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Table of Content

    10 April 2018, Volume 40 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    A review on evaluating methods of regional resources and environment carrying capacity
    Fangqu NIU, Zhiming FENG, Hui LIU
    2018, 40 (4):  655-663.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.01
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    China is now experiencing increasing resource consumption and environmental deterioration because of rapid economic development and urbanization. Research on resources and environmental capacity is becoming focused. Here we systematically reviewed and analyzed research in China and abroad, focusing on evaluation methods. Based on research gaps, it could be drawn that there is no generally accepted definition or consensus of resource and environmental capacity, which leads to differences in methodologies and conclusions. The maximum population, ecological footprint, and emergy are often used methodologies to evaluate regional resources and environmental capacity taking ecological system and socio-economic system as a black box. There is a lack of research into interaction mechanisms between them, and political implications are weak. These methods are not suitable to evaluate carrying capacity at regional scales. Research integrating regional economy, population, resources and the ecological environment remains to be furthered in relation to both theories and techniques. Defining resources and environmental capacity using the maximum number of populations that can be carried as indicator, we discussed the dimension of resources and environmental capacity and developed an evaluation process. According to this process, determining factors and socio-economic influencing factors as well as the interaction mechanism of them need to be identified first, then to evaluate the carrying capacity of each socio-economic factors, and comprehensive regional resource and environmental capacity based on mutual restraint of these factors. The evaluation of resources and environmental capacity requires much future work.

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    A review of change in agricultural multifunctionality in metropolitan areas under rapid urbanization in China
    Jiao HUANG, Shuangcheng LI
    2018, 40 (4):  664.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.02
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    Agriculture can provide multiple economic, ecological and social functions beyond food and fibre production. Agricultural multifunctionality is an important issue in agricultural transformation, land use management and sustainable urban development in metropolitan areas under rapid urbanization. In China, much research has focused on agricultural multifunctionality or the impacts of urbanization on agriculture. However, there is still a lack of synthetic studies regarding the application of the Multifunctional Agriculture research paradigm on analyzing the change and adaptation of agriculture in metropolitan areas. Based upon an extensive review in China we aimed to illustrate the conceptual framework of agricultural multifunctionality and summarize the assessment indicators in order to create a widely accepted research framework for agricultural multifunctionality. We also aimed to analyze changes in agricultural multifunctionality and agricultural systems in metropolitan areas under rapid urbanization in China. The results show that rapid urbanization has changed not only the main types of agricultural functions in metropolitan areas but also interactions among functions. Different adaptation strategies by different stakeholders led to seven main categories of agricultural systems, including the farmer-household-based agro-tourism, specialized and large-scale food production and processing groups, agricultural scientific research parks, enterprise-based recreational agricultural parks, public agricultural parks, conservation agriculture and community supported agriculture. Changes in the main activities and functions of these agricultural systems show a trend towards high multifunctionality of agriculture in metropolitan areas in China. Finally, suggestions are provided to promote research on agricultural multifunctionality and policy-making for the development of sustainable metropolitan agriculture in China.

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    The impact of eco-environment and disaster factors on poverty: a review
    Xin CHENG, Chuanmin SHUAI, Jing WANG, Wenjing LI, Yue LIU
    2018, 40 (4):  676.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.03
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    Contiguous Extremely Poverty-Stricken Areas have become the main battlefield in China’s poverty alleviation. Poverty is usually interwoven with eco-environmental and disaster factors, which is the most difficult work in China’s poverty alleviation. Based on the literature, we analyzed the relationship between the eco-environment and poverty, and disaster and poverty. We explored poverty reduction demands of the poor and poverty alleviation modes. Finally, we proposed a systematic theoretical framework for poverty alleviation that could reconcile environmental protection and disaster mitigation with poverty eradication. We found that the relationship between eco-environments and poverty is mutual and complicated, and the key influential factors contain environmental degradation factors, resource factors and multidimensional poverty factors. Related research on the relationship between disasters and poverty mainly focuses on three perspectives: vulnerability, direct relationship and household livelihoods. The poverty reduction demands of the poor present a diversification trend, but previous studies seldom consider the environment and disaster factors. Therefore, in future research on the relationship between eco-environments and poverty should pay more attention to sustainable development issues. The indirect impacts of disasters on poverty are worthy of attention. Issues such as the vulnerability and post-disaster restoration of the poor could not be ignored. Attention should be paid to the development of innovative poverty alleviation modes, and actively promoting the organic combination of renewable energy and targeted poverty alleviation. Related research should comprehensively consider key factors associated with ecological environments, disasters and poverty as well as their interrelationships in an attempt to put forward poverty reduction strategies systematically.

