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    10 May 2018, Volume 40 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A review of natural resource asset balance sheets
    Wenpeng DU, Huimin YAN, Yanzhao YANG
    2018, 40 (5):  875-887.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.01
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    Exploring and compiling natural resource asset balance sheet can ease the contradiction between economic growth and resource utilization and help realize sustainable utilization, social-economic sustainable development and ecological civilization construction. However, natural resource asset balance sheets are new concepts proposed in China and there are many obstacles. In this article we illuminate research on natural resource asset balance sheets from documentary years, authors, research institutions and contents by analyzing 295 studies p[ublished in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. We elaborated the research status and achievements of natural resource asset balance sheets from theoretical research, methodological research and practical research, illuminating the directions and key issues of natural resource balance sheets in the future. Our research results show that research into natural resource asset balance sheets is at an initial stage; relevant theories and methods are faulty; and interdisciplinary research and obvious cooperative research are common. The accounting method and tabular structure of natural resource asset balance sheets are research hotspots, and the basic framework of the technical system has been formed. However, fundamental theoretical research of natural resource asset balance sheets is lacking and fundamental theoretical research, liabilities definition and accounting research, natural resources assets and liabilities valued research will dominate future work.

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    The definition and accounting approaches towards natural resource liabilities
    Huimin YAN, Wenpeng DU, Zhiming FENG, Yanzhao YANG, Xiaoyu SONG
    2018, 40 (5):  888-898.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.02
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    Natural resource asset balance sheets(NRABs)were proposed in 2013 for ecological civilization construction and sustainable development in China. Defining and accounting natural resource liabilities are most important in compiling natural resource asset balance sheets. In this study we illumined the basic connotation of natural resource assets and liabilities via economic properties, preconditions of liabilities, and routes of induced liabilities by natural resource overuse. On this basis we defined categories of natural resource liabilities for quantitatively and qualitatively changes in renewable resources and non-renewable resources caused by excessive consumption. Finally, we proposed methods for natural resource liabilities accounting of land resources, water resources, forest resources and mineral resources. Hopefully this study provides suggestions for compiling natural resource assets balancing sheets. Our research results showed that natural resource liabilities are special liabilities, which should have basic characteristics of liabilities and generated in the process of resource utilization; the sustainability of natural resource utilization is an important basis for defining natural resource liabilities. The change in the quantity and quality of natural resources was the root cause of generating natural resource liabilities, so we proposed that natural resource liabilities of renewable resources was the difference between the amount of resource exploitation and renewables. Natural resource liabilities of non-renewable resources is the difference in resource consumption between the actual exploitation-utilization ratio and the standard exploitation-utilization ratio, and building a qualitative transfer matrix of natural resources accounting for natural resource liabilities arising from changes in the quality of natural resources according to existing national quality classification systems.

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    Initial research into an accounting framework for a water resource balance sheet
    Xiaoyu SONG, Yue CHEN, Huiming YAN, Yanzhao YANG, Zhiming FENG
    2018, 40 (5):  899-907.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.03
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    Establishing natural resource asset balance sheets was an important innovation during the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in the field of ecological civilization construction. The water resource asset balance sheet is a significant application of the natural resource asset balance sheet. Research into water resource asset balance sheets is in its infancy. Many disputes remain, such as accounting indicators, accounting frameworks and accounting expression. This paper aims to explore the construction of a water resource assets balance sheet accounting framework. Based on a review of domestic and international water resources asset balance sheet and water resource environmental economic accounting, considering the scientific nature of accounting and local operability, we started with discriminating the concept of water resources assets and liabilities. We explained the accounting scope of water resource assets and liabilities, and selected indicators for water resource assets and liabilities considering the multiple properties of water resources, water environment and water ecology, and the spirit and related achievements of “Three Red Lines of Water Resources Management” in the “Strict Water Resource Management System” currently implemented. Moreover, through the method of value, different dimension data were unified and expressed in terms of value, and linked with the results of other resource assets and liabilities. We put forward the accounting framework of water resource asset balance sheet and corresponding accounting expression from stock to the flow and from the physical to the value and four-level table accounting structure from basic table, auxiliary table and categorized table to summary table.

