Table of Content

    10 February 2018, Volume 40 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Oil price shocks, the puzzling price elasticity of Chinese oil imports and double-dimensional asymmetric effects
    Zongming LIU, Zhengqian WU
    2018, 40 (2):  227-236.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.01
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    Much research has investigated the relationship between oil price shocks and crude oil imports. Empirical research based on traditional linear models indicates that the price elasticity of oil imports is inelastic in many other countries. However, in China, that number is extremely low, which cannot be completely explained by existing research. In our view, the chances are that non-significant results have cast a veil over the true relationship between them. In order to capture this nonlinear characteristic, we constructed a logistic smooth transition vector auto-regression model. The generalized impulse response functions show that the effects of oil shocks depend not only on the growth rate of the economy but also on the direction of oil shocks. First, the effect of positive oil shocks is different from that of negative oil shocks, especially during economic recession. To be specific, the dynamic reaction of oil imports on a unit of negative oil shock is considerably more obvious than that of a positive oil shock. Second, we make a distinction between economic prosperity and recession, using the growth rate of the economy as a switching variable. The results have shown that the effect of oil shocks (both positive oil shocks and negative oil shocks) is relatively higher during economic recession than economic prosperity. This study investigates the asymmetric effects of oil shocks across two different dimensions, which has important policy implications for the government in determining an appropriate importation strategy and optimal macro-control policy under different economic backgrounds.

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    Progress, driving forces and challenges of Sino-Russian energy cooperation under the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor
    Yang YANG, Suocheng DONG, Zehong LI
    2018, 40 (2):  237-249.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.02
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    Sino-Russian energy cooperation is geo-strategic cooperation between China and Russia, and is an important part of the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination. Since 1996 when Sino-Russian energy cooperation started, it has undergone many setbacks, but also great progress. Cooperation fields have expanded from the oil and gas trade to whole industry chain cooperation including oil and gas exploration and development, technical services of upstream cooperation, oil and gas pipeline construction of midstream cooperation, refining and chemical cooperation of downstream cooperation, along with implementation of the China- Mongolia- Russia Economic Corridor, Sino- Russian energy cooperation embraces new opportunities. We summarized progress in Sino-Russian energy cooperation, analyzed internal and external driving forces of energy cooperation from the perspectives of supply and demand, energy policy, international division of labor, comparative advantages and international geo-environment change. We concluded that energy supply and demand and comparative advantages between China and Russia are highly complementary, energy strategies and regional development strategies are highly consistent, and geographic advantages are obvious. The internal consistency of Sino-Russian interests determine the necessity to launch Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation, while external factors such as adjustment of the European union's energy strategy, shale gas revolution, the Ukraine event in 2014, increasing close energy cooperation between China and Central Asia, accelerated the process of Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation. Though current Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation is promising, there are still many challenges. With the increasingly complex international geo-environment, to promote Sino-Russian energy cooperation, Russia and China should strengthen mutual trust, improve Sino-Russian geo-strategic cooperation; fully take advantage of strategic opportunities arising from the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, extend cooperation modes and fields; establish long-term Sino Russian energy cooperation strategic plans; improve Sino-Russian energy cooperation mechanisms; and together with surrounding countries establish a regional energy community.

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    Re-calculation of carbon emissions embodied in China-Japan trade based on the new value-added trade method
    Bingbing ZHANG, Yiwen LI
    2018, 40 (2):  250-261.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.03
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    The cross-border separation of production and consumption activities has become increasingly common in the context of the deepening division of global production networks. The traditional trade statistic method, which is based on the standard of cross-border and final products, cannot accurately describe the trade interests of a country effectively. Therefore, based on the traditional trade statistics perspective, the use of competitive input-output methods to calculate the trade implied carbon emissions data will be overvalued. In this study, we used a newly developed non-competitive input-output method, incorporating value-added trade, to recalculate the intensity of embodied carbon emission in 27 trading industry sectors between China and Japan during 2000 to 2014. Our results reveal that although China experiences a huge trade deficit when trading with Japan, it is a net surplus country regarding carbon emissions embodied in China-Japan trade. Traditional trade modeling overestimates carbon emissions embodied in trade between China and Japan. On the whole, carbon emissions embodied in exports from China to Japan are overestimated by 982 million tons, carbon emissions contained in imports by China from Japan are overestimated by 392 million tons during the whole period. From a sub-industry perspectives, industries like mining, wood processing and furniture manufacturing, transportation, leasing and business services, and metal products in China are the most overestimated industry sectors, with an average overvalued rate of up to 68.2%.

