Cultivated land quality monitoring is an important strategy to grasp the changes in cultivated land quality and productivity for the country. Arranging cultivated land quality monitoring samples in a reasonable way can greatly improve the efficiency of cultivated land quality monitoring. This study took the typical area of the coastal plain, Huanghua City as an example, generated 20 alternative monitoring area scenarios with the method of spatial clustering. The initial monitoring area plan was selected by comprehensive comparison of variance, sampling error, sampling efficiency, and sampling elastic coefficient, and by partial optimization, the project of the cultivated land quality monitoring area was finally generated. Finally, based on the stratified sampling area, the stratified sampling method was used to lay out the monitoring records of cultivated land quality.The results showed that under the requirement of 1% sampling error, the alternative cultivated land quality monitoring area with a partition number of 65 did exhibit a comprehensive sample capacity of 77 and a relatively high sampling efficiency, which was selected as the initial monitoring area. The difference in spatial position and cultivated land quality between cultivated land units in the same monitoring area decreased rapidly first, and finally remained stable, with the number of cultivated land quality monitoring areas increases from 5 to 100. By laying the same number of monitoring samples, the sampling error in terms of topsoil texture, section configuration, salinization, organic matter content, drainage conditions, irrigation conditions, and national natural index were 0.37, 1.02, 1.39, 0.91, 0.31, 1.53, and 1.27 respectively. Based on spatial clustering stratified sampling proposed in this paper, the observations were lower than traditional stratified sampling, simple random sampling, grid stratified sampling, and had higher sampling efficiency. The results are intended to provide effective guidance for the deployment of relevant work and research on the quality monitoring samples of cultivated land.