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    Risk perception, ability of resisting risk and farmer willingness to exit rural housing land
    Xinhua ZHU, Sixuan LU
    2018, 40 (4):  698-706.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.04
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    Exiting from rural housing land has great significance for improving the intensive use level of rural housing land and promoting urbanization. However, the risk of reform requires attention. Farmer risk perception and ability to resist risk will greatly affect their willingness to exit rural housing land. Based on questionnaires of 1094 households in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, the influence of risk perception and ability to resist risk on farmers’ willingness to exit rural housing land was investigated. We found that risk perception and the ability to resist risk have a significant influence on farmer willingness to exit rural housing land in the sample area. There is a distinct inverted U feature between farmers' abilities to resist risk and willingness to exit rural housing land, that is, once the wealth effect of risk tolerance is greater than the effect of reform cost, farmer ability to resist risk plays a negative role on their willingness to exit rural housing land. However, differences in rural housing land's geographical position, usage types, pilot area and non-pilot areas lead to significant individual differences in ability to resist risk. We should pay attention to the diversified needs of different characteristics of farmers groups, improve the ability of farmers’ risk perception and enhance the ability to resist risk via employment training service systems and unified social security systems in urban and rural areas. For the geographical position of rural housing land and the use of different types, we need to carry out differentiated rural housing land exit policy arrangements such as differential compensation methods, compensation standards and implementation steps.

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    The effects of land transfer on technical efficiency
    Rong CAI, Xihui ZHU, Ting LIU, Xiaolan YI
    2018, 40 (4):  707-718.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.05
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    Land rental is one of the main ways in which operational land holdings are supposed to be expanded. Cultivated land rental will play an important role in China’s agricultural development strategy. However, the relationship between rural land transfer and agricultural production efficiency is an important ongoing area of research in both the theoretical and empirical literature. In this article, survey data from 331 carrot farmers from Yanjin County and two different models (stochastic frontier production function analysis in logarithmic form and propensity score matching) were employed to assess the effect of land transfer on technical efficiency. According to the results, carrot farmers present heterogeneity characteristics in technical efficiency, ranging from 0.41~0.98 (average=0.85). The decision of land transfer is significantly influenced by factors related to the householder such as age, gender, degree of education, planting experience, the number of farming members, distance from agricultural market and informal credit constraints. Technical efficiency is improved by land transfer by 12.8%~14.4% compared with before and the technical efficiency of non-land transfer farmers could be promoted by 12.5%~13.2% if they participant in land transfer. Sensitivity analysis and robust tests verify the average treatment effect of land transfer on technical efficiency. Farmland transfer is an effective way to improve the efficiency of agricultural production, but government should increase production service investment and advanced technology in agriculture to raise technical efficiency and create more opportunities for land transfer to encourage conditional farmers to roll out land to let them have the best ratio of production factors to improve their production efficiency. Government should encourage farming experts to roll in land in order to achieve scale operations to further improve efficiency.

