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    20 September 2018, Volume 40 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Study on the influence path of China’s urbanization development on energy consumption based on direct and indirect effect perspective
    Min ZHOU, Yingying XIE, Yefei SUN, Wen GAO
    2018, 40 (9):  1693-1705.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.01
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    Accelerating urbanization and achieving total energy consumption control are two major tasks of China's current development. It is of great realistic significance to recognize the action path to achieve green and sustainable development. Based on Chinese provincial panel data from 1990 to 2016 and urban development theory and economic theory, the two-step system GMM method and the threshold regression model were used to construct the path of conduction factors from the perspective of direct and indirect effects and to test the potential threshold effects. The direct effect is the result of the dominant game between expansion effect and quality effect. The results show that urbanization has a significant expansion effect on energy consumption, but tends to weaken gradually. In the indirect transmission path, the energy-saving effect of the industrial structure change is remarkable. The urbanization accelerates technology agglomeration and spillover and accumulation of “human capital bonus, ” which has reversed the positive direction of technology progress and human capital act on energy consumption in the direct effect. However, China’s urbanization is still not divorced from the stage of high carbonization and fails to produce significant energy savings effect as expected. And population and economic growth are still important inducements for energy consumption to keep rising in the process of urbanization. Finally, this paper verifies the threshold effect of different conduction factors, that is, the influence of urbanization on energy consumption is different with the development level of each factor. Therefore, the government and enterprises should combine action path, direction and the threshold stage of different factor, take measures according to local conditions, pay attention to the input of science technology and manpower, reduce the consumption of exhausted energy, optimize the structure of energy consumption, enhance the quality effect, and realize the purpose of energy saving.

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    Assessment of copper resources ecological efficiency based on material flow analysis in China
    Fengrui JIA, Chen LANG, Guangxin LIU, Qi SUN, Danzhu MA, Qiang YUE
    2018, 40 (9):  1706-1715.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.02
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    As an important strategic resources, the use of copper in an efficient way is related to the national economic development and industrialization process. The material flow model of copper resources was established by using material flow analysis. And then, constructing the ecological efficiency evaluation system of copper resources by AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and entropy method was conducted. Next, evaluating the copper resources ecological efficiency was performed in China in 1990, 1995, and 2000-2015. The results showed that the MV (Material Flow Analysis and Value Chain Analysis) data were in a fluctuating state in the period 1990-2015; and the EE (Energy Consumption and Environmental Load) began to decrease yearly following 1990. The CREE (Copper Resources Ecological Efficiency) kept increasing in the period from 1990 to 2015, which reached the medium efficiency level in 2011. Furthermore, three scenario analysis for different copper resources ecological efficiency conditions was carried out. Under the first and second scenarios: the CREE is 3.10 and 3.65, which is in the middle level and in the high level of medium efficiency when it reached 2050, respectively. Simultaneously, under the third scenario: the CREE in 2050 is 4.45, which is 3.89, 4.15, 2.32, and 1. 80 times of the CREE in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015, respectively. It is noted that the development of copper industry has reached the theory of “micro consumption, development, sustainability” and the CREE is expected to be stable at about 4. 45. According to the above research results, the development of the copper industry should adhere to the way of the combination of economic efficiency, energy saving, and environmental protection, so as to embark on a green and sustainable development in the future.

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    Study on the functional division of mineral resources development and poverty alleviation policy in Wumeng Mountain Area
    Yuhan ZHANG, Huali HOU, Yue SHEN, Yantao DONG
    2018, 40 (9):  1716-1729.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.03
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    China's poverty-stricken areas are rich in mineral resources where the ecological environment is rather fragile, i. e. , the transportation, water conservancy, and other infrastructure are relatively lag behind. How to overall coordinate the relationship between mineral resources development and ecological environment and the other influencing factor is one of the key problems that need to study and solve in the process of the development oriented poverty relief. In this study, from the perspective of functional zoning, we selected the Wumeng Mountain Area, which has a relatively deeper degree of poverty and the conspicuous contradiction between the development of mineral resources and the ecological environment protection, as a case study area. We identified the resources, environment, economy, society and other factors and constructed the index system of functional zoning of mineral resources development. We evaluated the factors such as abundance of mineral resources, ecological environment index, traffic dominance degree, water shortage degree, and industrialization level. Based on the evaluation results, the discriminant analysis method was used to divide the Wumeng Mountain Area into three functional zones: key development zone, protective development zone, and restrictive development zone. We further characterized differentiated mineral resources development, management and support policies on the basis of deficient characteristics of each functional area. The key development zones should strengthen mineral exploration, guide the concentration of mining production factors, and extend the industrial chain; the protective development zone should improve the planning requirements of mineral resources exploration and development, and recovery the destruction of mine geological environment in time; the restrictive development zone should control the development intensity of mineral resources and accelerate the establishment and implementation of ecological compensation mechanism. The results not only provide decision-making support for the development-oriented poverty alleviation in Wumeng Mountain Area, but also have certain reference value for other poor areas.

