Table of Content

    20 July 2017, Volume 39 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Measurement and analysis of cultivated land protection externalities under different sample schemes based on the single-bounded dichotomous choice CVM:a case study of Jiaozuo
    Haipeng NIU, Kunpeng WANG
    2017, 39 (7):  1227-1237.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.01
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (813KB) ( )   Save

    The cultivated land protection externalities are remarkable. To explore the difference and influencing factors of cultivated land protection externalities under different sample schemes based on the single-bounded dichotomous choice CVM,which is conducive to scientifically measure the economic compensation standard of cultivated land protection. Taking Jiaozuo as an example,to evaluate the cultivated land protection externalities of the average sample scheme,the non-average sample scheme and the classified non-average sample scheme. The effects of classification and merging of the samples,the number and the balance of samples on the validity and accuracy of the measure of the cultivated land protection externalities were clarified. The results show that:(1)Combined with the case comparison,the results are higher reliability of the average sample scheme and non-average sample scheme in the scientifically set the bid value and the hypothetical market situation,reasonably avoid bias and properly set the sample size,which is chosen as the lowest economic compensation standard of cultivated land protection under realistic conditions;(2)The result deviation of the average sample scheme and the non-average sample scheme are 41.5yuan and 255.5yuan respectively,the corresponding deviation rates are 3.2% and 19.5% respectively based on the result of the non-average sample scheme. Therefore,the results are significantly correlated with sample size of bid,and the correlation with equilibrium of sample size of the bid is not significant based on the single-bounded dichotomous choice CVM;(3)It is recommended to use the average sample scheme,the classified average sample scheme and the classified non-average sample scheme in the design and implementation of sample schemes of the dichotomous choice CVM. However,the measure result is highly reliable,which is only the minimum sample size of each bid value (including classified samples)is more than 30;(4)In practice,to establish and improve the dynamic promotion mechanism and system of cultivated land protection based on the lowest economic compensation standard of cultivated land protection.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Rural residential land recycling under the ecological concept
    Feng XU, Zhanqi WANG, Hongwei ZHANG
    2017, 39 (7):  1238-1247.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.02
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1251KB) ( )   Save

    The pattern of residential land recylcling in China's rural areas has changed into a simple cycle model,resulting in second abandonment after land consolidation and environmental pollution in some areas. Here we used ecological land as a new direction for rural residential land recycling under the ecological concept. We then built a recycling evaluation system with human-land multi-factors,and put forward a framework for evaluating the priority direction of residential land recycling to reduce idle cultivated land and improve the eco-environment. Using Fang County in Hubei as the empirical area, we establish cultivated land and forest land as examples of two priority rural residential recycling directions,and suggest the recycling of more than 400 pieces of rural residential land through a comparative study between the improved TOPSIS method and comprehensive scoring method. The result shows that potential reusable land has obvious regional characteristics and is mainly concentrated in towns with excellent or poor traffic location. However,the overall scale of potential land has been declining yearly,and the results of the two methods demonstrate that less than half(45.46% and 30.67%,respectively)of residential land is suitable for cultivation. The evaluation system is effective at a micro-level,and there is room to expand the dimensions of influencing factors and enrich the diversity of evaluation results. The recycling evaluation is particularly urgent and the diversity of evaluation methods makes it possible to flexibly determine the scale of reusable land,followed by the integration of the processes and indicators of various land consolidation projects. In the future study, we should focus on establishment of the evaluation framework through the whole process of residential land recycling, and take the factors influencing the recycling implementation into consideration.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The spatial distribution and evolution of different types of rural settlements on Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    Guanglong DONG, Erqi XU, Hongqi ZHANG
    2017, 39 (7):  1248-1258.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.03
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2555KB) ( )   Save

