Table of Content

    20 November 2018, Volume 40 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Sino-Russian natural gas trade security structure and situation
    Zehong LI, Jingnan LI, Yang YANG, A. Kolosov Vladimir, Yang REN, Bazarzhapov Tcogto, Feng CHEN
    2018, 40 (11):  2143-2153.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.01
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    The cooperation of Sino-Russian natural gas has an important impact on the natural gas trade safety in both countries. In recent studies, the qualitative methods of natural gas trade safety have been the main focus. More and more researches have begun to use quantitative analysis methods to evaluate natural gas safety. Based on the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, this study has established a natural gas import and export safety evaluation system, assessing the Sino-Russian natural gas trade safety structure and situation under the influence of different factors. The results show: The diversification of natural gas import in China has gradually increased. The rising trend in the proportion of natural gas imported from Russia did show a positive impact on balancing China’s natural gas import sources and reducing China’s natural gas import risk. The gradually increasing natural gas export potential of Russia plays a positive role on China’s import safety. The price did exhibit a significant impact on China’s natural gas trade safety. The proportion of Russia’s natural gas exported to China has an impact on the export safety of Russia natural gas to a certain extent. The positive impact of China’s increasing natural gas import potential offsets the negative impact of the drop in natural gas demand of Russia’s major natural gas export countries. The drop in natural gas prices in recent years has a significant negative impact on the Russian natural gas export safety. In the next few years, the sharp increase in Sino-Russian natural gas trade volume will enhance the import concentration of China. Therefore, we should guard against the rising natural gas import risk.

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    Sino-Russian forestry cooperation pattern and resource potential under "the Belt and Road" initiative
    Yulong YAO, Bin SHAO, Zehong LI
    2018, 40 (11):  2153-2167.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.02
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    Russia is an important partner of China's “the Belt and Road” initiative and an important part of “the Silk Road Economic Belt. ” Russia's forest resources and reserves are in the forefront of the world, and have long been the main source of imports of timber resources in China. This study has carried out the characterization of the key directions, cooperation main bodies and main regions of Sino-Russian forest resources cooperation, main areas and models, variety structure of timber resources, the quantity and flow direction of Sino-Russian timber resource trade, variety structure, and timber resource transportation channel and further identified the problems in the corporations of Sino-Russian timber resources. It is noted that the historical and realistic analysis of the pattern of Sino-Russian forest resources cooperation was evaluated. A systematic study was carried out from the aspects of spatial distribution of forest resources, tree species structure, proportion of recoverable forests, infrastructure and technical conditions for forest resource development, and investment environment for Russian forest resource development policies. Through data analysis and demonstration, the resource potential, key areas, key areas of cooperation, and feasible models of Sino-Russian forestry cooperation development under “the Belt and Road” initiative were clarified. Meanwhile, it is pointed out that Sino-Russian forestry cooperation and development should fully consider the impact of local industrial policies, environmental protection and various regulations, take into account the interests of all parties, and achieve mutual benefit and win-win cooperation in forestry cooperation and development between the two countries. It is essential to further strengthen the forestry cooperation at all levels of China and Russia, actively build various forms of wood processing industrial parks, explore various cooperation modes, integrate various resources, and improve the competitiveness of forestry enterprises.