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    Compilation of a water resource balance sheet for Huzhou City
    Yanzhao YANG, Yue CHEN, Xiaoyu SONG, Huimin YAN, Zhiming FENG
    2018, 40 (5):  908-918.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.04
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    The compilation of water resource balance sheets is a hotspot in the field of water resource management since the Third Plenary Session of the 18th. The compilation aims to make clear the exact value of water resource assets and water resource liabilities. Exploring the compilation of water resource balance sheets and practical applications is of great importance for promoting an ecological civilization. As a new concept, there are no precedents for this framework. This paper established a series of accounts of water resource assets and liabilities, and determined the methods of calculating indexes of water resource assets and water resource liabilities. A compiled water resources balance sheet from 2006 to 2013 in Huzhou City was developed. In 2013, the total value of water resources assets in Huzhou City was 141.41 billion CNY, representing 80% GDP of Huzhou City. Water resource assets are an important guarantee for the coordinated development of the social economy and water resource environment. On impact of natural and social factors, from 2006 to 2013 water resource assets increased by 22.48 billion CNY or about 18.90%. The amount caused by difference values between assets and liabilities was to 141.79 billion CNY, but by the protection of water resources and impact of water ecological restoration the total water resource liability in Huzhou City was -0.38 billion CNY. During the accounting period, water resource liabilities for Huzhou City were reduced. The water resource balance sheet for the “Huzhou Pattern” will be established so as to provide guidance for national demonstrative applications in some demonstration zones, namely the Xizang Autonomous Region, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in Guangdong Province, Zhangye City in Gansu Province and Rizhao City in Shandong Province.

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    A study on liabilities accounting methods for excessive consumption of land resources when compiling natural resource asset balance sheets
    Zhichao XUE, Huimin YAN, Wenpeng DU, Yanzhao YANG
    2018, 40 (5):  919-928.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.05
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    The definition and accounting of resource excessive consumption in the process of accounting natural resource liabilities is one of the key issues in exploring and compiling natural resource asset balance sheets (NRABs). Confirming the standard of resource rational utilization is the premise of accurately measuring resource excessive consumption. The objective of this study is to provide an alternative accounting method for land liabilities caused by land resource excessive consumption, specifically caused by unnecessary construction land expansion. The basic issue is demarcating indicators and thresholds of land resource excessive consumption measured by indirect judgment of the rationality for natural land use (including farmland, forest, grassland) through assessing the necessity of construction land expansion. Because of urban areas at different development stages have diverse resource utilization efficiency, we took the typical central cities on major function-oriented zones as samples to analyze development stages and resource utilization efficiencies. This method takes the GDP carrying efficiency and population carrying efficiency of new construction land as indictors and consists of three procedures: judging urban development stages, confirming the threshold of construction land rational expansion and accounting liabilities of land resources. This study is expected to establish a regional targeted and development stage targeted land resource liabilities accounting technology. It takes land resource carrying capacity as a ruler and promotes the formation of a sustainable land use model that guarantees the development of urban and conservation.

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    A basic framework for the compilation of a forest resource balance sheet
    Zhitao ZHANG, Guangcui DAI, Ye GUO, Ning ZHANG, Xinye ZHANG
    2018, 40 (5):  929-935.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.06
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    It is a major institutional innovation to compile balance sheets of natural resources in ecological civilization construction. Forest resources are an important part of natural resources. Strengthening forest resource supervision and management in each government level is needed. At the same time, this work will assist related forestry and natural resource management institutes carry out assessment of natural resource assets. This paper is based on a review of forest resource accounting at home and abroad, and on the preparation of relevant literature on natural resource balance sheets. Through learning from the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012, edited by the UN and other international institutions, and previous research results on natural resource balance sheets we put forward forest resource assets and liabilities. These two concepts have strong relationships with the three-level accounting framework, based on forest resource management requirements which should be combined by forest resource entities accounting, forest resource accounting with operational rights, and forest resource accounting use rights. We investigated and discussed forms and formulas of the balance sheet of forest resources. We provide a deeper analysis of the balance sheet accounting framework for forest resource assets and propose forms of forest resource inventory and change tables and forest resource balance sheets. Combined with levels of forest resource entities, forest resource with operational rights and forest resources with use rights, we built an accounting framework in three levels of a forest resource balance sheet.