    Classifying types of rural settlements scientifically and identifying diversity among different types of rural settlements is the foundation of rural settlement management and the realization of rural settlement transformation development and new-type urbanization. Based on rural settlement data we classified rural settlement types using spatial overlay and compared its distinction. We found that there are 12 types of rural settlements on Huang-Huai-Hai Plain;the types little scale-relative regular-high density,little scale-relative regular-medium density and medium scale-irregular-low density are the three main types. The rural settlement in the north of the Yellow River on Huang-Huai-Hai Plain has a larger average patch area and lower density compared to those in the south. Compared to the shape of rural settlement,the scale and density of rural settlements show larger influence on rural settlement area per capita. The land use of rural settlement is more extensive with the combination of small scale and high density,while it is more intensive with the combination of large scale and low density. Most of the county shows increment in the number of small scale,while the type of relative large scale and relative low density declined. Compared to the density of rural settlements,the scale and shape of rural settlements have a closer relationship with the change in the area of rural settlements. The increment of rural settlement area is more obvious for irregular and small scale types,while reduction in area mainly happened in relative regular and small scale types.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Conservation tillage,cropping systems and land productivity for households on the Loess Plateau
    Wei LI, Caixia XUE, Shunbo YAO, Ruixiang ZHU
    2017, 39 (7):  1259-1271.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.04
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (799KB) ( )   Save

    Analysis of the impact of conservation tillage technology on land productivity can provide a reference for developing environment-friendly farming techniques and achieve sustainable agricultural development in the Loess Plateau region of China. Based on a survey of 476 wheat-maize planting households on the Loess Plateau, extended C-D function and multiple regression models were used to analyze the effect of conservation tillage technology on land productivity under different planting systems. We found that conservation tillage technology had a significant positive effect on crop yield,but its effect was slow-release. Conservation tillage technology had a positive effect on the profit of average ha in the area of two croppings per year system and three croppings per two-year system. The effect of conservation tillage on profit was more obvious when the opportunity cost of family labor input was taken into account. Seed costs,irrigation costs and machinery costs had a positive effect on crop yield,and the impact of pesticide and herbicide on crop yield depends on whether they were prophylactic or controlled. The education level of the head of the household had a positive effect on land productivity. Without considering family labor costs,the scale of family agricultural labor had a positive effect on average profit per ha. The scale of land management was positively related to crop yield,while land fragmentation hindered increases in farmers’ profits. Irrigation convenience was beneficial to increase the profit of average ha in areas of more than one crop a year. Crop yields and profits were higher in flat areas than sloped areas.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Grassland dynamics and response to management policies in China's typical steppe from 2000 to 2015
    Yong YANG, Xiangzheng DENG, Yuping BAI, Guofeng WANG, Siqi JIA
    2017, 39 (7):  1272-1280.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.05
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1960KB) ( )   Save

    Grassland is a basic resource for human survival that provides basic material for husbandry development and protection for land ecosystems. With global climate change and intensification of human activity,grassland degradation in China is a major issue. Policy interventions have been the main measure to control restrain grassland degradation and protect and regain grassland resources. With implementation of ecological management and ecological compensation policies,the process of grassland degradation has slowed,however,the contradiction between grassland production and ecological function has not been solved. Here,we selected Hulunbuir (a typical steppe in China)and used field surveys and remote sensing image data to analyze spatiotemporal differentiation of grassland changes between 2000 and 2015. Our aim was to evaluate the defects of national grassland policy on eco-animal husbandry. We found that the grassland quality comprehensive index decreased in area,accounting for 60.03% and 24.9% of the total area in the two periods and indicating a slight decrease. The change in grassland showed a clustered character. We found that the low value clustered region of grassland change is located in the farming areas east of Khingan,and high value clustered region of grassland change is located in the west typical steppe. Through investigating grassland policies we found that relevant policies such as enclosure and grazing prohibition,livestock balance and husbandry subsidies to grassland change has certainly played a positive role; however,they are alone not enough to prevent grassland degradation. Due to lack of policy and operational mechanisms,the effect of policies are lagging and there is further scope for significant effects.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Differences between rural homestead exit intention and exit behavior based on theory of planned behavior
    Yasheng WAN, Jiumiao CHENG, Jiuxing WU, Luocheng FEI, Yuting XU
    2017, 39 (7):  1281-1290.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.06
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1100KB) ( )   Save

