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    20 December 2018, Volume 40 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Metabolic process of mechanical products iron resources based on material flow analysis in China
    Xin LI, Qiang REN, Yingda LUO, Tao DAI, Bojie WEN, Minxi WANG
    2018, 40 (12):  2329-2340.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.01
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    Scientific analysis of the metabolic process of metal resources and calculation of scrapping of metal products is one of the keys to promote resource conservation and recycle in the new era. In this study, the method of combining dynamic material flow with static material flow, Weibull distribution model, life cycle method, and Minitab software were used to calculate the theoretical scrap of iron resources of mechanical products in China from 1949 to 2016 (including 13 mechanical products). The comparative analysis of the amount of scrapped products under different consumption structures was conducted. The study found that: ① from 1949 to 2016, the theoretical scrap of iron-containing products was 2.12 billion tons, of which the theoretical scrap of mechanical products was 410 million tons, the actual recycling amount was 1.76 billion tons, and 280 million tons in China respectively; ② The scrap recycling efficiency of the machinery industry was 68.3%, among which the scrapping amount of agricultural machinery,petrochemical machinery、electrical machinery、 and non-transportation vehicles increased significantly; ③ in 2016 of iron resources production stage, China invested a total of 1.1 billion tons of iron ore. After the processing stage, 731 million tons of crude steel were into the social end of consumption The amount is 673 million tons, and the metabolic process resource loss rate was 38.8%; ④ China's iron product social stock was 8.3 billion tons in 2016. It is expected to enter the fast retirement period in 2025. In the future, the strategic focus of China's steel industry should focus on technological innovations in production technology, reduce resource losses and environmental impacts, and address a range of resource and environmental issues through supply-side production reforms that increase the capacity of secondary steel resources for recycling.

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    In-use iron and steel stock estimation and driving force analysis in Chongqing
    Qiance LIU, Litao LIU, Jian LIU, Shenggong LI, Hao BAI, Gang LIU
    2018, 40 (12):  2341-2350.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.02
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    A precise accounting of urban iron and steel stocks could provide scientific basis for predicting future iron (including steel) demand, forecasting scrap steel generation, and informing relevant resource and environmental management strategies and policies. Studies on in-use stocks at city level, especially in China, have far less been paid attention to by scientific community comparing to them at country level, although it is still crucial to solve urban waste management and resource recycling problem. Chongqing, one of the four municipalities in China, is a representative city in West China with the largest population between all Chinese cities. Hence, in this study, we selected Chongqing to estimate its in-use iron stock levels and its sector distribution from 1985 to 2014 by applying a statistics-based bottom-up approach within its whole administrative boundary. A huge effort was made to establish a more elaborate iron and steel containing product inventory and collect data of product amount and iron intensities of each product. Social-economic drivers of stocks growth were further analyzed by IPAT equation that could easily quantify the impact for each factor. Our main findings include: (1) Both total and per capita iron stocks have increased by more than 10 times in the last 30 years and reached 59 million tons and 1.748t/cap in 2014, respectively. (2) Chongqing shows the lowest iron and steel stock among it and other two cities reported in the literature (Handan, China and New Haven, USA). However, it has similar distribution structure among different sectors (e.g., with the largest share in the building sector). (3) Economic growth and population positively contribute to stock growth. Alternatively, the technology shows a negative effect, leading to a decreasing trend for future iron demand in Chongqing.