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    The environmental cost accounting framework for natural resources asset compilation in Huzhou City
    Qiong WU, Guoxia MA, Yang GAO, Tao PAN
    2018, 40 (5):  936-945.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.07
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    The balance sheet of natural resources should include two aspects: the unreasonable loss of natural resources caused by human beings in the course of social and economic activities, and the negative externalities generated by the ecological environment. Aiming at raising ecological awareness and promoting ecological progress, natural resources asset compilation has been a hot area ever since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. This article draws lessons from the relevant experience of the international SEEA accounting system and combines with China's national economic accounting system. Environmental cost accounting method was adapted to caculate the environmental abatement costs, pollution deduction index and the environmental liabilities of irrational use of natural resource assets for Huzhou City in Zhejiang Province. During 2010-2015, the actual investment in pollution control in Huzhou City was greater than that in environmental arrears; the pollution deduction index in Huzhou City showed a declining trend; the environmental liabilities for the irrational use of natural resource assets were 4.567 billion yuan. Based on the water, atmospheric, and solid disposal cost accounting results, the atmospheric actual disposal cost was the highest while the water imputed abatement cost was the highest from 2010 to 2015. As for the results at county level, the pollution deduction index of Changxing County was larger than any other counties. The environmental cost of Changxing County was the largest and the environmental cost of Anji County was the smallest in five counties. The environmental cost of various economic sectors were calculated. The debt of livestock farming was huge by the imputed abatement cost accounting result. The results would provide scientific basis for the decision-making of resources, environment and economic development in Huzhou, and give new insights for the calculation of environmental liabilities and related research in the preparation of natural resources balance sheet.

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    Differential characteristics and driving factors of land use efficiency in different functional cities based on undesirable outputs
    Pengfei FAN, Shuyi FENG, Min SU, Mingjun XU
    2018, 40 (5):  946-957.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.08
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    Studying the differential characteristics and driving factors of land use efficiency in different functional cities under the condition of undesirable outputs has great significance for urban sustainable development. This paper applied the improved EBM model in DEA to measure land use efficiency for 268 Chinese cities across five categories. Grey correlation modeling was used to explore the main driving factors of land use efficiency. We found that ignoring ecologically negative effects leads to an overestimation of land use efficiency. Land use efficiency of each functional city was different, proving that the measurement was scientific in terms of city function type. Land use efficiency curves were relatively steep and had periodic variation without considering the undesirable output while this curve became relatively gentle and had less periodic variation when taking the undesirable output into consideration. The main driving factors of land use efficiency in different functional cities contain significant differences. For integrated cities these driving factors included industrial structure, degree of land marketization and capacity of environmental governance; for resource-based cities they were industrial structure, external dependence, government regulation, industrial structure; for industry-based cities they were the degree of land marketization and regional energy structure; for entertainment-based cities they were the level of urbanization, economic development and capacity of environmental governance; for local cities it was mainly affected by the level of urbanization, economic development and government regulation. We need to fully consider the undesirable output and city heterogeneity in order to improve urban land use efficiency and determine different land management policies.

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    Rural settlement spatial layout optimization using network center radiation guidance for Yanba Village in Chongqing
    Rui SU, Cheng WANG
    2018, 40 (5):  958-966.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.09
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    Rural spatial networks are complex networks consisting of rural settlements and linear facilities. They take rural settlements as nodes and linear facilities as the support; nodes interact within it. Rural spatial networks and node centrality are capable of identifying the key position and influence of nodes in the network, providing a theoretical reference for planning and construction of rural settlements and overall network structure optimization. Taking Yanba Village of Jiangjin district in Chongqing, we established a household and rural settlements database with spatial data links to attribute data by adopting the 3S+PRA method. We measured comprehensive quality and accessibility of rural settlements by comprehensive evaluation and grid analysis methods to determine the connection degree among rural settlements by improved potential models. Using the rural settlements in the village as nodes and the connection degree among rural residential areas are edges, we constructed a village spatial network using complex network theory to identify network center points, radiation intensity and radiation range. The results show that the village spatial network has a typical non-equilibrium hierarchical structure, small world characteristics and scale-free characteristics, and low overall connectivity. According to the radiation of the center points, a network node system consists of I, II and III center node interactions as classified. On this basis, three levels of influence from the whole to parts and individuals and three optimization and recombination patterns are constructed. These include the central village (grade I center) diffusion type, grassroots village (II Center) growth type, and scattered rural settlements (grade III node) promising type.