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    Spatial distribution and impact factors of farmland abandonment
    Fangfang JIN, Liangjie XIN
    2018, 40 (4):  719-728.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.06
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    Faced with a crisis of growing food demand, the Chinese government has taken drastic steps to safeguard the nation’s farmland and promote intensive land-use. However, China's rapid urbanization and high economic growth have caused significant negative effects on agricultural production. Farmland abandonment has become a general phenomenon in China directly impacting total agricultural production. Here, we analyzed spatial and temporal variation of farmland abandonment in China from 2002 to 2013 with data from the Chinese Household Income Survey (CHIP). Logit modeling was used to capture the main factors that led to this phenomenon. We found that during this period, the ratio of farmland abandonment rises from 0.32%~5.72% in China. Farmland shrinkage caused by “Forest transition” is unavoidable in China. At a regional level, farmland abandonment rates in middle, eastern and western China are 0.81%, 6.91% and 7.65% respectively. The health condition of the householder, total farmland area of the household and agricultural income of the household are the most crucial impact factors determining farmland abandonment. Bad health and large farmland area will induce farmers to idle their farmland and increasing agricultural income will prompt them to take full advantage of farmland. The farmland transfer in plain areas is effective for facilitating farmland use and preventing farmland abandonment, but is not significant in mountain areas. The policy implication here is establishing an intermediary platform for farmland transfer at the grass-roots level to impel farmland transfer in plain areas and agricultural scale management at a national level.

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    Driving force evolution of land use change in a border trade area of China
    Zhengwei LIU, Meichen FU, Qian DING
    2018, 40 (4):  729-736.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.07
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    Analyses of land use change driving force is of great significance to understanding the mechanisms of land use change and land use planning. The rapid development of border trade has changed land use structure in border areas. Therefore, the study of driving forces of land use change under the development of border trade becomes increasingly important. We focused on Suifenhe city as a typical case and used landsat images for 1990, 2000, 2011 and 2016, and DEM data and socio-economic statistics. Canonical correlation analysis and a binary logistic regression model were used to analyze the evolution of land use change under rapid development of border trade from two aspects: time macro and spatial microcosmic. We found that the main explanatory variables of cultivated land area change are agricultural total output in the early period and total fixed assets investment and gross national product in the later period. The explanatory variables of forest area changed from the previous period to imports and the latter to exports and international tourist numbers. During the early period of border trade development the main explanatory factor of built-up land is gross fixed asset formation, late due to changes in border trade structure; gross industrial production accounted for this leading role. Topographic conditions have always been an important factor limiting land use pattern in Suifenhe. After 2000 and the establishment of the China-Russia Sui-Bo inter-city trade zone, the border economic cooperation zone and the Suifenhe Comprehensive Bonded Zone have attracted built-up land and impacted land use patterns. The analysis of land use change in Suifenhe enriches research into border cities and provides consultation and suggestions for local sustainable development.

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    Evaluation of cultivated land quality based on four quality dimensions
    Yunna XIN, Shuyin FAN, Xiangbin KONG, Bangbang ZHANG, Liangyou WEN, Qingpu ZHANG
    2018, 40 (4):  737-747.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.08
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    Cultivated land use and protection require multidimensional management of cultivated land quality. As the quality evaluation of cultivated land at the county level is the basis of quality management of cultivated land in China, we built a comprehensive quality indicator system at the county level under the multidimension of cultivated land quality including soil, ecology, environmental and management quality based on the theoretical framework of ‘demand - quality dimension - indicator - limiting coefficient - comprehensive quality of cultivated land’. This research was carried out in Daxing District of Beijing using multi-source and multi-scale data and step by step modification by limit coefficient. We found that the quality of cultivated land in Daxing District was in the middle level, while environmental quality was the main dimension restricting the promotion of cultivated land quality. The result is different from the achievement of cultivated land productivity evaluation and agricultural land utilization classification since the environmental quality of cultivated land was considered n in our evaluation. The cultivated land quality evaluation index system integrated indicators of agricultural land quality, cultivated land productivity and soil environment which has strong inclusiveness and openness. The differences in county cultivated land quality were objectively reflected in the evaluation result via step by step modification through limit coefficients according to non-additive and limiting factors. Cultivated land quality evaluation in this study is an effective supplement to the existing evaluation achievement and could support China's trinity management strategy of cultivated land as it not only properly evaluates the comprehensive quality of cultivated land but also quantitatively evaluates sub-dimension quality.