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    Study on spatial distribution and its influencing factors of natural tourism resource in China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor
    Li ZHOU, Dianting WU, Zehong LI, Yongming WANG, Luming QIAO, Ye XIAO
    2018, 40 (11):  2168-2176.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.03
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    Tourism resources are the foundation of the development of tourism. The integration of cross-border tourism resources and the co-construction of cooperation model are the important issues of "the Belt and Road" national strategy. Using the nearest neighbor index, geographic concentration index, Gini coefficient, kernel density analysis, and other mathematical and spatial analysis methods, the spatial pattern and influencing factors of the natural tourism resources in China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor of "the Belt and Road" are identified and characterized. The conclusions can be drawn as the following: (1) The natural tourism resources of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor are spatially aggregative, and the distribution density generally presents a “multi-core” distribution pattern, mainly concentrated in the Moscow-Saint Petersburg region, Ekaterina-Tyumen region, Novosibirsk region, Baykal Lake urban agglomeration, and coastal areas of China and Russia. (2) Natural tourism resources are usually along lakes, rivers, borders, and artery traffic. (3) Topographical features, lakes, and water systems are the internal factors that affect the distribution of natural tourism resources, while economic development level, traffic accessibility, population size and others are important external forces affecting its distribution.(4) The natural tourism resources of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor are complementary. Different geological foundations and natural geographical conditions are associated with different types of natural tourism resources. The precipitation in Mongolia is rare, mainly grassland. In the northeast of China, the plain is widespread and the soil is fertile, forming natural tourism resources based on forests. Russia is located in a high-latitude region across the Eurasian continent, where plateaus and plains are interlaced, and forming natural tourism resources dominated by lakes, snow, ice, and forests. Therefore, under "the Belt and Road" Initiative, the government departments of China, Mongolia, and Russia should make full use of the complementarity of natural tourism resources, create differentiated tourism products, actively innovate tourism cooperation development modes, and jointly build the “International Tourism Belt of China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor”.

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    The variation of Lake Baikal water level and causal analysis since 1900
    Guan WANG, Ping WANG, Tianye WANG, Zehong LI, Jingjie YU, Changming LIU, M. V. Bolgov
    2018, 40 (11):  2177-2186.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.04
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    Water level change is an important factor that influences the lake's environment, which is considered to be a dynamic reflection of its hydrological processes and water balance. Over the past 100 years, the water level in the Lake Baikal, the largest freshwater lake in the world, has exhibited a large annual, inter-annual, and multi-year variations under the dual stress of natural changes and human activities. The water level change of the Lake Baikal is highly associated with runoff variation into the lake, which is consistent with the runoff variation of the Selenga River, the largest tributary of the Lake Baikal. The increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation caused by climate warming reduced the inflow to the Lake Baikal, causing the decline in the lake’s water level. The influence of human activities on the changes of water level in the Lake Baikal is manifested in two aspects. First, agricultural expansion under the global warming and associated increasing water consumption by irrigation has led to an increasing water consumption, reducing the surface water flow into the lake and declining the water level of the Lake Baikal. Second, water level change is affected by jacking of the Angara River after operating the Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station. Under the human control of the downstream hydropower station, the water level distribution asymmetry increases annually, the amplitude of water level fluctuation increases seasonally, and the date of annual minimum and the highest water level is delayed. The level change of the Lake Baikal, which is located in the sensitive region of global climate and environmental change, has a significant impact on the ecological environment of the lake and its surrounding area. Therefore, the research on the water level change in the Lake Baikal and its influencing factors has an important significance for protecting the local environment in the context of global change.

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    Spatial distribution and potential exploration of water resources in Siberia
    Ping WANG, Tianye WANG, Guan WANG, Xuejing ZHANG, Zehong LI, L.A. Bezrukov
    2018, 40 (11):  2186-2195.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.05
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    Freshwater is the foundation of human survival and a global strategic resource. The Siberian region of Russia has a total area of 9.69 million km2, which includes the Lake Baikal (~ 22% of the total surface freshwater resources), rivers with a total length of ~5 million km and large reservoirs. The large rivers such as Yenisei, Lena, and Ob are extremely rich in water resources. The average annual water resources in this area are 2350 km3, accounting for 55% of the total water resources in Russia. The hydropower resources are 1.556 trillion kilowatt hours, accounting for 65% of the total hydropower resources in Russia. The water transport resources are 56,500 km, accounting for 55.8% of the total water transport resources in Russia. This area is rich in water resources, while it is sparsely populated (less than 24 million people, accounting for only about 16% of the total Russian population). Therefore, this region demonstrates a low utilization of water resources, with great potential for development. Mountain Rivers in Siberian are rich in water resources. Therefore, the water power development has broad prospects. As the results of the global warming, the icing period of plain rivers in Siberian becomes shorter and the shipping capacity continues to increase. Additionally, under the background of severe water shortages in the surrounding areas of Siberian, the supply of freshwater resources to Central Asia, Mongolia, and northern China through virtual water trade or inter-basin water transfer indicate an important strategic significance and will promote the coordinated economic and social development of the region. With the implementation of the "Belt and Road Initiative" and the "China-Mongolia-Russia International Economic Corridor", China, Mongolia, and Russia have broad prospects for cooperation in hydropower and energy.