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    Simulation of utilization and construction suitability of gentle hillsides based on risk evaluation in Banan District of Chongqing
    Jing LI, Heping LIAO, Jin CAI
    2018, 40 (5):  967-979.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.10
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    Utilizing gentle hillside areas is an effective way to alleviate land use pressure and optimize the allocation of land resources and avoid potential risks. In order to explore dynamic simulation to evaluate suitability of gentle hillsides under different policy scenario, promote scientific and rational use of gentle hillsides and reduce utilization risk, we studied Banan District in Chongqing. Eleven indices were selected to establish the evaluation index system representing landscape risk, social risk and ecological risk. Simulation results of the utilization and construction suitability of gentle hillsides under five policy scenarios were carried out based on OWA (ordered weighted averaging) and GIS (geographical information system) methods. With increasing α (the decision risk coefficient), the level of utilization and construction suitability of gentle hillsides is higher. Suitability of the western part of the study area were overall better than that of the eastern part, while the suitability of areas around streets and towns were better than remote areas. Under non-extreme policy scenarios, suitability partition was more scattered. In the current period of land use planning, new urban construction land was mainly distributed in areas not comprised of gentle hillsides. Land use planning of gentle hillsides present a prudent and conservative attitude. To some extent, this research enriches the theory and methods of suitability evaluation of gentle hillside land. This work provides a reference and practice support for utilization and management of gentle hillsides in similar areas.

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    Evaluation and spatial characteristics of arable land multifunction in southern Jiangsu
    Yeting FAN, Xiaobin JIN, Xiaomin XIANG, Xuhong YANG, Jing LIU, Yinkang ZHOU
    2018, 40 (5):  980-992.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.11
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    Based on the theory of arable land multifunction and development demands of China, we created an analytical framework and classification evaluation system to evaluate arable land multifunction. We also created a spatial grid at a resolution of 1 km × 1 km covering arable land of southern Jiangsu based on survey data of land use change. We quantitatively evaluated arable land multifunction and analyzed spatial characteristics in southern Jiangsu using Fuzzy Optimization Modeling. We found that in the context of the new normalcy of economic development, the connotation of arable land multifunction is richer. Arable land function is not mono-functional (i. e. , foundational production function) but composed of multiple functions, containing a production function, living function, ecological function, barrier function and culture function. In southern Jiangsu, grain production guarantee function is generally weak and the social living guarantee function is inferior in the western region. The ecological security maintenance function in southern Jiangsu is generally weak. The urban space barrier function is generally strong. The eastern region is of a high native culture bearing function. The regional differentiation of arable land multifunction was significant in southern Jiangsu. Overall, southern Jiangsu can be divided into five subareas: agricultural production dominance area, urban agriculture demonstration area, characteristic agriculture development area, efficiency agriculture construction area and green agriculture tourism area. These results provide a reference for land use practice, formulating regulatory rules of land use zoning, selecting key areas for land consolidation, and delineating permanent basic farmland.

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    Green efficiency changes for water resourcesin China based on SBM-Malmquist model
    Caizhi SUN, Qifei MA, Liangshi ZHAO
    2018, 40 (5):  993-1005.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.12
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    We can learn about practical water efficiency and provide a reference for improving the green efficiency of water resources by studying green efficiency and the effect of indexes for social progress. Here, we measured green efficiency of water resources in 31 provinces including cities and municipalities of China from 2000 to 2014 and analyzed temporal and spatial changes and influences based on SBM modeling with undesirable output and Malmquist index modeling with total factor productivity. In general, the green efficiency of water resources in China is characterized by a slow descend in volatility. The green efficiency in China is still relatively low and there is a lot of room for improvement. There are significant differences in the green efficiency of water resources across China, and the relationship between the green efficiency of water resources and level of regional economic development is weak. However, the social development index has a significant impact on green efficiency of water resources. There is a rising trend for the technology change index, while total factor productivity and technical efficiency declined over the study period. The technological change index has a significant effect on the improvement of the green efficiency of water resources in China, and a few areas are affected by technological efficiency and technological change.