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    Characteristics and determinants of carbon emissions from daily private cars travel in central area of Jinan
    Qingchun LIU, Yingying ZHANG, Yan XIAO, Yujuan YUAN, Haibin XIA
    2018, 40 (2):  262-272.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.04
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    As car travel has a great impact on urban transport carbon emissions, promoting a change in residents' daily travel behavior is the key to achieving urban green transportation and low-carbon development. Based on daily travel survey data of residents in central area of Jinan we analyzed the characteristics and determinants of carbon emissions from daily private cars. We found that private cars are the main means of transportation for residents in Jinan, and the average annual carbon emissions from private cars is 2.22 tons, and the spatial distribution of carbon emissions from private cars reveals a pattern of differentiation increasing from the center outward. The individual distribution is consistent with the quantification principle of 60/20. A Heckman two-step model was used to explore influencers factors of carbon emissions from private cars, and results indicate that urban built environment factors play a more important role in carbon emissions from private cars compared with socio-economic factors. Regarding socio-economic factors, the increase in income level and family size increases the probability of private car travel rather than the carbon emissions of private cars. For urban built environment factors, both the improvement of transport infrastructure and optimization of job-housing distance significantly decrease the probability of private car travel but have no significant effect on carbon emissions from private cars. However, increasing the residential population density, improving the supply of commercial service facilities and promoting diversity of land use in surrounding communities can effectively reduce long distance travel demands and carbon emissions.

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    The pattern and mechanism of farmland transition in China from the perspective of per capita farmland area
    Dazhuan GE, Hualou LONG, Ren YANG
    2018, 40 (2):  273-283.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.05
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    Land use transitions and socioeconomic transitions jointly drive urban-rural transformation development in China. Given the man-land relationship defined by large populations with relatively little farmland in China, farmland resources are a core element contributing to food security. Therefore, it is of great strategic significance to develop a reasonable policy of farmland protection and promote the modernization of agricultural production via analysis of the law of farmland transition in China. Based on the theory of forest transition, we constructed a theoretical model for farmland transition from the perspective of per capita farmland area (PCFA) change and discussed the changing process of PCFA from continuous decline to gradual increase in the process of urbanization. Based on transitions measured at a 10 km gridded resolution of PCFA across the country, this study found that China’s PCFA transitioned from a gradual decline to a steady rise during 1990—2010. It contains 71% of the farmland coverage area, which basically validates the theoretical model of farmland transition. In addition, we used the spatial econometric regression model to quantitatively identify the driving mechanisms of natural factors, location factors and socioeconomic factors for farmland transition. We found that the role of socioeconomic factors in promoting the farmland transition has been strengthened during the process of urbanization, and there were obvious differences in the driving mechanism for farmland transition in different stages. Theoretical and practical research on farmland transition is the frontier exploration of land use transition. In addition, further study of farmland transition in rural areas provides theoretical guidance for the transformation of agricultural production.

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    'Three Lines' delineation based on land use conflict identification and coordination in Jintan District, Changzhou
    Na RAN, Xiaobin JIN, Yeting FAN, Xiaomin XIANG, Jing LIU, Yinkang ZHOU, Chunzhu SHEN
    2018, 40 (2):  284-298.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.06
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    In the economic development of the new normal and construction of ‘Beautiful China’ requirements, delimiting the basic farmland protection red line, urban growth boundary and ecological protection red line (e.g. three lines) scientifically is needed for coordinating production-life-ecology spaces, allocating land resources and optimizing patterns of urban landscapes. Based on analysis and understanding of connotation of these three lines, we put forward an analysis framework and coordination strategy, and selects Jintan District in Changzhou, Jiangsu as a case study. By constructing an ecological-farming-construction oriented land suitability assessment system, we analyzed the suitability of land use under different target interest orientation and identified the land use conflict zone using comprehensive suitability evaluation results. The principle of ecological priority, concentration, neighborhood harmony and space recognition, therefore, can couple and coordinate each type of conflict zone and provide new ideas to delimit the three lines. We found that the ecological protection red line in Jintan District is mainly distributed in the west of Maoshan area and Tianhuang lake wetland in the north, Qianzi lake and Changdang lake area, with a total area of 260.63 km2. The basic farmland area is 303.57 km2, mainly distributed in the east side of the Maoshan area and the low hills, central alluvial lake plow plain and eastern high-Kang plain. The urban growth boundary delineates the maximum extent of the central city'’ expansion, with a total area of 69.43 km2.

