoting, industrial income increase and investment income. The social capital of scientific and technological correspondent enterprise plays an important role in the targeted poverty alleviation. Therefore, scientific and technological correspondent enterprise should gather corporate social capital from multiple dimensions according to its own regional advantages and resource advantages to establish corporation alliance of scientific and technological correspondent. It should use technological innovation to drive the agricultural industry convergence, build the targeted poverty alleviation mechanism of scientific and technological correspondent enterprise with the participation of government, universities, cooperatives, financial organizations, and other multi-subjects to lead regional targeted poverty alleviation.

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    Spatial correlation between the agglomeration and CO2 emissions of China’s tourism industry
    Kai WANG, Yaping YANG, Shuwen ZHANG, Chang GAN, Haolong LIU
    2019, 41 (2):  362-371.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.14
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    The location quotient and decomposition method are used to estimate the degree of tourism industry agglomeration and the intensity of tourism CO2 emissions from 2001 to 2016. The approach of the center of gravity analysis and the spatial autocorrelation are applied to explore the spatial evolution and intrinsic correlation. A regression model of two issues is constructed to clarify the impact of tourism industry agglomeration on tourism CO2 emissions. Results show that: (1) The agglomeration of tourism industry and the intensity of tourism CO2 emissions are in an unbalance spatial distribution. The agglomeration of tourism industry is characterized by high-value in the east and central part, and low-value in the west, and the intensity of tourism CO2 emissions is opposite. (2) The concentration of tourism industry is distributed in Zhumadian City and Nanyang City and the junction zone in Henan Province. The overall trajectory of the tourism industry is slightly shifted to the northwest. The moving distance is about 112.362 km. The center of gravity of tourism CO2 emissions intensity is distributed in Shangluo City, Ankang City in Shaanxi Province, Shiyan City in Hubei Province. The center of gravity of trajectories shows a tendency toward the south to the east. The moving distance is about 256.734 km. (3) The tourism industry agglomeration will reduce the intensity of tourism CO2 emissions. There is a spatial negative correlation between tourism industry agglomeration and tourism CO2 emissions intensity. High agglomeration-low emissions are mainly distributed in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Guizhou, Yunnan and so on. Low agglomeration-high emissions are mainly distributed in the northwestern regions such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai.

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    Study on rural tourism experience of Wuyuan County based on online travel notes
    Rong WANG, Pengtao HUANG, Jing HU, Yajuan LI
    2019, 41 (2):  372-380.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.15
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    The tourism experience is the core of tourism function and value for tourists. Enriching the rural tourism experience of tourists has become one of the important ways to promote the sustainable development of rural tourism under the experience economy background. This study, taking “The Most Beautiful Village in China” as the case and selecting the travel notes of Ma honeycomb as the data source, used the content analysis to code and score the rural tourism travel experience elements of Wuyuan. Then, we got the structure table of rural tourism experience elements and the rating data set of each element. In addition, we used social network analysis method (SNA) and importance-performance analysis method (IPA) to conduct in-depth analysis of its structural characteristics of the elements and the quality of tourism experience. The results show that: (1) Content analysis finds that the rural tourism experience in Wuyuan includes 27 element indicators such as natural scenery, animal and plant landscape, architectural landscape, human landscape, cultural display place, residents’ lifestyle and so on; (2) SNA analysis finds that the network structure of Wuyuan rural tourism experience elements has high internal coordination; and the tourism traffic, architectural landscape, and natural scenery are the three most important elements while the infrastructure, market order, and cultural display venues are the three most marginal elements in the network structure; and (3) IPA analysis finds that the overall quality of tourist experience is pretty and that tourists have the best evaluation of camera photography experience while the perception of tourism development degree is the worst. Based on the research conclusions, this article recommends that, in order to better develop its rural tourism, Wuyuan should take the following three suggestions: (1) Strengthen the construction of tourism infrastructure and improve the tourist transportation experience; (2) Grasp the core tourist attraction and accurately identify the key points of tourism development; and (3) Improve the level of tourism management and comprehensively coordinate the structure of tourism experience elements.