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    The main route and water resource areas of the Belt and Road Initiative
    Qiting ZUO, Chunhui HAN, Lingang HAO, Haojie WANG, Junxia MA
    2018, 40 (5):  1006-1015.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.13
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    : The Belt and Road is a collaborative initiative proposed by the Chinese government to benefit people in these regions. It is of great significance for the analysis and research of water security of the Belt and Road to clarify the main water resource areas and regionalization layout. By combining the literature and established methods, we put forward the concept and determination methods of the main route and water resource areas of the Belt and Road. Related images are also plotted. The main water resources areas are divided according to a three-level regionalization method. We found that the main route of the Belt and Road consists of the main route of the Belt and Road in China land and sea, and the main route of the Belt and Road in overseas land and sea. These routes are connected, forming a network of three vertical and three horizontal areas in Asia, Europe and Africa. The main water resources areas of the Belt and Road across Asia, Europe and Africa spans 50 countries and 18.77 million kilometers. The number of units in the first level, second level and third level of water resource regionalization are 11, 50 and 1172, respectively. We define the main research areas Belt and Road water resources research and provide a unified research object and foundation to stimulate a new way of thinking and a reference for future studies.

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    Carrying capacity of water resources system coupling water resources with water environment thresholds
    Xianbao SU, Xungui LI, Junfeng ZHAO
    2018, 40 (5):  1016-1025.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.14
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    Water resource carry capacity have great significance to the sustainable development of water resources and management. Current research methods in this field contain errors. Here, we adopted 17 basins in Gansu, China as an evaluation unit and developed a new carrying capacity of relative water resources method. Quantitative analyses for 2015, 2020 and 2030 water resource system carry capacity were done using a threshold value of water resources and water environments. We found that the calculation method of water resource system carry capacity is more consistent than current carrying capacity of relative water resources methods. Most area water resource system carrying capacity shows an overload state in Gansu. Overloaded river basins are concentrated in the northwest, non- overloaded river basins are concentrate in the southeast, The carrying capacity, load size and development potential all show a distribution pattern of high in the southeast and low in the northwest. On the whole, the river basin in the Hexi corridor and Huangshui basin do not have development potential; the Yellow River main stream and Jinghe development potential is smaller; Jialingriver, Weihe, Taohe and Datong river basin water resource system development potential is maximal; and other river basins are in the middle. Water resources have more powerful effects on water resource system comprehensive carry capacity than the water environment. We found that their distribution pattern is basically consistent after comparing the Gansu water resource system carry capacity results and development potential with other water resource system vulnerability evaluation results. These results provide a scientific basis for regional water resource system carrying capacity calculation, rational plan management and sustainable development

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    Impact of urban residential income on consumptive water footprints of food in different regions based on QUAIDS modeling
    Xin YANG, Yueying MU
    2018, 40 (5):  1026-1039.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.15
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    Food consumption demand affects agricultural water consumption through food supply. This paper constructed a theoretical framework for income impacting on food water footprints per capita based on QUAIDS modeling. The aim was to analyze changes in food consumption structure and water footprints. The income elasticity of food water footprints was measured and compared among different regions. Last, the effect of income and food prices on food water footprints per capita were simulated. We found that with an increase in disposable income, the consumption of various foods increased; while the consumption of food with high water footprints such as fruit and dairy products grew rapidly. The combination of the two causes made food water footprints per capita reach 521.0 m³ in 2012. Food water footprints per capita in northeastern and central China grew the fastest. The income elasticity of food water footprints in western, central, northeastern and eastern China was 0.754, 0.726, 0.708 and 0.670, respectively. The price elasticity of grain, meat and fruit water footprints were relatively higher. With certain increases in household income and meat prices simultaneously, the growth rate of food water footprints per capita was at a lower level, indicating that rising prices of partial food products was conducive to the sustainable use of agricultural water resources. The comparison between the actual value and the simulated value of food water footprint per capita in 2016 revealed that simulation results from QUAIDS was more accurate in a large sample size.