    How to reform the rural land system,protect farmer housing rights,promote urbanization,and coordinate urban-rural development remain significant projects for China. The rural homestead system at present,with obvious welfare and identity,was established during the planned economy period,and plays an important historical role in ensuring the basic residence and habitation of farmers. The rural population has been transferring to towns at a large scale because of new-type urbanization,but rural land systems still stick to a deal,because of this,various conflicts have emerged between land use property,homestead supply guarantee,construction land index circulation and homestead mortgages. As a consequence,rural homesteads have continued increasing instead of decreasing. The purpose of this paper is to research the factors behind farmer rural homestead exit intention and exit behavior using survey data from Jinzhai county in Anhui and theoretical analysis and structural equation modeling methods. We found that farmers have a strong appetite to exit homesteads overall,and exit intention is significantly stronger than exit behavior. Driving factors of exit intention and exit behavior are accordant globally,but different locally. Exit intention are farmers' choice in ideal state and driving factors are behavioral attitude,subjective norm,cognitive behavior control and the current situation. Exit behaviors are farmers’ choice in actual state,its driving factors are subjective norm,cognitive behavior control and the current situation. In conclusion,the government should complete rural homestead management systems; enhance farmer public participation;give farmers chances to appeal their profits; improve farmer exit intention along with exit behavior;carry out value assessment of homesteads;and compensate farmers sufficiently.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Tourist behavior and expression based on field theory:graffiti on the badaling section of Great Wall of China
    Jianrong ZHANG, Zhenbin ZHAO, Tianran ZHANG
    2017, 39 (7):  1291-1302.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.07
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2197KB) ( )   Save

    Under Lewin's Field Theory, behavior is the result of interactions between individuals and the environment,forming the psychological field. Carving and writing on the Great Wall of China is a typically uncivilized behavior and a hot issue in tourism research. Here,we took 4120 photos of tourist graffiti on the Great Wall of China to discuss this behavior. The behavior and content of graffiti on the Great Wall reflects changes in tourism activity,social interaction and consciousness;it also represents the inner demands of tourists. In the course of travel activities,the Great Wall is given a unique function as expression of space,carrying a variety of emotions,expression behavior,situational space utilization,group interaction and inclusion or exclusion,as well as rhetoric in response to many characteristics. Based on the viewpoint that graffiti is a kind of expression,we found that the psychological field with the meaning of graffiti beyond protection is produced when there is disharmony between individual needs and environmental factors,and tourist’ cognition about the meaning of the Great Wall is not complete. Therefore,uncivilized behavior is shown in public with emotional principles and unbalanced meaning of Field Theory acts as the fundamental driving force. Uncivilized behavior will be digested by researching the express demands and tourism environment of tourists to form participatory management and play a positive influence with individual initiatives and the environment; ultimately it will provide a new way for the development and protection of precious tourism landscape resources.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The relationship between place attachment and restorative perception of tourists visiting Fuzhou urban parks
    Qunyue LIU, Da YOU, Liying ZHU, Yalei WANG, Qitang HUANG, Siren LAN
    2017, 39 (7):  1303-1313.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.08
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1206KB) ( )   Save