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    Temporal and spatial changes of iron stocks in China's housing construction
    Zhongkui HAN, Bojie WEN, Tao DAI, Qiangfeng LI, Huan WANG, Xuguang FENG
    2018, 40 (12):  2351-2359.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.03
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    At present, the construction industry is China’s largest iron consumption sector. Understanding the stock of iron in construction helps to accurately grasp the utilization of iron resources in construction and provide support for the management and recycling of iron resources. This study implemented dynamic material flow analysis combined with life cycle distribution function to quantitatively analyze the usage and recycling of iron in buildings, which was based the stock of iron in China's housing construction from 1949 to 2016. The results show that with three periods of quiet growth period, slow growth period, and rapid growth period, the iron stock in China's housing construction increased from 100 000 tons in 1949 to 2.81 billion tons in 2016. The per capita iron stock in housing construction also increased from 0.2 kg per capita to 2029 kg per capita in China. Both of above are still in a period of rapid growth stage. There is a great potential for iron recovery in housing construction in the future. Due to the impact of industrialization and urbanization, the per capita iron stocks in housing construction of the four major economic regions are significantly different in China. In 2016, the largest iron stock per capita in housing construction in the eastern region was 2526 kg per capita, followed by 2128 kg per capita in the northeast region, 1732 kg per capita in the central region, and 1605 kg per capita in the western region. Affected by differences in the living environment and economic level of urban and rural areas, the per capita iron stock in China's urban and rural areas are significantly different. In 2016, the per capita iron stock of urban residents in China's housing construction reached 3145 kg per capita. However, this number was 530 kg per capita in rural areas.

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    Global migration of embodied carbon emissions of iron-containing commodities from the perspective of material flow
    Dan LI, Weiqiong ZHONG, Tao DAI, Gaoshang WANG, Qiangfeng LI, Liang LIANG, Jipeng ZHANG
    2018, 40 (12):  2360-2368.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.04
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    Accurating calculation of the carbon emissions implied in the global trade of iron-containing commodities not only allows more equitable and efficient allocation of carbon emissions responsibilities, but also provides information for allocating emission allowances in various regions. In this paper, the carbon emission factors of steel products of various countries were separately verified. The CO2 emissions implied in the international trade of iron-containing commodities in 2015 were calculated in combination with the methods provided in the “IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory 2006.” The calculated results show that: ① From the perspective of the continent, due to geographical location, transportation costs and other factors, the amount of hidden carbon emissions in the continent is relatively large, the flow between continents accounting for about 63.83% of the total flow; In Asia and Europe, the amount of implied carbon emissions from iron-containing commodities exported at the back end of the industrial chain is relatively large, which is related to the industry mode of “imported raw materials and export products.”; North America, Africa, Oceania, and South America have transferred carbon emission responsibility to Asia and Europe through iron-containing commodity trade; ② from the national level, United States, Mexico, Vietnam, etc. have transferred their carbon emission responsibilities to China, Russia, Japan, etc.. Among them, the United States, Vietnam, South Korea and other countries have transferred a large number of carbon emission responsibilities to China, which are 38.5 million tons, 33.9 million tons, and 29.2 million tons. In this paper, the calculation of the implied carbon emissions of iron-containing commodities in the world can more accurately and effectively divide the international carbon emission responsibility and provide technical support for the allocation of carbon emission quotas between countries.

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    Theory and practice on food education researchat home and abroad
    Peng HOU, Ling′en WANG, Xiaojie LIU, Yunyun LI, Li XUE, Shengkui CHENG
    2018, 40 (12):  2369-2381.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.05
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    China is entering a new and challenging period nowadays. With the continuous increasing of people’s income and the improvement of the whole level of productivity, China is in a critical period of upgrading the dietary structure of urban and rural residents and the strategic transformation of agricultural development. Food education, including diet and nutrition education, is of great importance to sustainable food consumption and health. Therefore, focusing on food education theory and practice can not only contribute to forming healthy and scientific diets and lifestyles, which would help reduce food waste and decrease unscientific-diets-induced health risks in turn, but also can serve as an important approach to cope with the tight-balance between grain supply and demand over a long period of time, and ensure food safety at the national level. However, few studies have focused on food education in China, which can hardly meet the urgent needs of food education practices in China. This study reviews the practices and researches on food education systematically in both China and other countries, summarizes the practical characteristics of food education in foreign countries from four aspects mainly: social background, institution-construction, social participation, innovation in content and pattern. Along with the practical characteristics of food education in foreign countries, the study further characterizes the history and present situation of food education practices in China. Based on the above analysis, the study then proposes a concept of food education and describes its basic connotation and characteristics in detail. In the end, the study puts forward some corresponding policy proposals, for example, strengthening the institutional construction and cross-regional exchanges of food education, establishing a food education collaboration network with multiple principals, strengthening the innovation of forms and contents of food education, and launching some pilot projects.