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    Influencing factors and improvement of farmer satisfaction under land expropriation compensation in Wuhan
    Lijun ZHU, Liping QU, Wenxin CHEN, Xinyi YUAN, Chang LIU, Weiyan HU
    2018, 40 (2):  299-309.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.07
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    Based on questionnaire survey data from 154 land-expropriated farmers in Jiangxia district, Wuhan, using customer satisfaction evaluation theory we measured satisfaction with land expropriation compensation and carried out research from three levels, influencing factors, the relationship between them and improvement of farmer satisfaction. This paper builds a set of three-level index systems including 15 observation variables according to previous research, and explored influencing factors of satisfaction of land expropriation compensation and their relationships using principal component analysis and structural equation modeling. We found that compensation procedures, compensation standards, compensation methods and compensation distribution affect the satisfaction degree of land expropriation compensation; in which compensation procedures generate positive effects on the compensation standard, method and distribution. The compensation standard had a positive effect on compensation distribution. Improvement in farmer satisfaction can be achieved two ways: strengthening propaganda to reduce land expropriation compensation expectation and raising the land expropriation compensation standard in order to enhance the actual value of compensation. It is more reasonable to raise the compensation standard to a specific level to guarantee the maximum increase of land expropriation compensation satisfaction and governmental benefits in Jiangxia. On the basis of these results, we provide some suggestions in relation to land expropriation compensation across Jiangxia District.

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    Suitability assessment and sites of high standard basic farmland in the southwest hilly area of China
    Shaojun TAN, Jing′an SHAO, Lin ZHANG, Chunmei LI, Jiajia JIANG
    2018, 40 (2):  310-325.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.08
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    For national grain safety it is necessary to construct high standard basic farmland. Here we chose Dianjiang County in Chongqing as the study area and used farmland quality grade data and land use change data to evaluate construction suitability and construction area using Niche modeling, Local Moran’s I and multiple constraints methods. We found that the discreteness of the location index is diverse, and among them, variation in the contiguous degree of land, accessibility of field road and distance between land and settlements are the most obvious and primary factors in high standard basic farmland. Pattern factors and the comprehensive location are diverse in space. The suitability in west Pingba area, north hilly area and river valley areas are higher, and lower in the southern area and three mountains area. However, the suitability pattern of the ecological environment is contrary. The comprehensive suitability of high quality standard farmland also indicates the pattern, which is stronger in the west, north and middle area. The constructing results field site occupies 28.76%, 14.48% more than government results have indicated. This tells us that the construction of high standard basic farmland in Dianjiang is better than others. To sum up, the method based on Niche, spatial autocorrelation and multi-constraints can support the work of high standard basic farmland.

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    The impact of local government-dominated farmland transfer on farmer’s transfer scale and grain yield in five cities in Jiangsu
    Xueqi WANG, Wei ZOU, Gaoli ZHU, Tieyi CAO
    2018, 40 (2):  326-334.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.09
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    Under the background of realizing farmland large scale management and agricultural modernization, local government-dominated farmland transfer is becoming more and more common in China. Local government-dominated farmland transfer will have an important impact on farmers’ transfer scale and grain production. Based on survey data from 152 large-scale grain production farmers in Jiangsu, we used multiple regression to test the impact of local government-dominated farmland scale transfer on farmers’ transfer scale and grain production. We comparatively analyzed the different effects on grain production between farmer's spontaneous transfer and government-dominated farmland scale transfer. We found that compared with spontaneous transfer by farmers, local government-dominated farmland transfer can reduce transaction costs and through comprehensive land management, financial subsidies and other policy tools encourage farmers to turn in more farmland and expand scale demands. Local government-dominated farmland large scale transfer has a significant negative impact on grain production. Compared with spontaneous transfer, the grain production under government-dominated is lower. Therefore, in the process of promoting the transfer of rural farmland, local governments should take into account public interests and food security and promote moderate scale transfer. They should also strengthen the service function, improve security supervision measures, give full play to transfer services, supervision and regulation, and bring farmland transfer and scale management in line with the goal of increasing grain production.