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    How does capital endowment affect herdsman to reduce livestock? ——an empirical analysis based on 372 herdsmen in Inner Mongolia
    Xianxiong XIE, Xiaoping LI, Minjuan ZHAO, Hengtong SHI
    2018, 40 (9):  1730-1741.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.04
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    Based on the Bourdieu's theory of practice, we constructed the theoretical framework and research hypothesis of capital endowment affecting herdsman's reduction of livestock. We further analyzed the influence of capital endowment on the willingness and level of herders' reduction of livestock by using Double-Hurdle model and sample survey data of 372 herdsmen in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that: 1, the willingness of the herdsmen to reduce livestock in the study area is not high, and the scale of livestock reduction is overall low. Only 49.731% of them are willing to reduce their livestock, and the average reduction scale is 59.717 sheep, which accounts for 48.721% of the households that have reached the standard of grass and livestock balance (122.568 sheep units). There is still a large space for reducing livestock. 2, the capital endowment did exhibit a significant impact on herders' livestock reduction behavior. The family income and the number of livestock in the economic capital demonstrates a significant effect on the herdsman's willingness and degree of reduction of livestock. The grassland area shows a significant inhibitory effect on the willingness to reduce livestock. In the cultural capital, the Mongolian nationality and the degree of education illustrate a significant role in promoting the willingness and extent of the herdsmen's livestock reduction. Interpersonal trust, interpersonal network. and reciprocal norms in social capital have significantly promoted the herdsmen's willingness to reduce livestock. Moral constraints have significantly promoted the willingness and extent of herdsmen's reduction of livestock. Finally, government subsidies and grassland ecological cognition will have a positive impact on the willingness and extent of herders' reduction of livestock.

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    Procedural justice and land requisition compensation based on the influential analysis of procedural rights guarantee
    Tu LV, Xiangnan LIU, Peng LIU
    2018, 40 (9):  1742-1751.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.05
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    The procedural rights guarantee is one of the main routes to promote procedural justice and improve the land requisition compensation for the farmer in theory. Based on the theoretical analysis and literatures review, the current study established an indicator system to evaluate the guarantee degree of the procedural rights in land requisition. With 305 land requisitioned farmers' investigation data from Liaoning province, by applying the Multiple Regression Model, this article tested the influence of procedural rights to the land requisition compensation empirically. The procedural rights in the process of land requisition mainly include the rights to know, the rights to participate, the rights to express, and the rights to supervise. The findings illustrated that the procedural rights of the farmer's rights to know, the farmer's rights to participate, the position of the land requisitioned farmer in the village that if he or she is the village cadre, and per capita annual income of the household did show a significant positive correlation influence to the land requisition compensation. With the implementation of guarantee degree's enhancement of the procedural rights, which could promote the farmer's efficient participation in land requisition, improve farmer's negotiation ability, regulate the operation of the local government and village collective's administrative power, and then brings positive impact to the land requisition compensation. Based on the discussion above, it is essential to further strengthen the institutional construction of the public land requisition information's transparency, to make clear the land requisitioned farmer's participation schedule and pattern in the process, to promote the substantive of farmer's rights to express, and to improve the supervision and accountability mechanism of land requisition.