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    The effect of environmental uncertainty, external financing and policy on renewable energy investment
    Lingyun HE, Lihong ZHANG, Zhangqi ZHONG, Jingran ZHU
    2018, 40 (4):  748-758.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.09
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    Based on quarterly panel data for 141 renewable energy companies from 2010 to 2016, we used a variable intercept model with fixed effects to measure how environmental uncertainty influences renewable energy investment through external financing and regression discontinuity to estimate the effect of renewable energy policy. We found that environmental uncertainty inhibits renewable energy investment, the effect coefficient is -1.3042 in the sample interval. The inhibition effect is stronger in the enterprises of lower-level external financing. Under different external financing levels, the main finance channels to promote renewable energy investment are not the same. The enterprises of low-level external financing mainly rely on indirect financing channels and the coefficient of action is 0.8607. The enterprises of high-level external financing enterprises mainly rely on direct financing channels, with a coefficient of 2.8699. Improving the level of indirect financing can alleviate the inhibition effect of environmental uncertainty on renewable energy investment, however, the alleviating effect of the direct financing channel is not significant. During the sample period, relevant policies for renewable energy play a significant role in promoting renewable energy investment, but government should pay attention to the coordination and cooperation of policies in practice. In addition, considering the policy effect, the effect coefficient of environmental uncertainty influencing renewable energy investment is 9.4504, which means that with the guiding and promoting effect of policies, while facing environmental uncertainty enterprises can still expand renewable energy investment, reflecting the effectiveness of renewable energy policy implementation in China.

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    The spatial network structure of energy-environmental efficiency and its determinants in China
    Jie HUANG
    2018, 40 (4):  759-772.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.10
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    Improving energy-environmental efficiency is not only an objective requirement of ecological civilization construction in China, but also an inevitable choice in sustainable economic and social development. In order to measure the energy-environmental efficiency of 30 provinces in China, we used the non-radial, non-angle, dual-oriented DEA window model on the basis of interprovincial panel data from 1995 to 2015. In addition, using the VAR Granger causality test method we identified the spatial association of energy-environmental efficiency in China. Through the use of Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods we revealed the characteristics of the spatial correlation network and its determinants of interprovincial energy-environmental efficiency in China. The results show that there exists a significant and complex spatial network structure in China’s interprovincial energy-environmental efficiency. In the blocks of the spatial association network of energy-environmental efficiency, eastern provinces are mainly located in the “net spillover block”, playing the role of “engine” in the process of improving China’s energy-environmental efficiency. Most of the eastern provinces are in a central location, while western provinces are mainly in the “net benefit block” which lies at an edge position of the spatial correlation network of energy-efficiency. Thus, differences in economic development level, energy consumption structure, industrial structure, environmental regulation and technological innovation were significantly correlated with the spatial correlation network of energy and environmental efficiency. In the meantime, similar economic performance level, industrial structure and technical competence contribute to interprovincial spatial networks of energy-environmental efficiency in China. The spatial correlation network structure of energy-environmental efficiency poses serious challenges to the formulation and implementation of energy efficiency policy, but also creates favorable conditions for the implementation of regional coordinated development and construction of synergy promotion mechanisms of inter-regional energy-environmental efficiency.

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    Quantitative measurement and evaluation of geopolitical risks confronting Central Asian major energy exporting countries
    Xiaopeng CHEN, Shengkui CHENG, Liang WU
    2018, 40 (4):  773-783.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.11
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    Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, the two major energy exporting countries in Central Asia, are rich in oil and gas and located in the heartland of the Eurasian Continent. Their geographic location puts their energy exports under tremendous geopolitical pressure from countries along their limited exporting pipelines. In order to safeguard their energy security, they have developed an export diversification strategy to overcome this pressure. Using energy trade data from the United Nations Comtrade Database from 2005 to 2013, we tested the effect of this strategy using three standards: correlation, diversification, and the impact of bilateral relationship. We found that Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan’s oil markets are balanced in terms of correlation and diversification, and thus less subject to geopolitical pressure. Their gas markets, on the other hand, still have tremendous exposure to geopolitical risks for high correlation and lack of diversification. Kazakhstan’s oil and gas markets are more diversified and less correlated than Turkmenistan’s. In terms of overall effect, Kazakhstan usesa typical diversification strategy to reduce geopolitical risks while Turkmenistan adopts a reverse diversification strategy which was more effective during the sample time. In conclusion, the diversification of export routes and markets is essentially a political adjustment to their geopolitical environment made by energy exporting countries in Central Asia instead of economic rationale. Several policy proposals to help these two countries lower their export risk under the framework of the Silk Road Economic Belt are discussed.