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    Value evaluation and pricing of water resources in major cities in China
    Yongbin ZHU, Yajuan SHI
    2018, 40 (5):  1040-1050.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.16
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    Water resource evaluation and pricing is the foundation for the preparation of a water resource balance sheet, urban water supply price determination and water rights transactions. This paper applied fuzzy mathematics evaluation methods and constructed the index system from the aspects of water supply, water demand and water quality. In selecting representative indexes, it both reflected the water intrinsic value and considered data availability to endow operationality and applicability. Based on the proposed evaluation model, we selected 32 large and medium cities in China as research subjects to evaluate the value of water resources according to water prices that reflect citizens’ ability to pay. It is found that the water resource value in China shows obvious spatial distribution characteristics - water resource value in northern cities is generally higher than t southern cities, reflecting the spatial distribution of water resource supply and regional gaps in economic and social development. For instance, Zhengzhou, Taiyuan and Qingdao have higher value than Guangzhou, Changsha and Fuzhou from the perspective of water supply side; Yinchuan, Nanjing and Zhengzhou have high value than Chongqing, Hangzhou and Guiyang from the water demand side. A higher water resource means the according city either encounters limited water supply or requires plenty of water to satisfy development. Zhengzhou and Yinchuan have the highest comprehensive water resource values; the water shortage situation in 12 cities such as Taiyuan, Shenyang and Shijiazhuang is grim. By pricing water resources, Beijing is the city with the highest water price at 28.7 CNY/ton; followed by Qingdao, Jinan, Shanghai and Taiyuan, with price higher than 15 CNY/ton. Water prices in Chongqing, Guiyang and Nanning are relatively low at 5 CNY/ton.

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    Peak regional carbon emissions based on open STIRPAT modeling in an energy-producing region of Shanxi
    Qinglong WU, Jianming WANG, Pibin GUO
    2018, 40 (5):  1051-1062.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.17
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    Cooperation and interdependence among regional economies influences peak regional carbon emissions. Using an energy-producing region in Shanxi, China as an example, we built an open STIRPAT model by selecting driving factors provincially and nationally. We then used scenario analysis to predict peak carbon emissions from 2016 to 2040. The results show that when factors at the national level choose energy-saving or low-carbon scenarios, the peak in carbon emissions for Shanxi occurs in 2035. At the same time, by choosing energy-saving or low-carbon scenarios in Shanxi to match it, the peak can be achieved in 2030. With strict current national carbon emissions controls, peak carbon emissions for Shanxi are achieved in 2030. The peak value of carbon emission in Shanxi is mainly affected by the choice of carbon emission reduction scheme at the national level, and less affected by choices within the province. The controllability of Shanxi and its carbon emissions is poor, and its own emission reduction efforts have limited impact on regional peak values and the year of peak carbon emissions. Compared with the open view, the closed STIRPAT model will delay the peak emission and mean that Shanxi fails to achieve its peak value in the forecast period. Therefore, Shanxi should pay special attention to the energy saving development of the whole country from an open angle and make it an important constraint factor in the formulation of Shanxi's peak carbon policy to formulate a flexible carbon emission peak scheme.