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    The difference of crop diversity between migrant professional farmers and local peasant households and its influencing factors
    Menglu YAN, Taiyang ZHONG
    2018, 40 (9):  1752-1761.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.06
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    Crop diversity is an effective strategy for traditional small-peasant to cope with the impact of agricultural risks. The transition of agriculture driven by migrant professional farmers may be different from local peasant households’crop diversity. The purpose of this study aims to investigate the difference of crop diversity between migrant professional farmers and local peasant households and its influencing factors at farm household level. Based on survey data from 393 farmers’crop diversity in Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province in 2015, we established a Poisson regression model. Different from the previous studies, the current investigation was carried out at farmer level, the farmer is not only the household head but also the family member in charge of agricultural production. Furthermore, the crop diversity was valued more directly by crop kinds instead of diversity index. The result shows that several factors affected farm households’ crop diversity. First of all, compared with the local peasant households, the crop diversity of migrant professional farmers is 17% less than that of local peasant households. Moreover, crop acreage has a significant effect on crop diversity, crop diversity decreases approximately 2.7% with an increase of 1 hm2 of crop acreage. Besides, the age of farmers who are in charge of agricultural production, the agriculture land plot quantities of farmers who own, and the distance from peasants residence to the main city zone also have significant effects on crop diversity. Holding all other variables constant, the expected number of crop diversity increases by about 0.9% with an increase of the age of farmers, the expected number of crop diversity increases approximately 4.6% with an increase of 1 plot of agriculture land; the expected number of crop diversity increases approximately 0.8% with an increase of 1 km from peasants residence to the main city zone.

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    Influence of land circulation on socialized service needs for farmers’ production based on the empirical analysis of PSM model
    Ruishi SI, Qian LU, Qiangqiang ZHANG, Hu LIANG
    2018, 40 (9):  1762-1772.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.07
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    Under the background of land circulation, improving the supply efficiency of socialized service for agricultural production and satisfying the socialized service needs for farmers' production are of great significance for the implementation of the strategy of revitalizing the country. Based on the data of 973 households in Loess Plateau Area of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia, the socialized service for agricultural production is described by infrastructure service, agricultural material supply service, technology management service, process and sale service, and financial and insurance service. This study selected the propensity score matching model to investigate the effect of land circulation on socialized service demands. We found that: ① Land circulation makes the socialized service needs for farmers’ production heterogeneity obviously. The overall effect mainly stems from the scale effect of land transfer-in. ② The land circulation has a significant role in promoting infrastructure service, technology management service, process and sale service, and financial and insurance service. Farmers’ demand strengths are increased by 0.215、0.070、0.094, and 0.162, respectively. The land circulation exhibits a significant inhibitory effect on the agricultural material supply service and the inhibitory intensity is 0.306. ③ The influential direction of land transfer-in on the socialized service needs for farmers’ production is consistent with the overall influential direction of land circulation and the impact strength is greater than the overall strength. However, the influential direction of land transfer-out on the social service needs for farmers’ production is greatly different from the overall influential direction of land circulation and the impact strength is less than the overall strength. The government should reduce the agricultural material supply service, strengthen the promotion strength of agricultural technology, and expand the content of socialized service for agricultural production in order to improve supply level of agricultural socialized service and promote orderly convergence between small-scale farmers and modern agriculture.

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    Study on the relationship between the spatial feature of urban population aging and the pension resources matching ——take the three provinces of the Northeast China as an example
    Dongxia ZHAO, Zenglin HAN, Qilong REN, Wanbo LIU, Qian PEI
    2018, 40 (9):  1773-1786.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.08
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    With the population aging being ahead of economic development, the problem of pension resources configuration among aging population will stand out continually. The three provinces in the northeast of China are the moderate districts of aging. It is noted that there are national strategic meanings and demonstration effects to study the spatial distribution feature of aging population and the optimal configuration of pension resources. Taking 34 prefecture level cities and 2 administrative areas as the research objects, the spatial evolution features of population aging in the administrative regions in the 3 major years were characterized, based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis according to the statistical data of aging population. The pension resources configuration of 36 objects in 2015 were evaluated by using comprehensive index model and the spatial matching relationship between 36 groups’ aged people and pension resources was identified on the basis of geographic concentration. The results demonstrated that the degree of population aging in the administrative regions in 2005, 2010, and 2015 were deepening gradually. The high density areas were expanding from the southwest to the northeast and the spatial correlation features are enhancing; the high agglomeration areas were widening from the south to the north; and the “dilution” of population aging in the northeast in the future will face severe challenges. The pension resources in regional center cities and the cities with the government’s supports are richer than the peripheral cities. There is an obvious correlation of spatial distribution between aging population and pension resources. The concentration of aging population and pension resources is reduced from the south to the north. Among them, the whole area of Liaoning Province is both a concentrated area of aging population and pension resources. There is a diverse matching relationship between the south and the north, and the development level of the ‘Liaozhongnan’ urban agglomeration is significantly higher than that of the ‘Ha-Chang’ urban agglomeration. The most cities still face the two extreme problem, i. e. , a waste of and a short of pension resources.