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    Relative growth models of main dominant tree species of forest in Siberia Region
    Bin SHAO, Yulong YAO, Liang WU, Hua OUYANG
    2018, 40 (11):  2195-2201.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.06
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    Pinus sylvestris L., Larix sibirica Ledeb., Larix cajanderi Maye, Pinus sibirica Mayr, Picea obovata Ldb.,Abies sibirica Ledeb., and Populus tremula L. widely distribute in various forests of Siberia region and are main dominant tree species in a variety of forests, e.g., pine forest, cedar forest,larch forest,spruce-fir forest, dark coniferous forest, and broad-leave forest. Using plot data of tree biomass from IIASA and V. A. Usol’tsev’s book and classic tree biomass model W=a×(D2×H)b and W=a×Db, the relative growth models of these forest dominant tree species at the scale of Siberia region were initiated and successfully constructed,respectively. Based on comprehensive analysis of the precision index of the biomass model, R2 (correlation coefficient), TRE (total relative error), and MSE (mean system error),the biomass models with the best accuracy are relative growth models of trunk with bark and aboveground biomass of these tree species. Relative growth models of branch and leaf of almost all tree species except for Siberian stone pine also meet the need of calculating tree biomass of plot. The tree species that biomass models of their roots have been successfully constructed are Scotch pine, Siberian fir, Siberian stone pine, and European aspen.

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    Studies on the spatio-temporal evolution and macro-mechanism of land circulation price in China
    Ting DU, Daolin ZHU
    2018, 40 (11):  2202-2212.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.07
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    In recent years, the studies of land circulation are frequently seen in research field, but, up to now, there is still no general judgement on the basic situation of land circulation price in China. Based on the land circulation price data at the provincial level of 2009 and 2017, this paper adopts ESDA method and space econometric model to carry out the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution and macro differentiation mechanism of land circulation price in China. The results show that land circulation price overall rose 33.28% between 2009 and 2017, but the growth rates were uneven among provinces. In general, the superposition area of the eastern developed regions and the main grain producing areas increased greatly, while the southeast coastal areas and the northwest hinterland increased slowly. Besides, the land circulation price was decreasing from east to west, and presented inverted u-shaped structure from north to south. Moreover, Land circulation price showed a significant "HH-LL" clustering structure among provinces, and with the development of land circulation market, the spillover effect is further strengthened. Finally, spatial econometric analysis shows that the differentiation of land circulation price among provinces in China is mainly affected by regional economic factors. With the development of land circulation market, the role of natural factors is decreasing, while the influence of regional economic factors and cultivated land resources endowment is further strengthened. Based on this study, this paper suggests that we should follow the objective law of spatial differentiation of land circulation price in China, avoid blind price comparison, timely regulate the land circulation price and restrain excessive capitalization of cultivated land.