    Place attachment can affect attitudes,behavior and restorative perception. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between place attachment and restorative perception. Based on previous research,we measured tourists' place attachment and restorative perception for eight urban parks and conducted an association study between place attachment and restoration perception by building a structural equation model using environmental psychology and cognition of tourists. We found that tourists' place attachment is composed of two dimensions:place dependence and place identity. Place dependence has a positive influence on place identity. The direct effect of place dependence on restoration perception is not significant,however,place identify has a positive influence on restoration perception and place dependence can affect tourists' restorative perception via the role of place identify as a mediator. These data are a reference for managers and designers of urban parks. In conclusion,place attachment should be considered an important factor in the design of urban parks. The managers and designers of urban parks should attach much importance to improving the service and satisfying tourists' needs to strengthen place dependence. The local characteristics and local history are also important in urban park planning and design for they strengthen the sense of tourists' place identify. Urban parks can be more attractive to city residents and play an important role in human health and well-being.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    An analysis of regional eco - efficiency in China under the background of new-type urbanization
    Hui ZHENG, Shan JIA, Xin ZHAO
    2017, 39 (7):  1314-1325.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.09
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1260KB) ( )   Save

    New-type urbanization should reflect features of green, low-carbon and energy saving, therefore ecological civilization has become a necessary select to construct regional new-type urbanization. This paper has firstly utilized super-efficiency DEA model considering undesirable outputs to calculate the regional eco-efficiency of 30 provinces in China excepting Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Tibet, using statistics collected from year 2006 to 2015. And further use the Malmquist-Luenberger index to decompose the eco-efficiency and explore the internal driving factors of its change. Finally, the panel Tobit model of regional ecological efficiency under the background of urbanization is established to study the substantial impact on the regional eco-efficiency. The results show that:①the average level of China’s eco-efficiency has an increase then a reduction which shows a decreasing tendency from eastern area to central and western areas;②the technological progress is a key factor in enhancing regional eco-efficiency, while the scale efficiency is the main factor to suppress the improvement of eco- efficiency, meanwhile, the effect of scale efficiency on the three regions has regional characteristics: the eastern and western parts are in a scale of non-economic stage and the central part in the stage of economies of scale;③the urbanization rate has a positive and then a negative effect on the eco-efficiency of the eastern, but this does not exist in the west and central during the study period. Meanwhile, the technical progress has a positive effect on the eco-efficiency of the eastern and central regions, and the energy structure has a negative effect on the eco-efficiency across the country. However, the industrial structure and environmental policy have an impact on regional eco-efficiency to various degrees and in different directions. Accordingly, optimizing the capacity structure, impelling energy conservation and emission reduction and other suggestions have been put forward to advance the regional eco-efficiency.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Measurement and spatial econometrics analysis of provincial industrial ecological efficiency in China
    Yanqun LU, Peng YUAN
    2017, 39 (7):  1326-1337.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.10
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (824KB) ( )   Save

    The VRS_DEA model was used to estimate industrial ecological efficiency for China's 30 provinces from 2005 to 2014. A spatial econometrics model was also used to test the influencing factors. We found that the industrial ecological efficiency of most provinces shows a trend of increasing fluctuation,and differences between the provinces are obvious. The spatial development pattern was one from western provinces to eastern provinces. Improvement in industrial development levels is beneficial to industrial ecological efficiency,and the capability of scientific and technological innovation have positive effects on industrial ecological efficiency. Environmental regulation,opening to the outside world and fiscal decentralization have significant negative effects on industrial ecological efficiency. Industrial agglomeration and industrial ecological efficiency follow an inverted U type relationship. Because of the co-existence of pollution emissions and economic benefits,the impact of industrial structure on industrial ecological efficiency is not significant,but the environmental pollution caused by change in industrial structure cannot be neglected. In addition,the spatial lag effect of industrial ecological efficiency is positive,indicating that local governments may learn from and imitate each other in environmental governance. The spatial lag effect of quadratic terms of industrial development is positive,while the spatial lag of fiscal decentralization is negative,and the spatial spillover effects of industrial structure are negative. The spatial lag of industrial agglomeration and industrial ecological efficiency follow a positive U type relationship,the effect on industrial ecological efficiency in adjacent areas was first inhibited and then promoted.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The vertical relationship selection of livestock and poultry breeding waste recycling based on the perspective of farmers in Beijing
    Chang SHU, Juan QIAO, Ning GENG
    2017, 39 (7):  1338-1348.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.11
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (809KB) ( )   Save