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    Hani minority social-ecological system vulnerability assessment to climate change——a case study of Hani minority rural community in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    Libo CHANG, Yaofeng LUO, Jinlong LIU
    2018, 40 (9):  1787-1799.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.09
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    The Hani terrace in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, has been listed as a world natural and cultural heritage, and its adaptation to climate change is typical. A scientific evaluation of vulnerability to climate change in ethnic minority regions is significant to make climate change adaption policy and sustainable development in minority area. A “climate-livelihood” vulnerability assessment framework was built based on a vulnerability analysis framework of “exposure-sensitive-adaptability” proposed by IPCC. The vulnerability of the minority rural social-ecological systems to climate change was evaluated and analyzed using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined the questionnaire survey data and meteorological statistics taking Hani minority area in Honghe prefecture, Yunnan Province as a case study. The results are as following: ① The minority communities in rural areas would have a higher exposure to climate change (0.52), but its overall vulnerability is low (0.02). It is noted that the sensitivity of social-ecological system is lower (0.44) while local adaptability is moderate (0.48). ② Social-ecological system in Hani rural area is less vulnerable to climate change due to the local sustainable social-ecological factors, traditional culture about production and living practice, efficient organization system, and low-cost collective action mechanism. ③ The internal structure of sensitivity and adaptability differ from region to region, such as, natural capital, material capital, and social capital. Thus, improving the adaptability of the region from these three aspects respectively is a key to reducing vulnerability. Moreover, protecting local social-ecological system, playing the role of traditional culture and organization system, as well as increasing the public services supply at community level can help maintain the low vulnerability and enhance the adaptability to climate change in ethnic minorities area.

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    Historical dynamics and future trends of carbon footprint of wheat and maize in China
    Yuqiao WANG, Chao PU, Xin ZHAO, Xing WANG, Shengli LIU, Hailin ZHANG
    2018, 40 (9):  1800-1811.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.10
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    Risks for natural and human systems have been increasing during past decades due to global warming, which is one of the main consequences of the raising anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Agriculture is one of the principal contributors to anthropogenic GHGs emissions. And wheat and maize are major cereal crops in China. Thus, assessing the carbon footprint (CF) of wheat and maize, investing the adjustment of agricultural policies and the effects on reduction in GHGs emissions will help to establish a reasonable strategy to mitigate climate change. A systematical analysis of the carbon footprint (CF) of wheat and maize production is critical to develop low carbon agriculture and enhance carbon sequestration in China. CF of wheat and maize production during 2005-2015 was computed, which was based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). According to the completion of the relevant agricultural policy “National crop adjustment plan (2016-2020), ” “Fertilizer usage by 2020 zero increase action plan, ” and “Pesticides usage by 2020 zero increase action plan, ” a predicted CF of wheat and maize production in the near future five scenarios was established. The result showed a significant rising trend in CF and total greenhouse gases(GHGs) emissions for both wheat and maize production during 2005-2015 (P < 0.01). The CF of maize production was lower than wheat production. The growth rate of CF per unit area of wheat production was higher than that of maize, while the total GHGs emissions showed an opposite trend. Simulation on different scenarios indicated that all the projections in 2020 experienced a reduction on carbon emission for about (16.89~56.01) billion kg CO2-eq. Therefore, strategies to balance crop production and agriculture inputs application are of great importance to achieve China’s 2020 GHGs emission targets.