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    The influence of population structural change on water consumption in urbanization
    Wei JIN, Hengquan ZHANG, Hongbo ZHANG, Wei KONG, Guangxiong MAO, Chenjun ZHANG, Xiang YAN
    2018, 40 (4):  784-796.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.12
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    We used the dynamical system GMM and panel threshold model to analyze the relationship between population structure change and water consumption in 31 provinces of China from 2000 to 2016. We found that the elasticity coefficient of aging population to water consumption is the largest (0.042). Among non-population structure factors, the elasticity coefficient of the water consumption of previous period to this period is the largest (0.978), followed by the water consumption by million CNY of GDP (0.020) and population scale (0.018). Industrial restructuring significantly inhibits water increases (-0.041); other regression results were not significant. Water use in the east is more affected by changes in population structure than other factors. With one percentage point increase in high-end consumption, population urbanization and rural labor force, water consumption respectively increased by 12.1, 6.5 and 3.6 percentage points respectively. Population structure changes in central and western regions did not significantly affect water consumption. The age and industrial structures have a threshold effect on water consumption, and the elastic coefficients are 0.174, 0.150, 0.139 and -0.012, -0.008 and -0.020, respectively. In 2016, only Tibet did not cross the first threshold of the population age structure, while other provinces crossed the second threshold. Beijing and Shanghai have crossed the second threshold of industrial structure in 2016, with 11 provinces in the second phase of the threshold, while the other 18 provinces have not crossed the first threshold. It is necessary to reduce the promoting effect of population structural change on water consumption, appropriately extend the retirement age and rationally control urban floating population. Other measures such as guiding residents to form water-saving ideas and achieving coordinated regional development are also needed.

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    Influence of farmer's risk preference and risk perception on water-saving irrigation technology adoption
    Zhiwu HE, Lun HU, Qian LU
    2018, 40 (4):  797-808.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.13
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    Here, we explored the mechanism under different risk characteristics of farmers by irrigation demand heterogeneity. This work will help farmers seek optimal risk management strategies and policy incentive recommendations for the construction of water-saving irrigation technology policy. We used the Gansu province Zhangye Ganzhou district water-saving irrigation technology demonstration area and 540 questionnaires to discuss the mechanism in scenarios of risk preference and risk perception on farmer willingness to adopt water-saving irrigation technology. We found that the willingness of farmers to adopt irrigation technology increases with increasing risk perception, but decreases with the increase in risk preference. Farmer risk perception and risk preference interaction determines water-saving irrigation technology adoption intention. When farmers perceive more perception risk, the type of risk preference farmers adopt water-saving willingness significantly lower than risk averse farmers' willingness to adopt. When farmers are the risk preferences, the cognitive level of risk perception high farmers adopt water-saving willingness was significantly higher than that of low risk cognition of farmers' willingness to adopt. Farmer risk preferences through the mediating role of risk perception, indirectly effect their willingness for water-saving irrigation technology: risk aversion farmers with high cognitive levels of risk in water-saving irrigation technology adoption willingness will become more intense and obvious, but the inhibition effect is more obvious. In order to avoid the risk of agricultural production and reduce income variability, agricultural production behavior tends to deviate from optimal economics. The social security system is not perfect in China and this will cause farmers to adopt conservative risk averse behavior. New irrigation technology extension should be to very cautious.