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    Enlightenment of the U. S. agricultural burning management on straw burning management in China
    Cheng QIN, Yuyun BI, Chunyu GAO, Yajing WANG, Hongyan WANG, Ning SUN
    2018, 40 (12):  2382-2391.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.06
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    Straw burning is a behavior that field crops are burned in the field directly after harvesting. As a biomass resource, straw was burned every year in the countryside, which has created major environmental problems including serious air pollution. The United States regards straw burning as an important part of agricultural burning and has introduced relevant measures to solve agricultural burning. In order to overcome the difficulty that straw burning makes it difficult to protect the environment and construct the rural area, the article systematically summarized the domestic and foreign laws and regulations in this area, especially the Smoke Management Program (SMP) of agricultural burning in the United States and tried to improve China's air quality. The SMP typically consists of five parts: burning authorization, smoke management components, public education, supervision, enforcement, and the evaluation of implementation effectiveness. The specific approaches of SMP for managing open burning are to carry out different classification management for different grades of burning scale, to establish a burning authorization standard to determine the feasibility of burning including time, area and maximum volume. Strict law enfor-cement and punishment were required to ensure that the policies can be effectively implemented. Systematic and standardized measures have made agricultural incineration in the United States acceptable to the public, without causing excessive air quality problems. According to the essential condition of China and combining the experience of the practice on SMP in the United States, it is urgent to set up straw burning control group, the relevant legal provisions for straw burning. According to the locally meteorological condition, topographic and geomorphic conditions, and the different demand of prevention and control of draw burning, management and controlling of the burning process should be strengthened to prevent the appearance of too much smoking, which would affect production and people's livelihood and may cause casualties from fire accidents.

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    Study on the recycling utilization of dead livestock and poultry wastes based on the context perspective of Chinese and foreign legislation
    Ruishi SI, Qian LU, Qiangqiang ZHANG, Lu YU
    2018, 40 (12):  2392-2400.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.07
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    Dead livestock and poultry are belonged to agricultural wastes. Simple treatment is the premise of harmless disposal of dead livestock and poultry. Recycling utilization of wastes is the basis for promoting the harmless disposal of dead livestock and poultry. The foreign legislative practice shows that the flexible special legal presupposition is the foundation for realizing the recrycling utilization of dead livestock and poultry. However, it is still absent in China's existing legal system. The academic filed has relatively little attention on the whole, systematic and in-depth aspects of this field. Reviewing the legislative process and policy evolution of China's dead livestock and poultry recycling utilization, it has successively experienced three stages: “terminal management” phase (pre-1995) focusing on the prevention and control of environmental pollution, "harmless management" stage (1996-2015) emphasizing the extension of responsibility about wastes management to producers, and "circulation treatment" phase (from 2016) based on the recycling utilization of dead livestock and poultry. Peeking into the current law on the recycling utilization of dead livestock and resources, there are many problems such as deviations in legislative objectives, incomplete rule systems (unclear subject, unclear objects, imperfect relationship, and difficult implementation of responsibilities), and lack of security systems. Adapt to the development requirements of the aquaculture industry from the linear economy to the circular economy, adopting a transitional legislative strategy is feasible, which includes adding corresponding provisions in the revision of the upper-level law and formulating special regulations for ministries and commissions in a timely manner. Clarifying the legislative objectives, establishing the rules system, and improving the security system are the scientific way to reverse the current status quo.

