In many regions in China, energy shortages (e.g. coal, oil, gas and electricity) are common. There are signs that regional energy security remains an important issue in the development of China and cannot be ignored. Here, we construct a corresponding index system of regional energy security from four aspects: regional energy supply, use, economic and environmental safety in China. The weight of the index is determined by the entropy method, overcoming the subjectivity of the traditional weighting method, and the TOPSIS evaluation method is used to quantitatively evaluate energy security of provinces. The results show that China’s regional energy security is generally low. The energy security value is higher than the national average for only Shanxi, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and six other provinces, accounting for 30% of provinces. The remaining 21 provinces have lower than average energy security. Energy security in China shows a gradual decrease from the northwest to southeast. In northwest provinces, energy reserves are abundant and energy consumption is relatively low, resulting in high energy security. Energy savings in the eastern and central provinces are scarce and energy consumption is huge, leading to low energy security. Several policy recommendations are discussed, including optimizing energy structure and increasing diversification of energy to improve supply stability, increasing research investment and improving energy efficiency, reducing and diversifying energy consumption, paying attention to environmental protection investment and lessening environmental pollution.