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    Embodied carbon emissions transfer in China aquatic product trade based on MRIO modeling and LMDI methods
    Chen LI, Rui CONG, Gui Lan SHAO
    2018, 40 (5):  1063-1072.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.18
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    With increasing international trade, embodied carbon emissions are growing. International trade is no longer a purely economic activity and has become an important way for embodied carbon emission transfer. The embodied carbon emissions in international trade have also become an important issue in global climate change negotiations. Based on the MRIO model, we calculated embodied carbon emission transfer in China’s aquatic product trade from 2005 to 2014. We adopted the LMDI method to decompose the effect and explore causes of embodied carbon emission transfer in the aquatic product trade from the effect of scale, structure and intensity. We found that the embodied carbon emissions transfer decreased and then increased in China. China has always been the net exporter of embodied carbon emissions in aquatic product trade. Among influencing factors of embodied carbon emissions in aquatic product trade, the scale effect has a positive effect. Structure and intensity effects have negative effects. Therefore, China should reduce the intensity of carbon emissions and optimize the trade structure of aquatic products as an important way to reduce embodied carbon emissions in the trade of aquatic products, and should improve fishery ecological efficiency and develop low-carbon technology to reduce embodied carbon emission intensity. Across whole marine ecological system construction China should promote the development of marine ranching, farming and other modern three-dimensional fishery ecological culture modes. At the same time, China should optimize the trade structure of aquatic products from the perspective of low-carbon fisheries and improve the utilization efficiency of the energy industry to further reduce embodied carbon emissions transfer in its aquatic product trade. These measures will enhance discourse and rights in international climate negotiations.

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    Factors restricting the participation of farmers in Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects
    Rongfa GONG, Weizhong ZENG
    2018, 40 (5):  1073-1083.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.19
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    670 rural households which participated in two typical Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects(Afforestation and reforestation project under the Clean Development Mechanism) driven by government in Sichuan Province as samples and using Structural Equation Model, we researched the factors that restrict the farmers' participation on the basis of Embedded Social Structure Theory. The results of the study show that there are three important reasons leading to low degree of farmers' participation. Firstly, It is difficult to meet the strict requirements of the construction of carbon sequestration forest because of the backwardness of afforestation technology of farmers; And then, firm admittance criterion of forest land makes the forest land which many households have the right of contracted management can not be included in the Forest Carbon Sequestration Project. Finaly, there are no demonstration organizations that can drive the households to participate in Forest Carbon Sequestration Project because of weakening of the function of the informal organization and insufficient development of the formal organization in the community. Therefore, there are three important measures to increase the degree of farmers' participation. Improving farmers' afforestation and forestation technology by carrying out technical training, reducing forest land access standards by optimizing the organization structure of Forest Carbon Sequestration Project, and promoting the development of community organizations such as forestry cooperatives. At the same time, Resource endowment such as the area of forest land, the structure of family labors and the level of income, and social capital such as the relationship network, the degree of trust of the government and the degree of trust of the villagers also affect farmers' willingness and abilities to participate in Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects to a certain extent, although almost all of the forest carbon sequestration projects are now driven by the government.

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    Spatial and temporal variation and trend evolution of county-based agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in Jiangsu Province
    Hui CHEN, Guanghui FU, Youzhao LIU
    2018, 40 (5):  1084-1094.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.05.20
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    Agricultural greenhouse gases emissions account for a large proportion of global greenhouse gases emissions. The emission amount and intensity of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O in 62 counties in Jiangsu Province from 2001 to 2014 were studied. By analyzing spatial patterns and the evolution of spatial variation according to Gini coefficients, the bearing and contribution of agricultural development was obtained. In this analysis, according to matrix clustering analysis the spatial region was divided and the inter-county relationship was quantitatively analyzed, which fully revealed the feature of agricultural greenhouse gases emissions—difference among spatial regions and its revolution with time. The annual fluctuation in emissions in the province varied significantly and increased rapidly after 2007 with average annual growth of 4.37%. However, the emission intensity showed a decreasing trend and an average annual decrease of 4.26%. The spatial agglomeration of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions was obvious. The emission intensity gradually tends to be balanced. Emission amount, emission intensity and ESC Gini coefficient were becoming more reasonable. However, ECC (economic level - greenhouse gases emission) Gini coefficient was still larger than 0.4 and showed a rising trend, which should receive special attention. In order to highlight regional differences in the bearing and contribution of agricultural development resulting from emissions, 62 county-units were divided into four categories: "High bearing capacity - high economic contribution" type", High bearing capacity - low economic contribution" type, "Low bearing capacity - high economic contribution" type, "Low bearing capacity-low economic contribution" type. This study provides a scientific basis for counties in Jiangsu Province to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction policies to achieve low-carbon agriculture.

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