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    The pattern of land use transition in different major function zones in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Si WU, Shougeng HU, Ting XIONG, Xiehua ZOU, Fan ZHU
    2018, 40 (11):  2213-2224.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.08
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    Under the background of national promotion of ecological civilization construction in-depth, with the implementation of the major function zones strategy, the design of the pattern of regional land use transition is significant to solve the conflict between the social economic development and land use in the process of China’s rapid urbanization. The current study investigated the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Economic Belt, with 325 counties selected as a basic research unit,by using the data of Landsat TM images and socioeconomic statistics. From the perspective of land use morphology transformation (the dominant/recessive morphology), the index system of the pattern of land use transition was designed where construction land, cultivated land, and forest land were the typical types. Furthermore, with deeply analyzing the requirements for land use transition in the new age, the transition directions of the three land types were initiated. Finally, following the principles of sustainable development and dominance, our study generalized the patterns of land use transition of different zones. The results indicated that there were four patterns including scale and output capability moderately improved ((Du+Ru+)-oriented pattern), and scale controlled and output capability moderately enhanced ((DuRu+)-oriented pattern) in the urbanized zone. Four transition patterns including scale increased and output capacity stabilized ((Dc+Rc)-oriented pattern), and scale stabilized and output capacity improved ((DcRc+)-oriented pattern) were recognized in the major agricultural production zone, and two transition patterns including scale increased ((Df+)-oriented pattern) and scale stabilized ((Df)-oriented pattern) were identified in the key ecological zone. The findings of this research will provide a reference for impelling urban-rural composition development in different major function zones in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Economic Belt and promote sustainable land use in each unit.

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    Analysis on the factors that affect the farmland transfer performance based on farmers′ satisfaction—— a typical survey in Wuhan and Ezhou
    Chenlin GAN, Lu CHEN, Yinrong CHEN, Miao ZHANG
    2018, 40 (11):  2225-2235.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.09
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    Based on the perspective of farmers' satisfaction, this study identified the influencing factors of farmland transfer performance by constructing the farmers' satisfaction index model by using the survey data collected in Wuhan and Ezhou where farmland transfer happens frequently, and conducted a quantitative research on those influencing factors by using structural equation model. It is found that Perceived Quality (PQ) is the decisive factor that influences the performance of farmland transfer in Wuhan and Ezhou. The Government Support (GS) behaviors provided by relevant government departments of the two places on farmland transfer activities have played an extremely important role in promoting the improvement of farmland transfer performance. The Reliability (R) factor did exhibit an important impact on farmland transfer in both areas. While the Normative (N) measures and Personnel Interaction (PI) measures illustrated a certain positive impact. Farmers of the two places were not satisfied with the inefficiency of the treatment system in the late period of transfer activities, which negatively affected the performance of farmland transfer. It is proposed that in order to resolve the limitation factors and improve farmland transfer performance, the relevant government departments of Wuhan and Ezhou should first strengthen the management of transfer price to ensure farmers’ transferring welfare level. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision management and media service functions of government departments in transfer activities, and standardize their transferring procedures. Then a qualification evaluation mechanism for farmland inflows subjects should be established to ensure that the inflow subjects have the basic ability to perform the contract. Therefore, it is to set up and complete the complaint mechanism to eliminate the late risk of farmland transfer.

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    Research of effect on water resources carrying capacity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by water transfer
    Yan HAN, Shifeng ZHANG, Aifeng LV
    2018, 40 (11):  2236-2247.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.10
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    The water resources shortage and water environment worsen have been becoming primary restraining factors to development of economy and society in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The evaluation of water resources carrying capacity is the key to regional water reasonable utilization. In this paper, according to the view of development of economy and society is supported by water resources, the eleven factors which mainly effect water resources carrying capacity have been selected as assessment indexes. An evaluation approach of research the effect on water resources carrying capacity by water transfer based on water quantity, water quality, water area and water flow has been established. The results indicate that the water carrying capacity are belong overloaded in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, especially in Tianjin and Beijing. The carrying press is mostly from water resources system, the water shortage is the major reason of water carrying capacity overloading in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and the per capita water resources is the key factor to regional water carrying capacity. The water transfer is certainly important to improve water carrying capacity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, especially for Beijing and Tianjin. In drought period, the results of improve water carrying capacity by water transfer is more evident, for example the water resources carrying capacity had been improved 13% in Tianjin through water transfer from Luan River and Yellow River to Tianjin in 2000, when is very dry year. The south water to north make water carrying capacity improve 5% in Beijing and Tianjin, respectively. It supply an foundation for water resources reasonable utilization in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei to research of effect on water resources carrying capacity by water transfer, and it is also important to realize the harmony among water resources, economy and society in region.