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    The impact of technology perception and subsidy policy on different phases of farmers’ water-saving irrigation technology adoption
    Tao XU, Minjuan ZHAO, Erhui LI, Dan QIAO
    2018, 40 (4):  809-817.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.14
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    Agriculture consumes 63.1% of the total water in Chin, but the effective utilization rate of farmland irrigation water in China is only 0.542 and there exists a huge waste of water resources. Accelerating the promotion of water-saving irrigation technology is an important way for China to realize the transformation from water-dependent agriculture to water-saving agriculture. Here we use the example of drip irrigation technology and structural equation modeling to analyze how technology perception and subsidy policy satisfaction impact the initial phase and follow-up phase of farmers’ adoption, based on 354 households’ survey data from Minqin County (among them, 156 households have not used drip irrigation and 198 households have adopted). When they adopt technology from the initial phase to the follow-up phase, farmers' perception of ease to use improves, however, their perceived usefulness and subsidy policy rationality decrease. Compared with the perception of ease to use, the influence of perceived usefulness on farmers’ willingness to adopt increases, and the influence of subsidy policy on farmers’ willingness to adopt is further enhanced. A policy implication is that technology promotion such as advertising activities, training and field demonstration in initial adoption phase are significant in today's technology popularization. More input should be applied into technology research and development to improve the effect and sustainability of technology adopting at the same time. Appropriate adjustment should be given in subsidy standard and manners for improving the implementation effects of subsidy policy, and more attention should be paid to policy requirements of farmers in the follow-up adoption phase, for their opinions on the subsidy standard and means are valuable.

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    Water movement through unsaturated zones in the severe saline-alkali cotton fields in inland arid regions underwater and salt regulation by drip irrigation
    Tiantian ZHOU, Dongmei HAN, Xianfang SONG, Ying MA, Yinghua ZHANG
    2018, 40 (4):  818-828.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.15
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    The study of water movement through unsaturated zones provides a theoretical basis for water and salt regulation by drip irrigation in arid zone. Here, we took the improved severe saline-alkali cotton field by this schedule in Karamay agricultural development area as an example. Based on in-situ observations of soil water potential, soil water content and stable isotopes in water during different cotton growth periods, we studied water movement characteristics through an unsaturated zone. The results show that under water and salt regulation by drip irrigation schedules, 0~60 cm in the improved severe saline-alkali cotton field is influenced by infiltration and evapotranspiration, and soil water content varies with time. 60~220 cm is less influenced by infiltration compared with 0~60 cm, along with comparatively stable dynamics in soil water content, soil water potential and isotopic compositions of soil water. 220~260 cm is obviously affected by groundwater, along with more stable dynamics of soil water content, soil water potential and isotopic compositions of soil water compared with 60~220 cm. Precipitation and irrigation water account for about 22% and 78% of soil water at 120cm and 150cm, respectively, accounting for 40% and 60% of soil water at 100cm and 180cm, respectively and 46% and 54% of soil water at 260cm. Irrigation water has no significant impacts on groundwater. Water table changes during this experiment period mainly came from lateral groundwater recharge.

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    Valuing species diversity based on bio-prospecting
    Jian WU, Xiaoxia QIU
    2018, 40 (4):  829-837.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.16
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    Bio-prospecting is the search for valuable products such as pharmaceuticals in biological organisms and is one of the main approaches to capture the value of species biodiversity. Theoretically, private-sector bio-prospecting effort can reveal the potential value of species biodiversity conservation or its optional value. This approach provides a unique way to understand the Willingness-To-Pay of human society for conserving genetic resources. Here, we improve model setting and parameters in existing literature to explore and establish a theoretical model of assessing the potential value (option value) of genetic resources, and estimating the genetic value of species diversity of higher plants in China by numerical simulation. Results show that the option value of higher plants in China is relatively high. The marginal option value of species is 35. 31 million CNY, and the potential total value of higher plants in China is about 1. 18 trillion CNY. As designation of nature reserves is the major approach to protect higher plants in China, we took Wuyishan National Nature Reserve as a case, turned the species value into the value of marginal area of land in conservation, and found that the marginal land value of the case nature reserve is 6444 CNY/hm2. The theoretical model and parameters on option value assessment developed in this study provide an innovative supplement to existing methods and approaches for genetic resource valuation in China. Results from numerical simulation provide an important price reference for guiding conservation investment, promoting the effective protection and utilization of biological resources, and integrating the future potential value of genetic resources into conservation policy decision-making.