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    Spatio-temporal dynamics of the utilization intensity of urban water resource based on demand field theory in Zhejiang
    Yachan GAO, Qin'ou LIANG, Hongmei YU
    2018, 40 (2):  335-346.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.10
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    With rapid development and urbanization in China, the relationship between water resource supply and demand in southeast coastal areas is not optimistic. Here, we focused on the problem of water resources in some urban areas of Zhejiang. Based on the theory of urban water demand field, the quantitative calculation of different types of water (demand) field in 32 cities in Zhejiang Province from 2002 to 2013 was conducted. Here, water demand field intensity contour maps, water demand field intensity trend surfaces and water demand field distribution maps are drawn. Then, spatiotemporal pattern dynamics of the urban water demand field was analyzed. We conclude that the spatiotemporal dynamic of the urban water demand field of Zhejiang showed a pattern of northeast strong and southwest weak. With urban hierarchical structure higher, the water demand field intensity is stronger and its influence on surrounding areas is stronger. Overall, the water demand field intensity for the study area increased within the time window of our study. Industrial structural readjustment and government guidance have an important influence on the urban water field. At the scale of county-level city, the economy is an important driving force of urban water field dynamic changes in Zhejiang. These results show that the urban water field macro-scale distribution is affected by natural conditions such as topographic features, river systems and precipitation. While mesoscales or micro-scales indicate that the urban water field had a significant influence on social factors such as policies, economics and demographics. Without considering anisotropy, the water field can be a good indicator of the evolution law of the city and its economy and population.

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    Cognition of irrigation water-saving techniques, adoption intensity and income effects in Gansu, China
    Teng HUANG, Jiajia ZHAO, Juan WEI, Tianjun LIU
    2018, 40 (2):  347-358.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.11
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    Here, we constructed a two-stage model containing farmer cognition and adoption of irrigation water-saving techniques to model the dynamic and multi-stage procedure of irrigation water-saving technique adoption using survey data from 285 households and five cities in Gansu, China. We used a bivariate ordered probit model to analyze the influencing factors of cognition and adoption of irrigation water-saving technology. An endogenous switching regression model was employed to examine the impact of efficient irrigation water-saving techniques on agricultural income. We found that 89.8% of farmers adopt at least one water-saving irrigation technology, but the rate of adopting efficient techniques is only 5%, which means that most farmers use inefficient water-saving techniques. Special attention should be paid to the cognition of techniques and follows a U-shaped age profile. At the same time, gender, education level, village cadre experience, agricultural planting structure, government subsidies and cognition of policies have a positive influence on the cognition of techniques. We found that cognition of water-saving techniques, household net income, proportion of agricultural income and government subsidies enhance adoption of more advanced techniques whereas village cadres experience, distance to township, agricultural planting structure and access to better community-based irrigation infrastructure discourage it. Finally, efficient irrigation water-saving techniques had increased in agricultural income per mu of 19.66% and farmers with below average agricultural income per mu are more likely to adopt the techniques. According to these conclusions, corresponding policy recommendations are discussed.

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    Groundwater chemical characteristics in the upper reaches of the Langmaoshan Reservoir, Shandong
    Ying GAO, Yuan TIAN
    2018, 40 (2):  359-368.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.12
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    Shandong lacks water resources and the Jinan southeastern mountain area is an important groundwater recharge area, ecological function area and basin water environment protected area. This area’s water quality environment is important. In order to strengthen research on the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the upper reaches of the Langmaoshan Reservoir, we collected and analyzed water samples from the Jinan southeastern mountain area across different geological backgrounds in 2012. We found that the groundwater in the Jinan southeastern mountain is clean or almost clean freshwater; the hardness of water samples belong to medium hardness. The dominant hydrochemistry type for these water samples are Ca-HCO3-SO4 type; the elements in this water samples are mainly controlled by carbonate rock. Water samples were weakly alkaline; the pH values were between 7.1~7.3. Total dissolved solids were between (190-470)mg/L. The water was colorless, tasteless, odorless, transparent and has a good drinking taste. The concentration of each element is appropriate, especially the Na +, SO42- and Cl- concentrations which are far less than the Chinese and world drinking-water quality guidelines. The water hardness is moderate hard water-fresh water. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are two dominant cations, and HCO3- and SO42- are two dominant anions. The strontium concentration of some water samples is close to or exceeds the Chinese Natural mineral water evaluation standard. The iron of some water samples exceeds the limited amount index; other elemental concentrations are within the Chinese and world standard security range and suitable for drinking.