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    Driving effect of spatial-temporal difference in water resource consumption in the Yangtze River Economic Zone
    Chenjun ZHANG, Jingru XU, Lina ZHANG, Qinghua PANG
    2018, 40 (11):  2247-2259.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.11
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    Quantifying the driving effect of spatio-temporal difference in water consumption in the Yangtze River Economic Zone is of great significance to the implementation of the Double Control Actions. In this study, the LMDI method was used to decompose the spatio-temporal difference of water consumption into economic scale effect, industrial structure effect, and technical progress effect. The water intensity is decomposed into industrial structure effect and technical progress effect. The results illustrated that technical progress and adjustment of industrial structure are primary and secondary factors that inhibit the increase in water consumption and promote the reduction of water intensity, while economic growth has always pushed up water consumption. The general improvement of water efficiency in three industries and the decline of the proportion of the primary industry have strongly promoted the decline of water consumption and water intensity. Compared to Chongqing, the industrial water intensity of other provinces is always greater, especially the primary and secondary industries, which is not conductive to the narrowing of the spatial difference of water consumption. The more advanced industrial structure in the Yangtze River Delta Zone has reduced the spatial difference in water consumption. Compared to Shanghai, higher water intensity and low-level industrial structure of other provinces in tertiary industry enlarged the water intensity spatial difference. There is a mutual conversion relationship between the spatial and temporal difference of water consumption. Therefore, the control of water consumption should focus on the improvement of water efficiency and the optimization of industrial structure. At the same time, it should focus on the differences of three industrial characteristics. With selecting the reference object, each province should propose applicable water saving countermeasures according to the spatial difference driving effect.

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    Spatio-temporal dynamic characterization of impervious surface in the Jiaozhou Bay based on Landsat imagery
    Xi WU, Bin GUO, Zhongsheng CHEN, Wenjiao SHI
    2018, 40 (11):  2260-2269.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.12
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    Impervious surface areas (ISA) are key factor of affecting urban ecological environments. Information on ISA distribution and dynamics was useful for the planning and development of cities. This study explored a hybrid method consisting of linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) on the basis of vegetation-high albedo-low albedo-soil model (V-H-L-S), and regression tree (RT) for estimation of ISA in the Jiaozhou Bay. Medium-resolution remote sensing data (Landsat TM images in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2011, and Landsat OLI images in 2016) were used as basic data. Then the spatial and temporal distributions of ISA from 1990 to 2016 were identified in the Jiaozhou Bay based on the estimation of ISA. In addition, the regional development center of gravity was located by the extended index and buffer zone. The results demonstrated that the coefficients of determination (R2) of ISA in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 were greater than 0.70 and their root mean square error (RMSE) were less than 16.70%. It is noted that the hybrid method consisting of LSMA and RT for estimation of ISA is feasible. The ISA increased from 105.17 km2 in 1990 to 620.02 km2 in 2016 in the Jiaozhou Bay. The expansion trend was from south to north, east to west. The area of ISA was increasing, but the increasing rate of ISA did show a little change. From 1990 to 1995, the expansion intensity of ISA was the largest, which was much larger than other periods. Downtown has always been the center of urban development, then Chengyang has become the focus of auxiliary urban since 1990. However, the trend was from Chengyang to Laoshan in 1993, Jiaozhou and Jimo in 2005, and Huangdao in 2011. This study will provide scientific foundation for the development and construction of sponge city in the Jiaozhou Bay.