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    Study on the blue carbon sink pricing of marine ranch
    Jinsheng SHEN, Ruifang LIANG
    2018, 40 (9):  1812-1821.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.11
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    The 21st century is the century of the sea. According to the notice of the Ministry of Agriculture, China will build a number of state-level marine ranch demonstration areas in 2020. Focused on the blue carbon sink function of marine pasture, this paper elaborates the theoretical and realistic basis for the pricing of blue carbon sinks. The factors affecting the cost and benefit of blue carbon sink are identified as seafood categories, cultivation periods, and so on. This paper put forward the calculation idea of the blue carbon sink exchange price and constructs the cost and benefit pricing model of the blue carbon sink in marine ranching. Taking the aquaculture of Chlamys Farreri in the specific area of Sanggou Bay as an example, the present value of the total net income of the blue carbon sequestration obtained from marine ranch production and the present value of the total net income from other forms of fishery production were further calculated respectively. The trading price of the marine ranches’ blue carbon sinks is 253 yuan per ton. Marine ranches can not only realize the economic development of ocean, but also improve the water environment. The blue carbon sink of marine ranch is becoming more and more important. Our results show that the blue carbon sinks of marine pastures have a huge economic and ecological value. In order to maximize the function of marine carbon sinks, repair the ecological environment of the water sea, establish a marine ecological security barrier, and build a marine ecological civilization, it is necessary for China to construct a perfect blue carbon sink exchange trading market for marine pastures.

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    Mechanism and simulation of carbon emission control enterprises’ forestry carbon sequestration demand based on Bayesian Network
    Huibo QI, Fei LONG
    2018, 40 (9):  1822-1830.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.12
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    To guide enterprises for a scientific identification the path of emission reduction and effectively plays an offset role of forestry carbon sequestration to the carbon emissions. It is vital to study the enterprises’ demand for forestry carbon sequestration. The carbon emission control enterprises, i. e., the cognition and response of forestry carbon sequestration carbon offset mechanism are integrated into a Bayesian network. The current study illustrated the mechanism of forestry carbon sequestration demand and simulated the multi-dimensions such as the emission reduction, offset ratio, price determination, and risk sharing of forestry carbon sequestration. The demand for forestry carbon sequestration is a dynamic process of the complicated action among the carbon emission control enterprises and the environmental factors. The carbon emission control enterprises did show a high recognition and accreditation of increasing carbon sink and reducing emission of forest. Confronted with the abundant carbon quota as well as the unclear expectation of forestry carbon sequestration, the expected proportion of forestry carbon sequestration to CCER and the willingness to buy forestry carbon sequestration are not high. And the prices of forestry carbon sequestration are inclined to be dominated by the government and the risks are expected to be shared by both trading parties. In order to stimulate the demand for forestry carbon sequestration, based on the stage characteristics of the carbon emission control enterprises, the government should promote the allocation of emission quotas and forestry carbon sequestration into the national carbon emissions trading system through the carbon trading system innovation, with stabilizing prospective earnings from purchasing of forestry carbon sequestration.

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    Factor analysis and enlightenment of household carbon emissions in Japan based on IPAT-LMDI extension model
    Zhen HU, Jingjing HE, Yue WANG
    2018, 40 (9):  1831-1842.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.13
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    Japan is a country with a higher level of urbanization in the world and its low birth rate and population aging characteristics are obvious. Due to lack of resources, Japanese families advocate low-carbon life concept. With the acceleration of urbanization, China is gradually entering an aging society and the per capita resources are insufficient. Therefore, the Japanese household carbon emissions laws and related experiences should have a certain valuable reference for the establishment of energy-saving emission reduction measures in China. Based on the data from 2001 to 2011 in Japan, this paper built a decomposition model of household carbon emission factors in Japan according to the IPAT-LMDI extension model, which included household size, housing utilization rate, economic development level, carbon emission rate, energy consumption structure, and energy consumption intensity. Thereafter, the impact of various factors on household carbon emissions in Japan and the sensitivity of Japan’s household carbon emissions to the major factors were further analyzed by two-way statistical approach. The results illustrated that the rising trend of household carbon emissions in Japan is the result of positive driving and inhibitory factors. The carbon emission rate, energy consumption structure, and economic development level are positive driving factors; energy consumption intensity, household size, housing utilization rate are the inhibitory factors. At different period, the sensitivity of household carbon emissions in Japan to different factors was varied in a large degree different. For example, the sensitivity to the household size was relatively higher; while to the economic development level was lower. Household carbon emissions analysis in Japan implies that we should change the perspective of family energy control in the process of urbanization, optimize the family energy structure, control residential growth, scale energy efficiency standards, and raise the awareness and level of low-carbon life.