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    The difference and classification of residents’ perception on tourism impact in Enshi tourism poverty-alleviation villages based on PCI
    Lei HAN, Huafang QIAO, Shuangyu XIE, Xiang ZHANG, Anqi WANG
    2019, 41 (2):  381-393.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.16
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    In the context of targeted poverty alleviation, residents’ perception on tourism impacts (RPTI) in tourism poverty-alleviation villages (TPAVs) reflects the actual effect of the implementation of tourism poverty-alleviation policy. Then, its internal differences and types deserve further study. By using the questionnaire data collected from 547 residents in 22 TPAVs in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Hubei Province, principal component analysis was used to explore the dimension and overall level of RPTI in these TPAVs. A potential conflict index (PCI) was applied to examine whether residents are different in their perception. Cluster analysis was used to classify the residents into groups. The results show that, RPTI are categorized to seven dimensions as poverty-alleviation benefits, environmental-social benefits, people’s quality improvement, tourism development, environmental costs, social costs, and economic costs. The residents generally agree on the environmental-social benefits, poverty-alleviation benefits, and people’s quality improvement, but at a low level. However, they do not agree on the environmental costs, social costs, and economic costs of tourism development. There are relatively big differences among residents in perceiving tourism development, poverty-alleviation benefits, people’s quality improvement, environmental costs, and economic costs. Based on these variables relatively different among residents, five groups of residents are identified and they are tourism development recognizers, economic costs focused group, cautious pussyfooters, poverty-alleviation effect recognizers, and environmental cost focused group respectively. Accordingly, it is proposed that tourism economy should be developed to replace “wage economy” and drive local agriculture and service in Enshi TPAVs. More residents’ especially low-income ones should be involved in and benefit from tourism development. The concerns and needs of different groups should be taken into account respectively.

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    Coupling analysis between ridge direction and gully erosion of sloping cultivated lands in the Sancha River watershed
    Cong GUAN, Shuwen ZHANG, Ranghu WANG, Jiuchun YANG, Shuping YUE, Lingxue YU, Wenjuan WANG
    2019, 41 (2):  394-404.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.17
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    The initiation and development of gully erosion in the sloping farmland of black soil area are closely related to the tillage measures. Taking the Sancha River watershed in typical black soil area of Northeast China as the study area, this study used the high precision basic data provided by the geographical conditions information census to obtain the ridge direction of cultivated land and gully erosion data. The relationship between the gully density and intensity and the ridge direction angle in the cultivated land was quantitatively analyzed. Then we studied the coupling effect of the gully erosion in different ridge directions and topography. The results showed that: (1) There was an obvious trend of horizontal ridge tillage of sloping farmland; (2) The gully intensity of cultivated land was moderate in the study area; (3) The ridge angle of cultivated land was significantly negatively correlated with the gully erosion density and intensity. With the increase of the angle between contour line and ridge direction, the average gully density and intensity in sloping farmlands gradually decreased. The gully density and intensity in the horizontal ridge tillage were the largest. The linear fitting effect of ridge angle and gully density was the best, and the gully intensity was slightly worse; (4) The distribution of gullies in different ridge directions has obvious topographic differentiation characteristics. In the cultivated land where the elevation was more than 280 m, all ridge tillage cannot effectively resist the gully erosion; when slope gradient was greater than 15°, the gully intensity of cultivated land with contour ridge was the least, however, it was still higher than the gully intensity of cultivated land with every ridges on gentle slope; there was no significant difference in the effect of ridge directions on the area of the gullies on the shady slope.

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    Location-weighted landscape index of non-point source pollution in Songhuaba Reservoir watershed
    Ruijia YUAN
    2019, 41 (2):  405-413.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.18
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    To ensure the drinking water safety of Songhuaba Reservoir and to promote the prevention and control of water pollution in Dianchi watershed, this study took the non-point source pollution as the research object. Through analyzing the contribution of the different landscape in the formation of non-point source pollution in the watershed, the weights of each ‘source’ and ‘sink’ landscape were characterized by expert evaluation method. The relationship between landscape pattern and non-point source pollution was identified quantitatively from the whole watershed and the three spatial factors levels (slope degree, relative elevation, and distance) by the location-weighted landscape index. The results showed that: (1) All of the location-weighted landscape indexes are less than 0.50, demonstrating that the watershed is the ‘pollution-interception’ landscape pattern in the current, no matter from the whole watershed or from the spatial factor levels. It means that there is few non-point source pollution out from the watershed outlet now, in theory. (2) The result of LWLIslope degree>LWLIrelative elevation>LWLIdistance indicates that in this watershed, focusing on the protection of the ‘sink’ landscape on the high-altitude and steep slope zone could not only prevent the formation of new “pollution contribution” landscape pattern, but also could strengthen the existing landscape pattern of ‘pollution-interception’ in isolation circle. It could effectively block the outflow of soil and nutrients losing by the dry land. The dry land is the largest contributor to non-point source pollution load, is also the ‘source’ landscape with the largest area, and is located in the middle-high elevation and sloping fields in Songhuaba Reservoir watershed.

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