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    Impact of farmland management on fertilizer reduction in rice production
    Long JI, Chunchun XU, Fengbo LI, Fuping FANG
    2018, 40 (12):  2401-2413.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.08
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    The excessive use of fertilizer is a serious issue throughout China and it has resulted in a lot of adverse environmental and economic impacts. Reducing fertilizer input is an important measure to promote the green development of agriculture. Based on household survey data from 29 counties of six provinces in the middle and lower Yangtze River in China, this study has analyzed the impact of land management, including farm size, land concentration, land rent, and tenure security on farmers’ fertilizer input using Generalized Ordered Logit model. The results show that, farm size and land concentration have significant negative effects while land rent has significant positive effect on farmers’ fertilizer input. However, no evidence is found that tenure security can significantly influence farmers’ fertilizer input. Farmers with large farm size are more reasonable than smallholder farmers in terms of fertilizer inputs. It is noted that the effect of farm size on fertilizer reduction decreases with an increase in farm size. That is to say, it does not mean that the larger farm size, the better effect on fertilizer reduction. In the present study, to reduce farmers’ fertilizer input in rice production, the optimal farm size is 0.67 ~ 3.33hm2, and the suboptimal farm size is 3.33 ~ 13.33 hm2 and 13.33 ~ 33.33 hm2. In terms of the extent of influence of these land management factors, farm size has the greatest effect on farmers’ fertilizer input, followed by land concentration and land rent. Therefore, to reduce farmers’ fertilizer input, the government should promote moderate scale operation of farmland and increase the degree of land concentration during the rapid development of land transfer. Furthermore, improving the price mechanism of the land rent and preventing the excessive growth in land rent are also helpful to reduce farmers’ fertilizer input.

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    Prediction of crop Cd content and zoning of safety planting based on BP neural network
    Yixuan HOU, Huafu ZHAO, Kening WU, Kai LI
    2018, 40 (12):  2414-2424.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.09
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    In order to predict the heavy metal content of crops and realize the safe utilization of heavy metal contaminated agricultural land, 10 factors including soil Cd content, soil pH value, soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, distance to mining land, and distance to traffic lines etc. which affect Cd content in crops were selected by GeoDetector model, being used as input factors. The Cd content in edible parts of crops was used as output factor. The BP neural network prediction models of Cd content in edible parts of wheat, rice, rapeseed, and vegetables were established respectively. The pollution of crop planting was predicted and analyzed. The safety zones of planting was categorized. The results illustrate that: (1) The BP neural network exhibit a good predictive effect, which has a nice applicability to the prediction of Cd content of edible parts of crops. The prediction accuracy of BP neural network models was better than that of the multiple regression prediction models according to the accuracy evaluation indexes. (2) Due to the low prediction accuracy of vegetables prediction model, the support for prediction and management partitions was limited. Only the prediction results of Cd content in edible parts of wheat, rice, and rapeseed were evaluated. The crop pollution prediction distribution map and distribution characteristics were obtained. (3) With the goal of safe use of agricultural land, the three crops in the study area were re-allocated based on the evaluation results, which was divided into four crop suitable planting safety zones. The findings of this study can provide ideas and basis for safe utilization of contaminated agricultural land and crop planting adjustment, which is of both theoretical and practical significance.

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    Assessment of natural gas security and its impact factors in China
    Mingjing GUO, Yan BU, Congxi CHEN, Rui QI
    2018, 40 (12):  2425-2437.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.10
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    Studying the security state of China's natural gas, analyzing the influencing factors, and finding the systematic coping strategies are of great significance for promoting China's sustainable economic and social development and ensuring China's energy security. Based on the historical background of ecological civilization construction and energy structure adjustment, this current study constructs the security evaluation index system of China's natural gas security state from the four dimensions of security of supply, storage and transportation, market, and environment and uses the combination weighting method to carry out index empowerment. China's natural gas security has been evaluated in terms of overall, regional, and provincial aspects. The overall evaluation results show that the average national natural gas security is 0.546. Although the natural gas security level has been rising from 2006 to 2015, the overall security state is general. The results of regional evaluation show that the average security of natural gas in the four major regions in China is 0.582 in the east, 0.571 in the central area, 0.516 in the west, and 0.515 in the northeast, presenting the characteristics of “the best in the east, the second in the central area, the poor in the west and northeast. ” The results of provincial evaluation illustrate a great difference in the security levels of natural gas in different provinces. Among them, there are seven provinces rising, five provinces declining, eight provinces fluctuating greatly, and ten provinces stabilizing. The provinces have met obvious spatial agglomeration effects on security of supply, storage and transportation, market and environment. Finally, proposed from the national, regional, and provincial levels, this paper puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions for guaranteeing China's natural gas security.