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    Preliminary calculation and structural analysis of China’s marine equivalent virtual water
    Caizhi SUN, Mengfei ZHANG
    2018, 40 (9):  1843-1854.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.14
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    The article puts forward the concept of marine equivalent virtual water. Under the guidance of land-sea coordination and according the idea that products and services in the same function between the sea and land can be converted equivalently, “marine food equivalent virtual water”, “marine environment equivalent virtual water, ” and “marine energy equivalent virtual water” are initiated from the perspectives of food, wastewater purification, and power generation. Taking the coastal areas of China as the research region, the replenishment capacity of marine products or services for terrestrial freshwater resources were explored in the process of mari ne development and utilization. The results showed that the total amount of China marine equivalent virtual water is U-shape trend. It fell from 18.2 billion m3 in 2006 to 14.5 billion m3 in 2011, and then rose to 16.6 billion m3 in 2014. During the study period, the content of marine equivalent virtual water occupies the proportion of water consumption to reach 6.4%. The increase of marine culture equivalent virtual water and marine wind equivalent energy virtual water will promote the amount of marine equivalent virtual water in the future. Meanwhile, this paper demonstrates the optimization direction based on the structural characteristics of marine virtual water in China, and consolidates the specific optimization design based on the structural characteristics of marine equivalent virtual water of the provinces and cities. It will provides a reference for the improvement of marine equivalent virtual water in coastal areas of China. The stable supply of marine equivalent virtual water must be realized under the precondition of sustainable development of marine resources and environments. It is an important way to solve the problems of water resources in the future by utilizing the ocean to replenish land water resources rationally.

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    Trends of snow cover and streamflow variation in Kaidu River and their influential factors
    Yanyun XIANG, Yaning CHEN, Qifei ZHANG, Wei BIAN
    2018, 40 (9):  1855-1865.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.15
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    Water resources, a key factor, restricted economic and social development and ecological security in arid region of Northwest China. The water resources in arid area mainly come from snow melt water and mountain precipitation. Therefore, studies on the impact of climate on snow cover and runoff in arid region of Northwest China have a significant impact on the water resources management, ecological protection, and economic and social development. Based on MODIS data, the meteorological and hydrologic station data, the present investigation was conducted to analyze the trends of annual snow cover and streamflow variations in the Kaidu River and discuss the relationship between climate change, snow cover, and streamflow. We used Mann-Kendall test, Pearson correlational analysis method, and sensitivity analysis. We found that the total snow cover fraction showed a slightly increasing trend from 2000 to 2016 (-0.017%/a). The annual maximum snow cover increased but the annual minimum snow cover exhibited a decreasing trend. Seasonally, the snow cover decreased in spring and summer, increased in autumn and winter. In the past 45 years (1972-2016), the onset of snowmelt period documented a shift of 10.35 days earlier while ending date did move 7.56 days later. The correlation between snow cover and meteorological variables suggest that the snow cover was mostly affected by temperature in spring and was mostly influenced by precipitation in winter. Both the annual streamflow and peak streamflow exhibited an increasing trend from 2000 to 2016 in a speed of 226 million m3 per decade. The streamflow is sensitive to the variations of temperature and precipitation in summer, and to the variations of snow cover in spring. Increasing of temperature and precipitation is the primary factor leading the increasing of streamflow.