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    Spatial dependence of family farms’ adoption behaviors of organic agriculture
    Xiaonan WANG, Jing ZHU, Huimin BO
    2018, 40 (11):  2270-2279.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.13
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    Based on the field research data of 366 family farms in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, this paper used the method of global Moran’s I, developed a Bayesian spatial Durbin Probit model and set the appropriate spatial weight matrix, then selected the optimal model to estimate parameters. Direct effects and spatial spillover effects of characteristic variables on family farms’ adoption behavior of organic agriculture were determined by using partial differential method. The results show that organic agricultural adoption behaviors of the neighboring family farms have a spatial correlation. When family farms are within a 2.0 km distance, their organic agricultural adoption behaviors have the most spatial dependence. The educational level, risk preference degree, number of laborers, fund status, environmental awareness, cognition degree on organic agriculture, participation in training, access to information from the media, market information acquisition degree and know the farmers who have adopted organic agriculture have positive influences on organic agricultural adoption behaviors of family farms. However, gender and age have negative influences on organic agricultural adoption behaviors of family farms. In addition, the organic agricultural adoption behaviors of family farms is mainly influenced by direct effects of their characteristic variables. However, the spatial spillover effects of neighboring family farms’ characteristic variables can not be ignored, especially their participation in training, number of laborers and fund status. This conclusion not only provides theoretical support for the effectiveness of demonstration and extension of organic agriculture, but also provides a reference for choosing what kind of family farm to be the model family farm.

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    Government subsidies and productivity of resource recycling enterprises —— an empirical study on panel threshold effect of listed enterprises in China
    Hailin YAO, Ruokang JIA
    2018, 40 (11):  2280-2296.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.14
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    At present, China is facing a severe resource and environment problem. In order to solve the increasingly dual constraints of resource and environment, the Chinese government had invested a large amount of subsidies to promote the development of resource recycling industry. According to previous studies, subsidy was a "double-edged sword, " on which the impact was associated with uncertainty. In order to explore the impact of government subsidies on the production efficiency of resource recycling enterprises, this investigation used the panel data of 51 listed enterprises in China from 2012 to 2016 to characterize the impact of subsidies on total factor productivity (TFP) at a micro level by using fixed effect model and threshold panel model. It concluded that government subsidies have a nonlinear effect on TFP. Furthermore, there is a threshold effect of subsidies on TFP, which is closely related to the subsidy intensity. Subsidies did show a promoting effect in the (1.5%, 1.6%] interval, with an ineffective impact within the range (1.6%, 2.7%], and an inhibitory effect when the subsidies are greater than 2.7%. Further intrinsic mechanism analysis demonstrated that the subsidies stimulated enterprises' R&D investment during the promotion phase and increased enterprises' rent-seeking costs during the inhibition phase. It is noted that the advisable suggestion for upgrading the current development of the resource recycling industry was initiated. We assume that this will provide a valuable reference for the adjustment of subsidy policy and the development of resource recycling industry in China.

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    Traffic accessibility analysis of traditional villages in minority areas: a case study of Tongren City, Guizhou Province
    Zhongxun ZHANG, Qingyuan YANG, Li WANG, Kangchuan SU, Chengming KUANG
    2018, 40 (11):  2296-2306.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.15
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    Traditional villages in minority areas are important carriers of specific cultural heritage, and the level of transportation accessibility directly affects the economic and social development, cultural protection, and dissemination in minority areas. Based on spatial syntax and GIS analysis, this study identified the characteristics and influencing factors of traffic accessibility in 100 state-level traditional villages in Tongren City, Guizhou Province. The results illustrated: (1) There was a significant difference in the grade of connection value of Tongren traffic network and the topological connection was a "point-axis" radial structure. The highway was the core of high integration axis and the distribution of network topological connection level was closely related to the development of regional economy. The most accessible traditional villages in the city are Jiangkou County, Yinjiang County, the Songtao County, and Shiqian County in Fanjing Mountain area. The villages with high local accessibility have a very convenient access to high grade highways. The areas with high perceptual accessibility are concentrated in the area around Fanjing Mountains. (2) The traditional villages of Tongren City form a high-density distribution area in Songtao region of Fanjing Mountains, a sub-high density distribution areas among the Yinjiang region around Fanjing Mountains, Shiqian region and the junction area between Sinan and Dejiang area were identified. The overall accessibility of these areas is also relatively high, indicating that the overall accessibility is proportional to the distribution of traditional villages. (3) The closed terrain, road grade, and the overall level of economic and social development directly affected the accessibility of traditional villages. As the core area of Wuling Mountain area, Tongren City illustrates a poor overall level of accessibility due to the concentration of traditional villages, which is a challenge to the economic and social development of the region, the inheritance and protection of village culture, which needs to be promoted.