    In addition to technology selection,the vertical relationship for livestock and poultry breeding waste recycling has important to improving the efficiency of recycling governance. Here,we analyzed factors and mutual relationships of famers choosing different vertical relationships,based on a dataset of farmers in Beijing in 2015 and multivariate probit model. We found that most of the surveyed farmers realize livestock and poultry waste recycling by different organizational modes. Farmers' choosing behavior has a substitution effect between gifting and selling to surrounding growers,between gifting to surrounding growers and selling to waste dealers,and between selling to surrounding growers and selling to waste dealers. The main factors that influences farmers choosing different vertical relationships include whether they are engaged in plant production,enthusiasm for surrounding growers using manure,distance from farmland,whether to participate in breeding waste management training,whether to accept breeding waste management subsidies,policy perception and levels of disposal facilities. Economic benefits have a direct influence on the vertical relationship of households,and returning own farmland cost the least and resulted in the fastest benefits economically and ecologically. However, waste quantity and quality are important factors restricting the ecological benefits. We discuss relevant policy considerations in light of these data.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Three planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes for the preliminary evaluation of near surface wind simulation accuracy over complex terrain
    Qingchen MU, Yongwei WANG, Kai SHAO, Kefei WANG, Yaqi GAO
    2017, 39 (7):  1349-1360.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.12
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2210KB) ( )   Save

    China is rich in wind energy resources and its wind power development industry has gradually matured. The accuracy of wind speed prediction remains a key problem for the sector. Planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes for numerical models are very important to small scale wind speed forecasting over complex terrain because of rational calculating the atmospheric turbulence characteristics caused by surface thermodynamics and dynamic forces. Here we selected three kinds of planetary boundary layer schemes(MYJ,YSU and ACM2)to simulate Guizhou Jiucaiping in April 2010 for near-ground wind velocity at mountain underlying conditions of complex topography to test simulation performance. We found that under complex mountainous terrain in southwest China the ACM2 scheme simulation of nearly instantaneous wind speed is better than the two other schemes at a height of 70m,due to the calculation mechanism contains the local closure of large scale vortex effect on movement. The simulation results of ACM2 and observations one by one hour root mean square error is 3.56ms-1and the consistency index is 0.94 in April 2010. The wind direction simulation results of the three scheme were very similar,but as height increased the error between simulations and observations of wind direction decreased. The simulation results for wind direction at a height of 70m is better than the result at 10 m. In order to estimate average wind energy density we used the Weibull probability density function to calculate wind energy. Results show that average wind energy density varies at different heights,but at 50m and 70m (the general wind turbine height)the ACM2 scheme performs better.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial and temporal characteristics and prediction of carbon emissions from road traffic in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
    Haitao MA, Lei KANG
    2017, 39 (7):  1361-1370.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.13
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1547KB) ( )   Save

    In the 21st century,China entered an era of highway passenger transport,which is bound by regional energy supply and that strongly impacts carbon emissions. With the rapid increase in the number of private cars,road passenger transport has made a significant contribution to carbon emissions,and future contributions to regional carbon emissions will increase further. This is undoubtedly a huge challenge for China's carbon reduction goals. By using the bottom-up approach for estimating carbon emissions,the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (hereafter,ereafte Jing-Jin-Ji)of highway passenger transport carbon emissions were estimated and analyzed from 2005 to 2014. With the help of a LEAP model,we set three kinds of regulations including benchmark growth,proportional control and total amount of control. The future of regional highway passenger transport carbon emissions is forecasted. We found that from the evolution of time,although per capita carbon emission intensity is greatly reduced,regional overall highway passenger transport carbon emissions grow steadily,and regional carbon reduction pressure increases. From a spatial differentiation perspective,the carbon emissions of the two cities Beijing and Tianjin is leading. The steady rise of carbon emissions in the 11 cities of Hebei also meant that the proportion of carbon emissions in the Jing-Jin-Ji region in Hebei increased. We predict that the total quantity control scenario is a proportional control situation and more carbon emissions,but no matter the regional carbon emission reductions, carbon emissions will keep rising until 2030. The design of highway passenger transport control requires scientific areas and greater effort. These data should be used to improve highway passenger transport policy and regional carbon reduction in China.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Social capital and farmer willingness for forest carbon sequestration management in underdeveloped regions of Fujian
    Yaqing HAN, Yanqiang DU, Shipeng SU, Yuanzhu WEI
    2017, 39 (7):  1371-1382.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.14
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (777KB) ( )   Save