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    Time variation and influencing factors of tourism competitiveness in global poverty-stricken countries
    Xia WANG, Danli LIU, Lizhen SHEN, Jing HE, Xin SUN
    2018, 40 (2):  369-380.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.13
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    As the development of tourism has become an important means of poverty alleviation in poor countries, it is of great significance to explore the time variation and influencing factors of tourism competitiveness in poor countries so as to enhance global tourism competitiveness. Based on the multidimensional poverty index of the United Nations and Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Reports by the World Economic Forum, we analyzed time variation from 2007-2015 and factors affecting tourism competitiveness of poor countries using the indexes of range, standard deviation, extreme value ratio, coefficient of variation and radar map. We found that although poor countries are rich in tourism resources generally, tourism competitiveness is weak as a whole. The differences in tourism competitiveness among poor countries are increasing, and the gap in global tourism competitiveness is narrowing. We found that the competitiveness of high-poverty countries as a whole is weaker than low-poverty countries. There is a certain correlation between tourism competitiveness and economic development among poor countries. The strengths of poor countries are price competitiveness and safety and security, while cultural resources and business travel, air transport infrastructure, and international openness are generally weak. In addition to relative advantages in terms of tourism resources, high-competitiveness poor countries are those that give priority to the development of tourism, and are committed to creating a good business environment. For other low-competitiveness poor countries trying to promote economic development, the successful development experience of high-competitive poor countries is worth learning from.

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    Tourists’ environmental preferences, perceived restoration and perceived health at Fuzhou National Forest Park
    Qunyue LIU, Ye CHEN, Wei ZHANG, Yijun ZHANG, Qitang HUANG, Siren LAN
    2018, 40 (2):  381-391.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.14
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    Environmental preferences and perceived restoration are the two main perceptions of tourists in some environments. Perceived health reflects the health benefits from the environment to people. A lot of studies suggest that people have different preferences for different environments, and the greater the preference, the greater the environmental recovery benefit. For example, compared with urban environments, nature is preferred and has more recovery benefits. The advancement and accumulation of perceived recovery helps to improve perceived health, such as reducing illness or bad mood. In order to explore the relationships and mechanisms of environmental preferences, perceived restoration and perceived health, we constructed a path model across three conceptions, and a verified structure relation model using data from Fuzhou National Forest Park. We found that the corrected three dimensions (Coherence, Complexity and Mystery) can effectively predict environmental preferences, and Mystery best explains environmental preference. Being away, Extent, Fascination, and Compatibility can effectively reflect perceived restoration of the environment. Environmental preference has a significant positive influence on perceived restoration, perceived restoration has a significant positive influence on perceived health. The direct effect of environmental preference on perceived health is not significant, but there is indirect effect through the mediator of perceived restoration. Therefore, in the planning and design of the natural recreation areas, to achieve more health benefits the diverse needs of tourists at a landscape function should be considered, and mysterious, charming and diverse landscapes should be properly designed.

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    Evaluating the environmental value loss of coastal tourism and influencing infactors under the influence of Enteromorpha prolifera disasters at the bathing beaches in Qingdao
    Jia LIU, Ning LIU
    2018, 40 (2):  392-403.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.15
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    Green tide disasters have occurred frequently in Qingdao in recent years. During an outbreak of Enteromorpha prolifera, the ecological environment and landscapes of coastal tourism in Qingdao are seriously violated, and to some extent, the development of related coastal tourism activities are affected. Here, the environmental value loss of coastal tourism in Qingdao was quantitatively assessed under the influence of E. prolifera by adopting the contingent valuation method (CVM) and investigating tourist willingness to pay for the treatment of E. prolifera (WTP). We found that tourist cognition degrees of E.prolifera were generally low. The proportion of tourists WTP and those that refused to pay for the treatment of E. prolifera were approximately equal. E(WTP) that tourists participated in the treatment of E. prolifera disaster was 40.72 CNY, the environmental value loss of coastal tourism in Qingdao caused by E. prolifera ranged from 1212×106 CNY to 2136×106 CNY, accounting for 0.8%-1.5% of total tourism revenue of Qingdao city in 2016. The willingness to pay and WTP values of tourists were directly affected by the disposable income of tourists and awareness of E. prolifera. Tourist satisfaction with bathing beach had a great influence on WTP, while the degree of influence on recreational activities of coastal tourists caused by a green tide disaster and WTP values were significantly correlated.

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    The poverty dynamics in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China : a multi-scale perspective based on the poverty gap index
    Qiang REN, Chunyang HE, Qingxu HUANG, Zhifeng LIU, Jingwei Li
    2018, 40 (2):  404-416.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.16
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    The Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China (APTZNC) is one of the most impoverished areas in China. Accurately assessing poverty dynamics in the APTZNC is of significance to regional sustainable development. We used the poverty gap index to investigate the dynamics of poverty in the APTZNC from 2000 to 2014 at three scales: regional, sub-regional and county scales. The results showed that all impoverished counties were lifted out of poverty from 2000 to 2014 based on the poverty gap index. At the county scale, the number of impoverished counties decreased by 167 from 2000 to 2014, and the population in impoverished counties decreased by 45.70 million. Specifically, the number of impoverished counties decreased from 167 in 2000 to 10 in 2010, a reduction of 94.01%. The population in impoverished counties decreased from 45.70 million in 2000 to 2.73 million in 2010, a reduction of 94.03%. From 2010 to 2014, the number of impoverished counties decreased by 10 and the population in impoverished counties decreased by 2.73 million. We also found that poverty alleviation from 2000 to 2014 was closely related with economic development. Among all indicators, public fiscal revenue had the highest correlation with poverty alleviation (r = -0.51, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, difference in incomes between urban and rural residents in the out-of-poverty areas increased from 4 455.27 CNY in 2000 to 11 104.71 CNY in 2014, a 2.11-fold increase. The coefficient of variation in per-capita rural income among out-of-poverty counties also increased from 0.24 in 2000 to 0.34 in 2014, an increase of 41.67%. Thus, we suggest that special attention should be paid to reducing income inequity during targeted poverty alleviation to ensure sustainable development of the APTZNC.

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    Poverty reduction effects of water-saving irrigation technology adoption under drought risk in Zhangye, Gansu
    Lun HU, Qian LU
    2018, 40 (2):  417-426.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.17
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    The popularization of water-saving irrigation technology has become the main means of government poverty intervention in arid and semi-arid regions of China, but this remains untested. Here, based on data from 540 farmers and binary logistic modeling we analyzed incidence and vulnerability poverty of water-saving irrigation technology under drought risk. Using the time of water-saving irrigation as an instrumental variable to solve the endogenous estimation model, we restructured the application of water-saving irrigation technology and drought risk variables to estimate the robustness on poverty reduction. We found that the drought risk is a key factor in farmer poverty, and loss of agricultural drought increases of each 1 CNY will increase the incidence and vulnerability of poverty by 16.6% and 4.0%. The technique of water-saving irrigation has significantly reduced the incidence and vulnerability of poverty. The adoption willingness of irrigation technology increases each one level which will reduce the current and future probability of poverty by 10.5% and 2.6% respectively. Water-saving irrigation technology adoption absorbs the drought risk the negative effect on the incidence of poverty, but eases the drought risk effect impact on poverty vulnerability which is not significant. Poverty alleviation policy arrangements should pay attention to enhancing farmers anti-drought risk shock awareness and comprehensive capacity of farmer resistant drought risk shock; increase water-saving irrigation technology adoption of dryland farming areas in Northwest China; irrigation technology should play an important role in the promotion of technology’s precise poverty; and build and cultivate a better rural market economic system to increase employment opportunities.

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    Impact of forest property rights and market environment on peasant household forestry investments in different production links in Fujian
    Yang YANG, Hua LI, Caixia XUE, Rui HUANG
    2018, 40 (2):  427-438.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.18
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    We surveyed 429 peasant households in Fujian to study the intensity and differences in forestry investments in different production links. We used Tobit model to examine the impact of forest property rights and market environment on forestland investments. We found that as trees have a longer growth cycle, forestland investments in tending link are greater than planting link. The main reform of collective forest tenure has a positive impact on planting and tending links’ investments through stable forest property rights; forestation subsidy can promote the intensity of planting investment and forestry loans improve the intensity of tending investments. In contrast, the difficulty in applying for logging timber has no significant effect on planting and tending links’ investments. The rigid demand for labor at the planting link has led to the employer price of forestry positively affecting forestland investments in planting link. The lease price of forestland in market environment has negative impact on tending link investment, however, the timber market price has no obvious effect on planting and tending investments. Therefore, in order to mobilize the investment enthusiasm of farmers to increase the volume of collective forest and realize the international commitment of National Independent Contribution, we suggest that government further implements the main reform of collective forest tenure to improve the stability of forest property rights, promote forest tending subsidy, strengthen the forestry loan supporting dynamics and coverage, crack down on the price monopoly of abnormal means, promote fair competition in the timber market, and cultivate a healthy and vibrant forestry market environment.

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    Research on the impact mechanism of ecological migration policy on rural household income based on the Structural Equation Model with formative indicators
    Zhigang HUANG, Xiaonan CHEN, Jianyu LI
    2018, 40 (2):  439-451.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.19
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    Policy assessment of ecological migration is a heated issue in a multidisciplinary context, and the impact mechanism lies on the key position. By constructing the analytical framework of Ecological migration policy → livelihood capital → income and using Structural Equation Modeling with Formative Indicators, a structural equation model with livelihood capitals as mediator variables was adopted to explore the impact mechanism of ecological migration policy on household income. Through the Partial Least Squares regression method, path coefficients were calculated to estimate the direct, indirect and total effects between the ecological migration policy and income, and then verify the effectiveness of the mechanism. As the representatives of urban community and new village resettlement, the migration households in southern Shaanxi and Ningxia were selected as sampling to conduct an empirical analysis of the mechanism of ecological migration, and to put forward optimization measures to improve farmer livelihood capital and increase household income. We found that ecological migration policy in southern Shaanxi and Ningxia has a positive effect on the improvement of farmer income through human capital, social capital, financial capital and physical capital, with a slight difference in each path. In southern Shaanxi, the most important way to improve household income is using social capital, the second is human capital; financial capital and physical capital are relatively small. In Ningxia, the sequence of importance is financial capital, human capital, social capital physical capital, while natural capital plays a negative role. In general, ecological migration policy can effectively accumulate the stock of farmer livelihood capital and then produce a stable and sustainable income flow.

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    Assessment of vulnerability in natural-social system in Hexi, Gansu
    Sue ZHOU, Mingjun ZHANG, Shengjie WANG, Meiping SUN
    2018, 40 (2):  452.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.02.20
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    Vulnerability is important content and a hot issue in the study of global environmental change and regional sustainable development. Based on vulnerability assessment modeling, contribution of factors modeling and the entropy-right method, we constructed an evaluation system for vulnerability in a natural-social system. Exposure, sensibility, adaptive capacity and vulnerability of each village and town in Hexi area were analyzed. The contribution of each index and feature factors were also analyzed. We found that medium, higher and high vulnerability areas occupied 70.85% of the whole area in Hexi. The vulnerability degree was high and the vulnerability of southern mountain areas was higher than northern areas at lower altitudes. From the perspective of three continental river basins, the highest level of vulnerability appeared in Shule River Basin, and the vulnerability of the Black River Basin took second place, and that of the Shiyang River Basin was the lowest. Regions considering the adaptive capacity degree of natural system, sensibility degree of the social-economic system, sensibility degree of natural system and exposure degree of natural system as the main contribution factor occupied 91.77%, 87.23%, 67.85% and 56.53% of the whole area in Hexi, so reduced the adaptive capacity degree of the natural system, the sensibility degree of the natural system, the sensibility degree of the social-economic system and the exposure degree of the natural system is the key to reducing vulnerability in Hexi. Only by doing this can we improve our living environment.

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