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    A study on the consistency and influencing factors of China’s provincial energy saving and environmental protection
    Haiying LIU, Jing SHANG, Dianwu WANG
    2018, 40 (12):  2438-2450.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.11
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    Energy conservation and environmental protection are two basic footholds for practicing the concept of green development of China. Whether the two can be coordinated is related to the sustainable development of China's economy. Incorporated the clean structure of energy consumption into the non-radial directional distance function (NDDF) which based on environmental technology, and used it to measure the energy saving efficiency, environmental protection efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection efficiency of total factors, and judged the realization of the consistency of inter-provincial energy conservation and environmental protection in China from 2001 to 2016 according to the calculation results. Found that if the clean structure of energy consumption is not considered, it will lead to the underestimation of the above-mentioned DEA total factor efficiency value. It is also found that the phenomenon of energy saving and environmental imbalance is more common than high energy consumption and high pollution. Probit model regression results show that the direction and intensity of the impact of fiscal energy conservation and environmental protection expenditure on energy conservation and environmental protection consistency depends on the level of economic development. On the contrary, the improvement of economic development level and the enhancement of environmental regulation have a negative impact on the realization of energy conservation and environmental protection consistency. The former suggests the existence of the phenomenon that sacrificing resources and environment to exchange for economic growth, while the latter illustrates that the Potter effect of “appropriate environmental regulation can stimulate technological innovation” has not yet appeared in China. The level of openness has a negative impact on achieving energy conservation and environmental coherence. Although this negative impact is small, it is enough to warn of the existence of “pollution paradise” risk.

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    National park ticket pricing: international comparison and analysis
    Peng CHEN, Chaozhi ZHANG
    2018, 40 (12):  2451-2460.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.12
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    It has been clearly indicated that Chinese national parks insist on public welfareby “The overall plan for the establishment of national parks. ”However, the key question is how to implement the concept of the National Park, balance the public welfare and profit-making. Taking the case of the representative countiesthat are America, Canada, Australia, France, Japan, South Korea, and Nepal, this study compared international national parks’ orientation, legal basis of entrance fee, pricing strategy, and pricing level based on the official national park website information and published research works. Results show that all the abroad countries have clearly defined the two functions of national park on the legal basis, i. e. , “ecological protection”and“recreational use, ”which also declared the property of public products. Therefore, the cost of national park management is mainly undertaken by thecentral and local governments, and the charge fee is only used to make up for the additional cost caused by the increasing touristsfollowing the principle of cost compensation pricing, which is priced according to the concept of “user pay” and “service charge. ” Relative to the national income level, the price of tickets is at a lower level. China has issued a series of National Park documents, there is no relevant law on national parks yet. And also for the Chinese entrance fee system with the nature of protected areas are often managed by government agencies, which are responsible for the parks and local economic development. Most of the revenue goes directly into local finance to make up for the shortage of local infrastructure funds. The boundary of parks’operating costs is not clear. This conclusion is benefitto the foundation of entrance fee pricing system of China's national parks.