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    Accessibility to medical care services of urban residents based on internet map service in Kaifeng City
    Zhicheng ZHENG, Lijun ZHANG, Yaochen QIN, Zhixiang XIE, Peijun RONG, Yang LI
    2018, 40 (11):  2307-2316.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.16
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    Developing traffic routes and time-consumption tools based on Internet map service by Web crawler program, the spatial variation’ pattern of self-driving mode medical accessibility of residential areas in the peak and off-peak periods in Kaifeng city by weighted optimal time path model. Combined with house prices spatial big data explore its formation mechanism from the urban expansion and others. We found that in the frequency distribution of medical accessibility level in Kaifeng, hospitals showed obvious hierarchical characteristics. The number of basic hospitals at the "middle" accessibility level in the peak period is better than the off-peak period. The level of medical accessibility also shows significant spatial variation’ pattern and spatial agglomeration characteristics in the spatial pattern, and declines from the old city to the peripheral area. The change of accessibility level at peak time is the result of transformation of other accessibility level to varying degrees, and peak travel has the most significant impact on the accessibility of the residential area in the old urban boundary. Analysis and discovery the spatial mismatch of new urban area and the original hospital caused by rapid urban built-up areas expansion and the key development direction of urban planning limit the accessibility of self-driving mode medical treatment in the residential land of the new urban area. In addition, the spatial pattern of self-driving mode medical accessibility in Kaifeng was formed by the traffic status, history continuation, combination of medical treatment preference and market economy.

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    Study on measurement of carbon-driving effects from technological change and structural adjustment in typical countries from 1990 to 2014
    Xianen WANG, Zhiyuan DUAN, Peibo WANG, Junnian SONG, Shuo WANG, Haiyan DUAN
    2018, 40 (11):  2317-2327.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.17
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    In the context of global carbon emission reduction, countries with different levels of development, based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibility (CBDR), continue to adopt carbon emission reduction strategies such as technological change and structural adjustment in order to achieve a good fit between pursuing economic development and achieving carbon emission reduction targets. Taking 34 typical countries in the world with different income levels from 1990 to 2014 as an example, this study implemented an impulse response analysis and variance decomposition analysis to explore the driving effect of technological changes characterized by carbon intensity and energy intensity, structural adjustment characterized by proportion of renewable energy and industrialization rate on carbon emissions based on VAR model, in order to provide a reference for the practice of carbon emission reduction in the economic and social development in various countries. The results demonstrated that technological change and structural adjustment in high-income countries all play a major role in promoting carbon emission reduction. The contribution of carbon emission changes is dominated by structural adjustment with an average contribution of 22.71%, while technological changes in upper-middle-income countries and lower-middle-income countries have different effects on the carbon emissions. The vast majority of industrialization rate plays a most important role in promoting carbon emissions. The proportion of renewable energy except for OPEC countries have significant emission reduction effects, of which the contribution of changes in carbon emissions dominated by technological change, with an average contribution of 21.41% and 25.60%, respectively. According to the actual situation of different income countries, this study puts forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions from the aspects of energy structure, industrial structure and technology.

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