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    Impact of landscape fragmentation on watershed soil conservation service——a case study on Bailongjiang Watershed of Gansu
    Jinxi ZHANG, Dongqing LIU, Jie GONG, Xuecheng MA, Erjia CAO
    2018, 40 (9):  1866-1877.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.16
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    Bailongjiang watershed of Gansu, a vital water conservation area and environmental fragile area in the upper Yangtze River, is one of the four major landslides and debris flow disaster areas in China. Here, soil conservation service is particularly important. However, the high-frequency and high-intensity human activities have deepened the degree of landscape fragmenta tion and soil erosion in recent decades. Therefore, the research on the impact of landscape fragmentation on soil conservation service can clarify their spatial correlation and provide scientific basis for the watershed ecosystem sustainability. Taking Bailongjiang watershed of Gansu as an example, the spatio-temporal dynamic of landscape fragmentation and soil conservation service was quantitatively characterized from 1990 to 2014 via landscape pattern index, grid analysis, and InVEST model. Meanwhile, the relationship between the two issues was also discussed from the perspectives of mathematical and spatial statistics. The results showed that: (1) Initially, the degree of landscape fragmentation increased and then decreased in the Bailongjiang watershed in Gansu from 1990 to 2014. Soil conservation service documented a changing trend of descending firstly then ascending. (2) In 1990~2014, the spatial negative correlation between soil conservation service and landscape fragmentation developed from nothing to increase gradually. (3) By 2014, the degree of landscape fragmentation illustrated a significant negative impact on soil conservation service in the following areas: the northern part of Tanchang County, the middle and the southern part of Wudu District, the southern part of Wen County, and the boundary belts of Tanchang-Zhouqu-Wudu. It is essential to obtain a better soil conservation service through the decrease of the landscape fragmentation in the above areas.

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    The definition of forest in Chinese legislation——the rationale of legal protection of the ecological values of forest resources
    Qun DU
    2018, 40 (9):  1878-1889.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.17
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    The legal concept for forest is the core of forest legislation. It is also the precondition for building the system of forest resources property rights and carrying out the reform of collective forest rights system in China. This paper systematically teases and examines the legal definition of forest from the laws, regulations, policies, judicial interpretations, and legal doctrines in our country. It is noted that there are two levels of expressions; that is, one formed by the Constitution, the Forest Law and its implementing regulations Level forest definition system and the second-level forest definition system is formed by various normative documents of the forestry department. The main problems of forest definition system in Chinese legislation are recognized as the following: (i). The legal text of forest definition is in the lower level of the Chinese legislative system; (ii). Formal laws and regulations define the forests too broad and not specific enough; and (iii). The current forest legislation lacks attention to forest ecological value. At present, our forest legislation has changed from the forest industry law to the law both for the sustainable use of forest resource and the protection of forest ecosystems. Therefore, in the revision of the "Forest Law", it should be fully affirmed that the forest resources as a whole have various ecological functions such as water storage and soil conservation, climate regulation, and environment improvement. It is recommended to construct a forest law concept that directs to multiple values.

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    Study on the spatial process of tourism destination network evolution and its influencing factors——a case study of Yesanpo tourism destination
    Huiqiang MA, Ping GAO, Deyu ZHAO, Jianchao XI
    2018, 40 (9):  1890-1900.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.09.18
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    Network is a basic law of spatial evolution of tourism destination. Based on the software platform of ArcGIS and UCINET, this study adopted the theory of social network and the method of spatial analysis, starting from three aspects: network scale, network centrality, and network structure evolution and took the Yesanpo tourism destination as an example, This paper identified the spatial evolution process of the tourism destination network of Yesanpo from 1986 to 2015 and briefly characterized its influencing factors. The study found that: (1) Yesanpo tourism destination network is increasingly forming, the network scale is expanding, and the network connection is gradually strengthening. However, the spatial distribution is not balanced, and the spatial pattern is gradually decreasing from the southwest to the northeast with the Bailixia scenic spot (the core scenic spot) as the core. (2) The centrality of the whole network shows a downward trend, the network structure tends to be balanced, and the network node exhibits an obvious hierarchy, compared to the surrounding rural communities and characteristic parks, the core scenic spots and central towns demonstrates a higher centrality index and occupies a core position. And (3) The network evolution of tourism destination in Yesanpo did experience four spatial processes: single nuclear agglomeration, a double core symbiosis, multi-core hierarchy, and chain full domain. Traffic accessibility, consumers, tourism enterprises, and government are the four important factors affecting the formation and evolution of tourism destination network. The smallest unit in the study of tourist destination network, the scenic spots, urban area, community, and the tourism agglomeration area of the integrated development of the park, provides a new theoretical paradigm for tourism destination research and becomes an important trend of future research.

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