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    Estimation and decomposition of total factors productivity of China’s tourism
    Jianping ZHA, Xingbao QIAN, Qianqian ZHAO, Haoyu SHU
    2018, 40 (12):  2461-2474.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.13
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    The current study introduces the mindset of super-efficiency data envelope into the DEA-Malmquist index calculation under the double frontier. We further construct a super-efficient data envelop analysis model based on double frontiers and relaxes the constraint of constant returns to scale. This model can not only make an effective distinction between multiple decision making units at the same frontier, but also give a consideration to the impact of scale agglomeration on total factor productivity. The current study monitored the total factor productivity of travel agencies, star hotels, and tourist attractions of 30 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China from 2000 to 2015. The heterogeneity of the productivity of the three types of tourism enterprises and the differences in their dominant mechanisms were further characterized based on the complexity of the structure, nature and multiple objectives of the industry. The main conclusions are as the following: the total factor productivity of the three types of tourism enterprises exhibited an overall growth trend, but the trend of change and the source of growth were also different. There are regional differences in the total factor productivity growth source of tourism enterprises of the same kind. The source of total factor productivity growth of tourism enterprises in the same region has industrial heterogeneity. The possible internal mechanism is that the modern information technology has heterogeneous influence on the resource allocation of different tourism enterprises, and the influence of the system supply on the development of tourism sub-sectors is different, as well as the different industry characteristics in the process of evolution of the three types of tourism enterprises.

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    Spatial spillover effects and threshold characteristics of rural labor transfer on agricultural eco-efficiency in China
    Mengyang HOU, Shunbo YAO
    2018, 40 (12):  2475-2486.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.14
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    Based on the panel data of provinces in China from 1978 to 2016, the super-efficient SBM model was used to measure the inter-provincial agricultural eco-efficiency (AEE). Coupled with the STIRPAT model, the spatial econometric model and panel threshold regression model were established to explore the spatial spillover effect and non-linear threshold characteristics of rural labor transfer on AEE. The results show that, the AEE in China presents a steady rise in fluctuation, but the overall level is still relatively low. The difference between regions is also significant, the rural labor transfer has a significant spatial spillover effect on the promotion of AEE, and the indirect spillover between regions is greater than the direct spillover effect in the region, which can help to improve the AEE in the long run. The influence of rural labor force transfer on AEE has a single threshold effect and its threshold character is close to the spatial spillover effect that generally shows a U-shaped relationship in terms of time. The rural labor transfer in each province also gradually evolves from a high-to-low incremental distribution characteristics through the interval division of threshold value by east-central-west regions. Therefore, the optimal allocation of rural labor transfer must consider the spatial dependence and heterogeneity between regions. The formulation of agricultural production policy also needs to combine with the change of rural labor structure in the region while coordinate with agricultural ecology and food security.

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    Impact of fertilizer input on cost efficiency of rapeseed in China
    Cheng LIU, Xue YANG, Xiaoshi ZHOU, Zhongchao FENG, Zhi ZHANG, Rihuan CONG
    2018, 40 (12):  2487-2495.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.15
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    In recent years, the phenomenon of excessive fertilizer input in China is very common. The problem of agricultural non-point source pollution is of prominent. In addition, fertilizer abuse not only increases the cost of agricultural production, but also is not conducive to farmers' income. Therefore, improving the efficiency of agricultural fertilizer use is not only a necessary measure for the green development of agriculture, but also an important way to increase farmers' income. This current study takes rapeseed as an example to explore how to improve the fertilizer input structure and reduce the amount of fertilizer input in its production. In order to explore the impact of fertilizer input on cost efficiency in rapeseed production, by using 1543 field experiment data, the logarithmic production function model was established to calculate the optimal input value of nitrogen fertilizer and the best input value of phosphate fertilizer when the output value of rapeseed was the largest. Next, the cost efficiency function model was initiated to estimate the cost efficiency of rapeseed in the main producing provinces of China. Finally, based on the rationality of chemical fertilizer input, the main influencing factors of cost efficiency in rapeseed production were discussed. The results demonstrated that the unreasonable input structure of chemical fertilizer in rapeseed production significantly reduced the cost efficiency of rapeseed. The excessive input of nitrogen fertilizer and insufficient input of potassium fertilizer in rapeseed production all exhibited a significant negative impact on the cost efficiency of rapeseed. Therefore, in the future investment in fertilizers, it is necessary to strengthen the propaganda of rational fertilization of farmers, increase the subsidy of soil testing formula technology, and guide fertilizer enterprises to provide more scientific and applicable fertilization formula.

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