    Forest carbon sequestration (FCS)is an effective way to reduce climate change. Rural household participation in FCS is a focus in China. After southern collective forest tenure reform,small-scale rural households are the main subjects for FCS supply,so discussing their willingness to participate in FCS has great practical significance for policy for carbon forest management. This paper is based on Putnam's theory of social capital and used survey data of underdeveloped areas in Fujian to analyze how social capital influenced rural household willingness for FCS according to logistic modeling. We found that the level of household willingness for carbon forest management was low at 36.63%. Social capital can significantly promote willingness for carbon forest manage-ment,and various dimensions of social capital contributed to driving household willingness to participate in carbon forest management at different levels:social network> interpersonal trust> institutional trust> social regulation. Human capital and physical capital variables also influenced rural household willingness for carbon forest management. Social capital is called ‘the capital of the poor',especially in undeveloped areas. The government should combine institutional arrangements with the practical situation in underdeveloped areas to raise the level of social capital and stimulate forest carbon sequestration management participation. At the same time,the government should consider the interests of households in forest carbon sink compensation systems.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatiotemporal variation in NO2 concentrations and socioeconomic driving forces in Chinese cities
    Yao YAO, Jiangfeng LI, Tao HU, Yuanyuan YANG, Lei DING
    2017, 39 (7):  1383-1393.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.15
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1868KB) ( )   Save

    With China's socioeconomic development and transition,a significant goal of improving urban air quality remains. Using monitoring data for cities at the prefecture level and above from 2004 to 2013,we analyzed temporal and spatial characteristics of NO2 quality concentration. A dynamical mechanism of socioeconomic influencers on urban NO2 pollution was constructed based on a Spatial Econometric Model. We found that annual average values in NO2 concentration varied along a U curve during 10 years in urban areas. P-values changed from 78.1%(214 cities)in 2004 to the lowest at 73.0%(200 cities)in 2013. The control of NO2 pollution was unstable. The total spatial distribution of NO2 pollution presented certain change during study period, and there were significant changes in some local zones. The economically developed eastern cities such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei,Shandong Peninsula and Yangtze River Delta were the main pollutant regions for NO2 in China,and there was a significant spatial positive correlation. The socioeconomic driving forces of NO2 concentration distribution change were analyzed. In the past 10 years,urban economic growth was the main factor affecting NO2 concentration and variation,and it was characterized by a U curve. The population urbanization level,proportion of secondary production and number of motor vehicles were important factors that increased urban NO2 concentrations. The spatial autoregressive coefficient is 0.236 659,indicating that the NO2 concentration in a city depends not only on its own concentration but also on the pollution of neighboring cities. In the future,we need to strengthen the control of NOX emission reduction and pay attention to prevention and control between cities during the NO2 governance process.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Xi'an household carbon emission characteristics
    Zhi LI, Guoping LI, Zhen HU
    2017, 39 (7):  1394-1405.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.16
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (990KB) ( )   Save