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    Labor transfer, cooperative operation and forestry production efficiency based on surveys of farmers in 9 forestry counties in Fujian
    Yaqing HAN, Limei LIN, Yuanzhu WEI, Shipeng SU, Jiaxian XU
    2018, 40 (4):  838-850.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.17
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    During the process of industrialization and urbanization the continuous transfer of rural labor has become an important factor restricting the sustainable development of forestry. In order to investigate forestry production efficiency and evaluate the effect of labor transfer and cooperative operation on it, we measured the efficiency of forestry production and analyzed the relationship between labor transfer, forestry cooperation and forestry production efficiency using the DEA-Tobit model and survey data from nine forestry counties in Fujian. We found that household forestry still tends to be extensively managed. Forestry production efficiency stayed at a low level (0.203) and there are obvious differences in production efficiency among different forest management types. Labor transfer had a significant inhibitory effect on forestry production efficiency, namely cooperative forestry operation can promote it and brought positive regulating effect on the relationship between labor transfer and forestry production efficiency. Labor force character, woodland management characteristics and different types of forestry management also affected forestry production efficiency to some extent. Thus, rural labor transfer is restricting forestry development. Farmers should be encouraged to build up joint operations and engage in mutual assistance to promote the integration of production factors and utilization efficiency and overcome shortages in family forestry labor caused by labor transfer.

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    Fiscal decentralization, environmental protection expenditure and haze pollution
    Xun WU, Jie WANG
    2018, 40 (4):  851-861.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.18
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    Chinese style fiscal decentralization has resulted in stunning economic growth, but haze pollution has aroused concerns from stakeholders. Research on the mechanism of China's decentralization and environmental protection expenditure on haze pollution is needed to provide decision-making references for urban haze management in China. Here, we empirically researched relationships among fiscal decentralization, environmental protection expenditure and haze pollution using static and dynamic modeling of panel data from 73 monitored environment cities in China from 2008-2015. We found that fiscal expenditure decentralization or revenue decentralization or financial freedom have a remarkable positive correlation with haze pollution, and a significant negative correlation between environmental protection expenditure and haze pollution. The interaction between fiscal decentralization and environmental protection expenditure is negatively related to haze pollution and the interaction coefficient is far less than the fiscal decentralization coefficient. The degree of economic development and haze pollution is not a ‘reverse U’ relationship, and there is a significant positive correlation between foreign direct investment and haze pollution. For early realization of China's new normal of urban haze governance, we need to improve the environmental assessment system for local governments; establish a system of lifelong accountability for officials; standardize competition among local governments; reform the soft constraint of environmental budget; promote reform of fiscal decentralization; and accelerate the upgrade of industrial structure.

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    The intrinsic associative mechanism between industrial economic growth and industrial pollution in China
    Jianli SUI, Biying LIU, Jinquan LIU
    2018, 40 (4):  862-873.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.19
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    Industrial pollution is a serious problem in the process of human industrialization. In order to solve the problem in China, based on the industrial data of China’s solid waste output (solidt), waste water emission (liquidt), waste gas exhaust (gast) and economic growth (iavt), we built an industrial pollution and industrial economic growth system, namely “solidt-iavt”, “liquidt-iavt” and “gast-iavt”. Under this system, we measure the cyclicity of associative mechanisms between industrial economic growth and industrial pollution with the model of nonlinear MS-VAR. We capture and portray the regime transmission process of the industrial pollution and industrial economic growth system to identity whether the system is in “low growth regime” or “fast growth regime”, so that the relationship between industrial pollution and industrial economic growth can be identified. We found that “industrial pollution and industrial economic growth” system exists a sign of structural mutation between “low growth regime” and “fast growth regime”, and the system has a nonlinear characteristic of cyclic change. With the regime transforming, the relationship between industrial pollution and industrial economy will also change. While “solidt-iavt” system is in “low (fast) growth regime”, solidt and iavt are negatively (positively) related. Comparatively, liquidt and iavt are performing a negative (positive) relationship, when “liquidt-iavt” system is in “fast (low) growth regime”. No matter “gast-iavt” system is in “low growth regime” or “fast growth regime”, the relationship between gast and iavt is positive. What’s more, for the “solidt-iavt” system and the “gast-iavt” system, the possibility and sustainability in “low (fast) growth regime” is higher (lower). However, with a higher (lower) probability and stronger (weaker) durability, “liquidt-iavt”system tends to be in “fast (low) growth regime”.

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