Table of Content

    20 January 2018, Volume 40 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Resource utilization under global change: challenges and outlook
    Lei SHEN, Shuai ZHONG, Shuhan HU
    2018, 40 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.01
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    In the last decade, global change has become a leading research area in geoscience, ecological science and environmental science. Tools such as geodesign, big data, cloud computing, material flow and resource flow analysis, resource metabolism and industrial ecology have been applied to global change. The study of resource utilization requires continual innovation to create new perspectives, methodologies and approaches. This study illustrates the diversity and complexity of global change, analyzes the overall challenge of resource utilization, and presents an outlook on China’s coping strategies and prospects. First, global change not only indicates climate change but also covers the changes in earth systems caused by natural and humanistic elements at a global scale. Second, resource and environment systems are an important component of earth life-supporting systems, it is implied that the impacts at the global scale have been changed from a single economic level to the multi-levels involving economic, social, political, resource, environmental and technological factors, with interactive processes, and these processes have been shaped with more complex characteristics in speed, span, depth and strength. Third, it is widely believed that seven common challenges occurred in resource utilization would lead to a new pattern of global resource governance, even though different resources (mining, energy, water, grain) have different challenges with various features. Fourth, China should implement a two-pronged strategy targeting both external and internal objectives: external objective should be the Belt and Road Initiative to establish a new system of global resource governance for guaranteeing resource supply security; the internal objective should rely on the innovation-driven strategy of the 13th Five-Year Plan to guarantee resource demand security.

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    Suitability evaluation of urban construction land based on supply and demand in Yangzhou City
    Lin MENG, Jie GUO, Chi SUN, Minghao OU
    2018, 40 (1):  11-21.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.02
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    We established an evaluation index system of urban construction land suitability based on the theory of supply and demand, and calculated the suitability of urban construction land using BP neural networks in order to construct theoretical and practical foundations for the scientific allocation of urban construction land. Based on the theory of supply and demand, the suitability evaluation index system of urban construction land can be constructed according to background conditions, technical level, location and transportation, intensive degree, population density, and economic development. BP neural networks reflect the suitability of urban construction land for each evaluation unit, which helps to improve the precision of urban construction land suitability evaluation results. The research area can be divided into four regions. The highly suitable region area can be used for large-scale urban construction land development. The basically suitable region can fully develop relying on the highly suitable region and expand urban construction land moderately. The barely suitable region requires basic farmland protection and ecological protection, and the green industry with natural ecological protection and economic development benefits should be selectively developed. The unsuitable region should be given more policy support to ensure food security and ecological security. By comparing the suitability evaluation results of urban construction land and the layout of planning new urban construction land of ‘Rall Plan for Land Utilization of Yangzhou (2006-2020 year)’, most of the planning new urban construction land is located in the highly suitable area and the basically suitable region. However, some planning new urban construction land is located in the barely suitable region and unsuitable region respectively, so some or all of these should be eliminated or adjusted to highly suitable and suitable areas.

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    Basic farmland protection area based on morphological optimization and boundary identification
    Zhenglong MU, Peiji SHI, Chunfang LIU, Haisong ZHENG
    2018, 40 (1):  22-31.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.03
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    Delimitation of basic farmland protection area is an important measure ensuring national crop security and improving comprehensive grain production capacity. However, the 2011 amendments to the “Regulations on the Protection of Basic Farmland” emphasized that high-quality farmland is only included in basic farmland protection areas. It did not make clear requirements for the protection region as well, which contributes to a large number of protected areas, long and obscure boundary lines, virtually increasing the risk of basic farmland being occupied. Therefore, taking country cultivated land in 2015 as an example, we adopted the method of step-by-step multi-factor comprehensive evaluation to optimize the basic farmland protection area based on farmland in Yuzhong County of 2015 and Moran' s I index spatial autocorrelation analysis and GIS. We found that the quality of cultivated land in Yuzhong County is at a moderate level, with an overall amount of 79.76% for high-quality farmland and middle-leveled farmland. High-quality (HH) and low-quality (LH) agglomeration area can be allocated as basic farmland protection area. After boundary identification, 11 designated basic farmland protection areas can be delimitated, with a total area of 75 878.17 hm2 including three plain areas, five hilly areas, and three mountainous areas. Compared with areas before optimization, we reached the goal of completing the overall land use planning to reduce the number of patches when patch unit area increases and the boundary line is shortened and cleared. The landscape pattern is optimized as well. Our research process and methodology provides a reference for the development of relevant work.

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    Impact of urbanization on terrestrial ecosystem production using Linear Modeling for Jiangsu
    Jianguo LI, Huan WANG, Jing WANG, Qiang LI, Zhongqi ZHANG, Lili LIU, Lijie PU
    2018, 40 (1):  32-43.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.04
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    Terrestrial ecosystem production capacity is fundamental to regional ecosystem service functioning. Urbanization processes have been the main influencing factor to reduce terrestrial ecosystem production. Here we use net primary productivity (NPP) and urbanization determined using remote sensing and GIS to study the impact of urbanization on terrestrial ecosystem production losses. Remote sensing images from Jiangsu in 1985, 1995, 2005, 2010 and 2015 were collected to record land use and cover change (LUCC) processes from 1985 to 2015. NPP of corresponding times were determined using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach. We found that urban construction lands of Jiangsu rose slowly from 1985 to 2015, and reached 10452.74 km2. During this period, the expansion rate peaked from 2005 to 2010. The urban construction land expansion rate in southern Jiangsu is significantly higher than that of northern Jiangsu. Jiangsu’s NPP varied from 33.3 to 40.23 Tg C/yr and had a rising tendency from 1985 to 2015 and the south-central part of which is highest including Yancheng City and Nantong City. The precision of NPP loss estimation rises significantly under linear modeling comprised using the traditional equalization method. Urban construction land expansion of Jiangsu triggered a significantly decrease in terrestrial ecosystem production losses of 4.43-5.99 Tg C over the past 30 years, of which the decreasing NPP in croplands caused by urbanization was the major reason, followed by wetlands. This study reveals that the rate of terrestrial ecosystem production loss in northern Jiangsu will be faster than that of southern Jiangsu in the future. Promoting urbanization quality, especially increasing the greening rate, will effectively mitigate the risk of terrestrial ecosystem production loss.

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    Agricultural landscape pattern optimization of high intensive agricultural areas based on water quality control
    Hongqing LI, Liming LIU, Fei ZHENG, Yaoyang ZHAO
    2018, 40 (1):  44-52.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.05
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    Agricultural non-point source pollution control has become a bottleneck for sustainable development especially in high intensive agricultural areas in China. Therefore, maintaining economic growth along with water quality improvements is a great challenge for policymakers. Taking Jinjing Town as a case study, we first analyzed water quality dynamics at spatial and temporal scales based on pollution monitoring data. Then, three different width buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the correlation between landscape pattern and water quality pollutions according to Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis; catchment was chosen as the suitable scale, and four landscape types forest, tea garden, paddy land and residential were chosen as major landscape parameters. A multiple regression analysis model was adopted to build the relationship between landscape pattern characteristics and water quality pollution for NO3--N, NH4+-N and TN for each season. According to the results, we designed agricultural landscape pattern modes from three aspects, one is landscape pattern optimization by changing land use types, shape and area; another is raising sanitary wastewater and solid waste treatment rate; and the third is livestock industry adjustment by livestock amount control. The assessment results show that water quality improves effectively and nitrogen pollutant concentration meets level V of environmental quality standards for surface water in the new landscape scenario. Biodiversity benefits, agricultural economic value, ecosystem service value and household net agricultural income are higher than in 2010. The relationship model method proposed here not only verifies the relationship between landscape pattern and water quality, but supports landscape pattern design. These landscape pattern optimization results will assist agricultural sustainable development and environmental protection planning for decision-makers.

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    Consistency of farmers' cognition and behavior in the adjustment of land ownership under farmland consolidation
    Mei WANG, Wenxiong WANG
    2018, 40 (1):  53-63.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.06
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    The consistency relationship between the cognition and behavior of farmers to the adjustment of land ownership is not only an important part of the theory of farmland ownership adjustment, but also an important reference for policy formulation for land ownership. In order to explore consistency of farmer cognition and behavior in the adjustment of farmland regulation, we examined consistency using correlation analysis, and analyzed difference in the partial effect of the influence of factors about individual and family characteristics, cultivated land resources and village characteristics to farmer cognition and behavior under the Theory of Planned Behavior. We used questionnaire data from 644 households in seven cities (counties) in Hubei. Results show that the cognitive status of farmers was unbalanced within the cognitive mechanism, and that behavioral motivation was lacking. From the perspective of consistency, correlation analysis and modeling showed that consistency Between Subjective Norms and behavior was high, while Attitude Toward The behavior and Perceived behavior Control basically had no consistency with behavior. On the basis of the results of this study, we propose strengthening information publicity and consultation, paying attention to propaganda and mobilization, and giving full play to the role of rural social and economic organizations to promote the smooth implementation of farmland ownership adjustment.

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    Study on cropping structure adjustment under the background of rural-household differetiation from Rural Fixed Watch Points in 31 provinces of China
    Dandan ZHAO, Hong ZHOU
    2018, 40 (1):  64-73.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.07
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    The mechanism of household differentiation and changes in planting structure were systematically analyzed using data from Rural Fixed Watch Points in 2004—2011. We found that with the development of non-agricultural markets and gap in marginal income of the labor force, farmers have polarized the choice of the structure of the planting. Because of gradual development of the land circulation market, changes in the planting structure of farmers tends to be more pure farmers, and the higher the non-agricultural income the higher farmers tend to flow out of the land. The change in planting structure of farmers is mainly affected by topography and cultivated land area at the end of the year. The gentler the terrain the more favorable to development of agricultural modernization. Therefore, the pure farmers who have more cultivated land at the end of the year tend to grow food crops. On the contrary, they tend to grow cash crops. As grain and other field crops of professional services and outsourcing services improve, farmers gradually increase grain and other field crop scales, and in a short period of time to choose to maintain the current planting structure unchanged. When non-agricultural income reaches a certain level, farmers choose to land transfer. We discuss policy suggestions, improving agricultural mechanization and professional service levels, cultivating modern farmers, improving farmer enthusiasm for growing grain, guiding farmers to structural adjustment in accordance with national macro strategies to avoid the non-food phenomenon.

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    A Meta-analysis of farmers’ environment-friendly pesticide application behavior in China
    Hao LI, Shiping LI, Ling NAN, Xiaoqing LI
    2018, 40 (1):  74-88.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.08
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    The main purposes of this study were to reveal key factors influencing farmers’ pesticide application behavior, and reasons for differences in research level. A total of 43 papers were selected from China and abroad. We explored the following issues: whether key factors in pesticide application in China are completely homogeneous; key factors influencing the application of pesticide in farmers under the condition of allowing the existence of heterogeneity; and trends in key factors over time. The meta-analysis method includes effect size selection, fixed or random effect model selection depending on the existence of heterogeneity, publication bias tests and correction, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. The Q statistic was used to test whether there was heterogeneity. If variables are homogeneous in farmers, the fixed effect model is used, if variables are heterogenous, then the random effect model is used. Results showed that farmers’ pesticide application behavior was not completely homogeneous. There was significant heterogeneity among age, household income, knowledge of pesticide use, scale of cultivation and ratio of agricultural income. The key factors influencing behavior included gender, educational level, risk appetite, knowledge of pesticide use, farming experience, proportion of agricultural income, pesticide application training and pesticide residue detection. The trend in educational level, risk appetite, pesticide related knowledge, participation in pesticide application technical training and government propaganda support increased over time. However, variables including gender and agricultural income accounted for a significant impact, while the trend was nearly stable. The remaining variables gradually decreased. Based on these results, two suggestions spanning policy and academic are proposed.

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    Driving effect of spatial-temporal differences in water consumption in the Yangtze River Delta
    Chenjun ZHANG, Cunxue ZHAO, Lin LIN, Xuyou YU
    2018, 40 (1):  89-103.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.09
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    It is of great significance to the construction of a water-saving society to quantify the driving effect of spatial-temporal differences in water consumption in the Yangtze River Delta. Here, the LMDI method was used to decompose the effects influencing spatial-temporal differences in water consumption in the Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2015 into intensity, structure, income and population effects. We found that, from the perspective of time, the decline in industrial water intensity and industrial structural adjustment jointly give rise to a decline in water consumption, especially the former. Except for primary industry in Shanghai, three industries’ water efficiency is generally improved. On the other hand, the role of industrial restructuring mainly comes from primary industry. Economic growth and population increases contributed to the increase in water consumption. From a spatial perspective, differences in water consumption and driving effects are closely related to the selection of reference objects. Primary and secondary industries’ water efficiency in Zhejiang has an obvious advantage in reducing water consumption, water efficiency in Shanghai has an advantage in the tertiary industry. Shanghai’s industrial structure is more advanced, but primary and secondary industries in Jiangsu and Zhejiang make up a greater proportion. More effort is expected to control the size of the population in Zhejiang and Shanghai, and that is an effective way to narrow spatial differences. Targeted and differentiated water-saving policy measures should be adopted to reduce water consumption in the Yangtze River Delta region and should involve technological progress, industrial restructuring and population control. Economic growth will increase water demand, being the driving force of social progress and increase water demand.

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    Impact of income growth and aging on the water footprintof food consumption in urban China
    Fei XU, Caiping ZHANG, Junfei BAI
    2018, 40 (1):  104-116.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.10
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    Scientifically using the concept of water footprint will help people understand the complex relationship between human activities and natural resources. Water footprint affects the evaluation and management of water resources. Here, we attempt to establish a relationship between socioeconomic factors and water footprint through food consumption. We point out how socioeconomic factors affect the water demand of food consumption. Based on a week-long diary survey of 2, 023 households from 10 cities in China, we aimed to empirically analyze water footprints behind food consumption and identify influencing factors, with specific attention to the impact of income growth and population aging. We forecast future trends in the water footprint of food consumption in urban China based on different circumstances for income growth and population aging. The results show that the water footprint behind food consumption increases with a decreasing rate as income rises, suggesting a continually growing pressure on water supply until the water footprint reaches a turning point around the year 2027. In contrast to the income effect, China's aging population has a significant negative effect on the water footprint of food consumption. Understanding this nature and making full use of population aging effects will help to find more scientific and dynamic methods to coordinate pressures on water resource. Our results show that food consumed away from home plays a significant role in understanding the water footprint of food consumption, suggesting a potential downward bias without considering this part.

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    Optimal water resource allocation of the river basin considering the water body satisfaction degree
    Yu CHU
    2018, 40 (1):  117-124.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.11
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    At present, water resource allocation of river basins in China is mainly based on the hypothesis of collective rationality and from the perspective of the single decision body so as to maximize benefits to the whole river basin. For failing to fully consider the negotiation will and interests of various water bodies in the river basin, the bodies’ satisfaction degree of water distribution scheme is always low and scheme execution resistance is generally high. We define the concept of the satisfaction degree of water body to measure bodies’ satisfaction level of water resource allocation schemes. On this basis, we further propose the satisfaction degree principle, and quantify it to two functions (the lowest satisfaction degree function and the difference satisfaction degree function) to provide water bodies with a participation channel in river basin water allocation decision-making. Combining basic water allocation principles and satisfaction degree principles, we build an optimal water resources allocation model of river basins, and validity is verified using the Qingzhang River Basin. We found that the built model conforms with the principle of equity; the level of the satisfaction degree of various areas in the river basin to the water diversion scheme is positively correlated with these areas’ own decision-making weight; and the lower the lowest satisfaction degree is set, the more river basin water resource managers focus on the efficiency of water activities. And in contrast, the higher the lowest satisfaction degree is set, the more the managers pay attention to the fairness of water activity.

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    Climate and hydrology characteristics of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Jiulianshan
    Hua ZHOU, Qijing LIU
    2018, 40 (1):  125-136.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.12
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    Forests and their catchments are dynamic and complex natural systems that demand detailed study of local climate change trends and impacts on water resources. In order to understand their ecological complexity and dynamism it is necessary to study the precipitation, temperature, evaporation and runoff at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Based on daily meteorological data from Xiagongtang station in 1975-2015 and runoff from Number 4 station from 2009-2013 in Jiulianshan, climate and stream flow characteristics and their relationships were analyzed using accumulative anomaly and wavelet transformation. We found that the mean annual temperature was 17.1℃, mean annual precipitation was 1816. 3 mm and mean annual evaporation was 781. 6 mm. The precipitation from March to October was 82. 6% of annual precipitation. The mean annual temperature presented an increasing trend with a trend rate of 0. 14℃/10a for past years whereas precipitation and evaporation declined with a slope of -11. 81 mm/10a and -50. 13 mm/10a, respectively. At the same time, there were significant main periods of quasi 14 years for temperature, precipitation and evaporation, and a minor cycle of quasi 20 years for precipitation. The surface runoff was 1066. 2 mm and runoff coefficient was 0. 54. There was a significantly positive correlation between precipitation and surface runoff. After heavy rainfall discharge returning to the original level before raining might take about 12-48 h. In a year, there were significant periods at a scale of 20 and 60 days for surface runoff, precipitation and evaporation and the response of runoff variation to climate change was significant. Precipitation had a significant impact on surface runoff as well as evaporation. These results showed that forests and climate change have an important role modifying cycles of runoff and precipitation in subtropical mountain catchments.

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    Analysis of sensitivity of main grain crops yield to climate change since 1980 in Henan Province
    Rongrong ZHANG, Xiaoju NING, Yaochen QIN, Kaina ZHAO, Yonghe LI
    2018, 40 (1):  137-149.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.13
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    Based on statistical agricultural data and daily meteorological data for 39 national-level meteorological stations in Henan province and surrounding areas from 1980 to 2015, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in hydrothermal conditions during the growth stage of main grain crops. The sensitive effect of main crop yield to changes in climate factors was explored using nonlinear regression. We found that the regreening stage minimum temperature and mean temperature in the growth stage of winter wheat increased significantly: the rate of increase decreased from the center to outside Henan. The sunshine duration of the summer maize growth period decreased significantly, furthermore, central Henan was the fastest reduction area in sunshine duration while southwestern Henan had the slowest reduction. The yield of winter wheat and summer maize exhibited the largest sensitive effect to mean temperature and sunshine duration during the growth period, and both exhibited the smallest sensitive effect to precipitation during the growth period. However, the sensitive region of both caused by the precipitation during the growth period was the largest, accounting for 33.3% and 22.2% respectively. After change in climate factors, mean temperature in the growth stage of winter wheat was beneficial to the rise of winter wheat that grew in the area except for northern Henan, accounting for 83.3% of Henan. However, the regreening stage minimum temperature more easily augmented winter wheat growing in northern and eastern Henan, accounting for 44.4% of Henan. Sunshine duration in the growth stage of summer maize was more beneficial to increased summer maize that grew in central and western Henan, accounting for 44.4% of Henan.

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    Water requirements of spring maize in Northwest Liaoning Province under climate change
    Yongqiang CAO, Weijia LI, Boya ZHAO
    2018, 40 (1):  150-160.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.14
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    Crop water requirement is important to irrigation requirement planning and water resources planning. Understanding historical changes and future trends is critical to predicting future crop water use trends and making rational decisions. Using the Penman-Monteith model recommended by the FAO, the water requirement of spring maize across the whole plantation in northwestern Liaoning was calculated. The net water requirement of spring maize at different growth stages was obtained by soil moisture density function under full irrigation conditions. We found that potential evapotranspiration and spatial and temporal variation in water demand indicates that spring maize increased and decreased over the last 50 years. In the past 50 years, the water demand of spring maize in northwestern Liaoning has not decreased over time. The spatial distribution has gradually increased from southeast to northwest. From net irrigation water demand, the average annual net irrigation water requirement of spring maize in northwestern Liaoning was 402.44 mm, and average annual irrigation requirement index was 0.67. From the perspective of net irrigation water demand under future climate change scenarios, domestic or regional resources (A2) scenarios and regional sustainable development (B2) scenarios, the 30a growth rate decreased in turn. This study provides a basis for agricultural water use and reasonable irrigation of spring maize planting in the northern Liaoning. It is of great strategic significance to the increasingly prominent contradiction between supply and demand of water in this region.

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    A review of research on marine carbon sink fisheries
    Jingjun XU, Tiantian QIN, Limin HAN
    2018, 40 (1):  161-172.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.15
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    Chinese marine fisheries are at an inflection stage of rapid development of industrialization and environmental capacity overwhelmed. We urgently need to optimize and innovate carbon sink fisheries operating mechanisms because carbon sink fisheries are an important component of low-carbon greening which will fundamentally promote marine fishery supply side structural reform. There is no doubt that carbon sink fisheries have an important influence on the change and enhance fishery production and marine ecological civilization in the development of marine carbon sink fisheries, but on the understanding of marine carbon sink fisheries and the mechanism of carbon sink fisheries involves many factors. Here we collected and sorted the relevant literature in order to help build a communication bridge between scientific research and industrial development, and better promote the sound development of carbon sink fisheries. Through the four aspects of the literature review and comment about carbon sink fishery connotation, carbon sequestration mechanisms, carbon sequestration and industrial development path, we found that the concept of carbon sink fisheries remains in an embryonic stage. The foundation is weak and we need scientific policy adjustment and institutional arrangements to promote reasonable marine aquaculture industry organization models. With social and economic development and environmental protection concepts improving, the advantages of carbon sink fisheries will become increasingly important. More researchers and aquaculture enterprises will promote the development of carbon sink fisheries industries via government policy guidance.

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    Advances in research on methane emissions of coastal wetlands
    Jian GONG, Yuqian CUI, Wenxia XIE, Yan ZHANG
    2018, 40 (1):  173-184.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.16
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    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and contributes 15% to global warming. Coastal wetlands, one of the important intertidal ecosystems at the land-ocean interface, are considered a large potential natural source of CH4. In this paper, the study dynamics of CH4 production process, CH4 flux characteristic and affecting factors are summarized. The study of CH4 production processes is mainly based on molecular biology, with much research in freshwater wetlands. The CH4 flux characteristics in coastal wetlands has distinct temporal-spatial variation affected by many factors, such as soil physical and chemical properties, hydrological conditions and plant communities. The hydrological condition is a determining factor for the production and emission of CH4, effects of temperature and pH on CH4 emissions by affecting the methanogenic activity. Research on the effect of salinity on CH4 of coastal wetlands has mainly focused on concentration, and the study of composition of SO42- plasma in salt is not deep. The transmission of plants is the basis for the study of CH4 emission dynamics, and there are many studies on the effects of plant species and density on CH4 emissions. With human activities and environmental pressure, there is a great influence on coastal wetlands CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands are affected by many factors, and the process is complicated. Aspects to strengthen in the future include the effects of soil physical and chemical properties on CH4 emission, especially the effect of ion composition and concentration in salt on CH4 emissions; the effects of plants on CH4 emissions;the effects of human activities on CH4 emissions;and evaluation of CH4 flux at long time scales and across large spaces.

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    Analysis of carbon emissions transferred and China’s carbon emissions responsibility based on the Income Principle
    Xiaohong YU, Xiayan ZHAN
    2018, 40 (1):  185-194.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.17
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    The Paris World Climate Conference re-emphasized the establishment of the carbon emission responsibility principle based on common but differentiated responsibility, equality and respective capability principles. The current flawed carbon emission accounting inventory is based on Producer Principles and presents a challenge for China in claiming its rights to emit and develop. Taking China as the main research object and focusing on the newly-proposed Income Principle, we estimated 41 countries and regions' Income Principle based carbon emissions and carbon emissions transferred using multi-regional input-output and Ghosh models. We found that China’s estimated responsibility of Income Principle based carbon emissions was lower than what China is supposed to take on direct carbon emissions; net imports of Income Principle based carbon emissions increased from 1995 to 2011. China is the largest net importer on Income Principle based carbon emissions. Countries such as Japan, USA, Germany, Russia, Australia and Brazil increasingly export Income Principle based carbon emissions to China. China has become one of the important destinations for Income Principle based carbon emissions exports from these countries. Constructing a carbon emissions accounting inventory using the Income Principle will facilitate the establishment of a more effective and fairer carbon reduction framework, and aid China's proposition of rational carbon emissions principles and effective carbon emission reduction policies.

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    Carbon emission measurement for China's logistics industry and its influence factors based on input-output method
    Liping WANG, Minghao LIU
    2018, 40 (1):  195-206.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.18
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    With great attention on energy conservation and emission reduction, the calculation and analysis of carbon emissions are becoming more important and urgent. Here, carbon emissions from direct energy consumption and implicit carbon emissions based on input-output table in China's logistics industry from 1997-2014 were calculated. We found that the former greatly underestimated the carbon emissions level of the logistics industry: since 2000 the contribution of indirect carbon emissions of the logistics industry has exceeded direct energy consumption carbon emissions. The proportion of direct carbon emissions accounting for total carbon emissions was less than 40% in 2014. Further carbon emission influence factor decomposition shows that the positive driving effect of economic scale on carbon emissions in the logistics industry is most, the total contribution rate is 36. 16%. Economic development of the service industry has led to an increase in carbon emissions in China's logistics industry, with a total contribution rate of 5. 21%. The use of low carbon technology is conducive to curb the carbon emissions increase, the total contribution rate of 26. 50%, but in recent years slow progress in low-carbon technology. The reverse driving effect of industry efficiency on carbon emissions in the logistics industry is obvious, but the effect is not stable. On the whole, the total contribution rate of industry efficiency on carbon emissions in the logistics industry is 21. 72% for 1997-2014. With rapid development of manufacturing, the service demand of the logistics industry will continue to increase in China and indirect carbon emissions growth should not be ignored. To realize the low carbon development of the logistics industry, we should accelerate the promotion of the use of clean energy, from the aspects of improving technical efficiency of the logistics and accelerating improvements in the low carbon levels of China's national economic departments.

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    Identifying driving forces of CO2 emissions in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from temporal and spatial angles
    Yuhuan ZHAO, Hao LI, Ya LIU, Ye CAO, Zhonghua ZHANG, Song WANG
    2018, 40 (1):  207-215.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.19
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    Exploring temporal and spatial pattern evolution and driving forces for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has important theoretical and practical significance in achieving collaborative governance of the ecological environment. This study analyzed CO2 emissions of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region over 2000-2014 from temporal and spatial angles. Using the LMDI method, we generally explored driving forces of CO2 emissions. Then, combining LMDI method and M-R spatial decomposition method, this study identifies the key driving forces of the changes and the differences of CO2 emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. We found that there has been a significant increase in CO2 emissions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, from 0. 37 billion tons in 2000 to 1. 00 billion tons in 2014. Accumulatively, Hebei province contributes most of 72. 02% to CO2 emissions in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during 2000-2014. Increase in economic output plays a significant role in increasing the CO2 emissions, with contribution of 152. 17%. Both energy efficiency improvement (contribution degree: -56. 29 %) and energy structure adjustment (contribution degree: -34. 39 %) are important factors to reduce CO2 emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. In addition, industrial structure adjustment, income improvement and urbanization are significant factors affecting CO2 emissions. Gaps in CO2 emissions between Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei regions and the average level expanded during 2000-2014. High economic output and low energy efficiency resulted in the higher CO2 emissions in Hebei than the average. However, clean-energy-dominated energy structure plays a dominant role in lowing CO2 emissions of Beijing.

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    Effect decomposition of industry, space and population on energy consumption during Chinese urbanization
    Xiang YAN, Changchun CHENG, Yizhen JIA
    2018, 40 (1):  216-225.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.20
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    On the basis of a literature review, we constructed the fusion mechanism of energy consumption in urbanization on the interactive development of industry, space and population, and analyzed factor decomposition of changes in energy consumption from 1998 to 2015 in China, based on the Kaya expansion model of vector form and the Aggregate the Sum of Polynomial Multiplication of LMDI. We found that the pulling effect of urbanization on production energy consumption is much greater than that of households. The transformation and upgrading traditional energy-driven industries and technological progress alleviate the energy pressure. In recent years, apart from household expenditure, other economic units, because of the improvement of extensive “three-high” development model rather than household consumption, are more energy-conserving. The household consumption effect is still the dominant factor in the promotion of indirect energy consumption, the positive contribution of convergence between urban and rural household consumption behavior to the fluctuation of energy consumption strengthens gradually, and, with the expansion of population, has become a constraint of the sustainable development of energy. The spread of low density sprawling space exacerbates energy consumption, except for the negative contribution to the fluctuation of energy consumption by the scale effect of population agglomeration. Under the situation of strengthening of energy restraint of new urbanization, although the structural adjustment and technological progress at the industrial level still have the effect of reduction of energy consumption, more attention should be paid to improvements on the patterns and habits of energy consumption at the population level, and releasing the new kinetic energy of reducing energy consumption by space distribution of resource, and also strive to achieve sharing economy to ease the energy consumption pressure, and accordingly.

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