    As critical areas in the response to global climate change,there is a great need to research household carbon emissions in megalopolises,such as those in China. Across Xi'an households there is a deep relationship between key impact factors and low levels of economic development. Here we estimated characteristic and impact factors of residential carbon emissions for 915 households in Xi'an using survey data from micro-family activities in 2015. We found that households produce 12 111.87kg CO2 every year. The ratio of family living to transportation is 4∶1. Electricity accounts for 41% of residential energy consumption. The car is the driving factor of carbon emissions in family transportation. The highest income group showed a strong willingness to buy green products and improve environmental quality. In summer,the temperature setting of air-conditioners is 23℃,lower than the national recommended standard. After housing spaces increase from 60m2 to 80m2,carbon emissions rise considerably. As the distance between community and shopping malls becomes longer,more households choose car travel. It is not only the pursuit of modern life,but also once a car has been acquired,people become dependent on it for virtually all journey purposes. Migrant families choose to improve their living environment and at the same time consume more resources and increase their carbon emissions. Our society is still emphasizing ‘meet people’s basic needs’ in Xi'an,so the city cannot achieve abstemious society completely. These results will guide the effective pathway to reducing residential carbon emissions and help design policies to develop low-carbon lifestyles in China’s megacities.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The wild edible plants of four main ethnic groups in the Lahu-Va-Blang-Dai Autonomous County of Shuangjiang in Yunnan Province
    Nan MA, Qingwen MIN, Zheng YUAN, Wenhua LI, Qingchun YANG
    2017, 39 (7):  1406-1416.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.17
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1101KB) ( )   Save

    Lahu-Va-Blang-Dai Autonomous County in Shuangjiang has became an agricultural heritage site within the Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems(NIAHS)in 2015. Shuangjiang has rich wild edible plants and relevant traditional knowledge. Here we used the ethnobotanical 5W+1H method and key interviews to investigate the traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of the four main ethnic groups in Shuangjiang. Through the survey,68 species of wild edible plants belonging to 63 different families and 63 genera were recorded. Of these plants,five species are used as grain,51 as vegetables,15 as fruits,seven as medicinal food,six as condiments,and one species is used for brewing vinegar. The habits of using wild plants in the food culture of the four main ethnic groups affect each other,although each group maintains and develops their own particular food culture. The number of people who eat different wild edible plants have differences;12 plants have less consumption. The traditional knowledge of wild edible plants is facing a crisis,so the local government should organize relevant personnel to investigate,record,study and protect this traditional knowledge. Due to the number of certain wild food plants decreasing,the local government and Headmen(with a certain influence in their ethnic group)should encourage local residents to protect wild food plants. The government should organize relevant personnel to carry out thorough investigations of the distribution of wild edible plant resources and to do germplasm resource protection for some wild food plants of lower quantity.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial pattern evolution of forest resource endowment in hunan at the county level according to spatial network modeling
    Ling YANG, Gui ZHANG, Jinlong WANG, Xin WU
    2017, 39 (7):  1417-1430.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.07.18
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (7247KB) ( )   Save

    Exploring spatial pattern evolution of forest resources has important theoretical and practical significance for forest resource sustainable development. Based on the degree of forest resource abundance,ecological impact and species abundance,the forest resource endowment degree of Hunan was evaluated in 1995,2005 and 2015. Then,in order to reveal the evolution law of the spatial pattern of forest resources,we used complex network theory and Pajek software for nodal county administrative divisions,spatial dependency as edges,and space network diagrams of endowment degree of forest resources in Hunan. At the same time,degree,betweenness,aggregation coefficient,shape index and spatial effect intensity were used to characterize the topology of the network model. We found that the connectivity and influence of cold spots of complex network were more than hot spots. The hot spots had a positive impact on the spatial distribution of forest resource endowment,but cold spots played a negative impact. In order to promote the spatial collaborative development of forest resources for Hunan,the most effective way is to focus on the research unit of the improvement of the evolution of the composite system (space effect intensity is less than 0.5)and where influence on the overall spatial pattern is larger (node degree value is above 5). To reveal the law of spatial distribution of forest resources we can study the direction of the interaction between the nodes in the evolution of forest resources in future research to determine key nodes and edge rights of the forest space network.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics