Table of Content

    20 September 2017, Volume 39 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Issues regarding the compilation of the natural resource balance sheet
    Zhiming FENG, Yanzhao YANG, Huimin YAN, Tao PAN, Dong JIANG, Chiwei XIAO
    2017, 39 (9):  1615-1627.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.01
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3135KB) ( )   Save

    Exploring the compilation of a natural resource balance sheet (NRBS)and its practical application is of great importance to promoting the construction of an ecological civilization. As a new concept there are no precedents for this framework. At present,the investigation of operationally compiling NRBS is in its initial stage of exploration. So,the compilation of NBRS should be brought into the establishment of the related technical norms and standards. Here,we summarize NRBS research and combine our NRBS compiling practice with the example of the Huzhou Pattern and Chengde Pattern. In this framework,from foundation to application and from theory to practice,we discuss what NRBS is and how to compile one. We also describe several other aspects of the NRBS,such as the conceptual framework,technological pathways,principles,reporting system and table patterns. We found that the NRBS is an accounting,statistical and management statement of natural resources. The balance sheet may reflect synthetic characteristics of natural resource assets. The basic principle and possible pathways for compiling NRBSs involves six principles and three aspects:physical and monetary terms,quantity and quality terms,stock and flow terms,category and integration terms,scientific and practical terms. The balance-sheet of natural resources involves at least the following balance-sheet,one summary sheet,four classification sheets and two extension sheets or six primary sheets. We hope to promote and perfect the NRBS system through investigation and practical application across many regions.

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    The compilation of the natural resource blance sheet system research
    Dong JIANG, Jingying FU, Zhiming FENG, Yanzhao YANG, Huimin YAN, Tao PAN
    2017, 39 (9):  1628-1633.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.02
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    The assessment and value accounting of natural resources is important content for environmental governance in rural areas and construction of a beautiful countryside. The exploration of the balance sheet of natural resource asset compilation is one of the primary missions promoting the construction of the ecological civilization in the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Part of China. Research on the exploration and application of the natural resource asset balance sheet system can improve natural resource asset management,transformation of government functions,efficient management,effective supervision of government functions and the scientific evaluation of the quality of economic development. Moreover,this approach covers the shortage of traditional science of natural resources in the integrated management of data,and provides comprehensive,timely,accurate and objective information,services and technical support for urban and rural ecological civilization construction. A standardization and automation system for compiling the natural resource asset balance sheet was designed here based on natural resource science theory,GIS and spatial databases,replicable and extendable. The natural resource assets accounting models and environmental profit and loss accounting models were constructed. We established a natural resources asset balance sheet compilation and update system based on a space-temporal database and compiling pattern of the natural resource balance sheet for Chengde City. The reporting system of natural resource balance sheet can be automatically calculated in two ways,meeting the needs of different users. This method promotes the development of domestic natural resource balance sheet preparation technology,and provides a reference for the promotion of national natural resource asset balance sheets.

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    First report of the national natural resources balance sheet for Huzhou City and Anji County
    Huimin YAN, Zhiming FENG, Yanzhao YANG, Tao PAN, Dong JIANG, Xiaoyu SONG, Guoxia MA, Wenxin LIU
    2017, 39 (9):  1634-1645.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.03
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    The investigation and preparation of natural resource balance sheets (NRBS)is an important measure for promoting the construction of an ecological civilization. Huzhou City is a national ecological civilization demonstration district and the focus of our research. Based on possible pathways for compiling NRBS across three principles: first in physical and then in monetary terms; first in stock and then in flow terms;and in category and then in integration terms. We first extracted the reporting system of the NRBS:summary statement,primary stable,assistant table and original table. Then,a table pattern for NRBS comprising categorized over consumption of resources,environmental damage and ecological system worsening was developed. Accounting indices of the NRBS comprising categorized land resources,water resources and forest resources were explicated. The NRBS of the Huzhou Pattern is presented and is the first NRBS for China. We found that the total natural resource assets of Huzhou City was 937.84 billion CNY in 2013,5.2 times GDP. During 2003-2013,the cumulative natural resource liabilities of Huzhou City was 10.95 billion CNY,with liabilities at 5.6% of GDP. The natural resource assets and natural resource liabilities of Anji County were 311.50 billion CNY and 1.56 billion CNY,11.7 times and 0.03% of GDP,respectively. Our study not only demonstrates the usefulness of natural resource assets for the support of sustainable development of social and ecological environments,but also verifies the great potential of green development pathways such as the ‘Lucid water and lush mountains are invaluable assets’.

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    The pattern of compilation of the natural resources balance sheet for Chengde City
    Yanzhao YANG, Zhiming FENG, Huimin YAN, Tao PAN, Dong JIANG, Xiaoyu SONG, Guoxia MA, Wenxin LIU
    2017, 39 (9):  1646-1657.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.04
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    The natural resource balance sheet(NRBS)is a new concept proposed during the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Tentative compilation of NRBS is of importance to promoting the construction of an ecological civilization. As a new concept,the NRBS lacks practical experience and theoretic reserve and there are fundamental problems that need to be studied. For example,the definition of natural resource assets and liabilities is not clear,the concept and connotation of NRBS is uncertain,and the accounting system is not perfect. Here,taking Chengde City as a study area (a national ecological civilization demonstration district),we explicated the overall thought and technological pathways for compiling a NRBS. Next,a table pattern of NRBS comprising categorized asset accounts,liability accounts and differences between assets and liabilities was developed. A reporting system of NRBS was extracted,including a summary of NRBS,classification of NRBS and extension of NBRS. The evaluation method of natural resource assets and accounting approaches of liabilities were developed. Finally,the balance-sheet of natural resources in Chengde City from 2010 to 2013 involved the following balance-sheet,one summary sheet,four classifications sheets,two extension sheets and 47 auxiliary sheets. The NRBS Huzhou Pattern is presented and our compilation method may be applicable to other regions.

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    Decoupling analysis and rebound effect between China's marine economic growth and resource consumption
    Zeyu WANG, Xuefeng LU, Zenglin HAN, Xiaofei DONG
    2017, 39 (9):  1658-1669.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.05
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    Based on the connotation of decoupling marine economic growth and resource consumption,we researched temporal and spatial pattern evolution laws of the decoupling relationship between China's marine economic growth and resource consumption based on an improved Tapio decoupling model and GIS. We introduced the complete decomposition model without residual to perform a decomposition analysis on the rebound effect of marine resource consumption in the marine economic growth of 11 coastal provinces. We found that China's marine resource consumption had constantly increased with marine economic growth from 1997 to 2006,and marine economic growth was highly dependent on resources. The growth trend in marine resource consumption was slowed along with rapid growth of China's marine economy from 2006 to 2014,and marine economic growth gradually decoupled from marine resource consumption. As viewed from coastal provinces,the decoupling relationship between marine economic growth and resource consumption showed significant differences in coastal areas from 1997 to 2014. From 1997 to 2014,the relationship between marine economic growth and resource consumption was dominated by weak decoupling in Guangdong,Shandong,Zhejiang,Jiangsu,Tianjin,Fujian,Liaoning and Hebei; strong decoupling in Shanghai;and expanded negative decoupling in Hainan and Guangxi. Marine economic growth in Hainan and Guangxi still relied on marine resources. In 2014,areas with significant decoupling showed trends in spatial agglomeration. The scale effect and population effect promoted the consumption of marine resources,while the intensity effect had an inhibitory effect. The keys to achieving decoupling between marine economic growth and resource consumption are improving technical efficiency,controlling the population size and regulating the development scale of the marine economy.

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    Environmental efficiency evaluation of regional economic systems based on material flow analysis
    Yanqing XIA, Shuyin LI
    2017, 39 (9):  1670-1681.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.06
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    In order to analyze the material utilization efficiency and influence of pollutant emissions on economic systems,material flow analysis and Environmental Kuznets curve were used for 31 provinces and autonomous regions in China. First,based on EU guidelines for material flow and panel data of actual conditions for 31 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 1995-2014,we compared material reduction indexes at a regional level in order to evaluate the level of economic sustainable development and corresponding environmental efficiency. Then we used material reduction indexes to build a model of China's environmental Kuznets curve in order to empirically test the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve. We found that during the study period,the material input and output size of each province and autonomous region increased continuously. The improvement of the efficiency of material consumption was significantly better than the reduction in waste emissions. In most cases,the relationship between economic growth and material input or waste emissions achieved decoupling. Material utilization efficiency and reductions in waste emissions have been improved in China. However,all provinces and autonomous regions have not altered the existing linear material flow pattern. Only by transforming existing linear material flow patterns and establishing industrial economic systems for the closed cycle of material energy,can China realize the coordinated development of the environment and economy.

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    Chinese urban household metabolism accounting based on material flow analysis
    Li YAN, Jingru LIU
    2017, 39 (9):  1682-1690.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.07
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    As research into sustainable consumption theory advances, urban households as the final consumption sector have become the main research focus in sustainable development. It is important and necessary to carry out ‘cell-scale’ environmental impact assessments at the urban household level. Based on Material Flow Accounting,we built an accounting framework for urban household material flow to provide a new focus for household-scale material flow analysis. We selected an average urban household as the system boundary,72 products and water and energy for household use as the research scope. We then measured input,output and stock of resource use of an average urban household in 2015. The concept of an average urban household originates from the China Statistic Yearbook 2016,and there are 2.90 persons per household. Results show that the direct material input (DMI)of an average urban household in 2015 was 86 420kg,and the material output was 83 457kg,thereby the net addition to stock (NAS)was 2374kg per household. As for material categories,water input accounted for the largest proportion,whereas the other 9% was important in total material input structure and deserved more attention and exploration. Mineral input fell into the second group,due to an increase in new residential buildings and purchase of durable goods. Biomass followed as the third,and food made the most contribution to biomass input. In terms of consumption categories,housing,food and transportation were the main sources of material input. For current urban household consumption,we present appropriate polices to encourage residents to change their unsustainable consumption concepts to sustainable household consumption patterns,such as consumption reduction,sharing economy,ecological design for products and green infrastructure.

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    Research on vulnerability and spatial differentiation on island economies on county level of China
    Weishan QIN, Jianfeng SUN, Yifeng ZHANG, Shitai LI
    2017, 39 (9):  1692-1701.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.08
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    The island is a strategic bridgehead to develop and utilize marine resources and an important part of the human sea coupling system. With development of islands,ecological environmental problems gradually appear. Islands are facing unprecedented double pressure and challenges from the ecological environment and social development. Island economic vulnerability refers to an unsustainable state when the development of human-earth system in the island economy resists disturbances from various internal or external natural factors. Here we conducted island economic vulnerability assessments using a comprehensive index assessment method based on 38 parameters across five aspects(natural basis,resources,eco- environmental systems,economics and social development). In addition,standard values of measurements were established and used to evaluate overall island economic vulnerability and spatial differentiation. We found obvious differences in vulnerability across the 12 island counties and can be divided into four grades:Putuo District,Dinghai District,Yuhuan County and Dongshan County have low vulnerability;Shengsi County,Changdao County and Changhai County have weak vulnerability;Daishan County Pingtan County and Dongtou County have moderate vulnerability;and Chongming County and Nanao County have high vulnerability. Island economic vulnerability shows remarkable spatial differentiation regarding regionalization and clustered distribution. This study provides a scientific basis for the sustainable development of island economies and their reasonable development.

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    The interaction between industrial land supply and industrial transformation in Beijing
    Wen WEN, Na CHE, Dingyang ZHOU, Guanghui JIANG
    2017, 39 (9):  1702-1711.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.09
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    Industrial transformation has had a major impact on global economic and social development. In China,all urban land is owned by the state;this system of government leading urban land supply promotes regional industrial transformation but also results in inefficient use of industrial land and repeated construction. How to promote structural reform of land supply to promote regional industrial transformation and change the mode of economic growth is an urgent for China. Here we describe the characteristics of industrial land supply and industrial transformation in Beijing and explore the influence of land supply and industrial transformation. We found that the industrial transformation speed in Beijing city was fast-slow-fast from 1997 to 2011,with two rapid transition periods in 1998 and 2011. The level of advanced industry was rapidly upgraded,and the industry generally transformed from resource-intensive traditional industries to technology-intensive modern manufacturing. The area and price of industrial land in Beijing increased significantly from 1997 to 2011,but the marketization of Chinese industrial land supply in 2007 represented a turning point:the area of industrial land increased significantly before 2007,and the growth rate slowed down sharply after 2007,while the price of industrial land increased significantly after 2007. VAR model results show that the influence of the change in industrial land supply on industrial transformation was relatively small,with a lag effect and high volatility;however,industrial transformation had a significant negative effect on industrial land supply. Innovating supply-side reform of industrial land and developing policy for land intensive are needed to ensure the land supply of new industrial formats,the rational allocation of land and healthy development of the economy.

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    The relationship between GTGP and regional economic growth based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans Modeling
    Guoping LI, Hanyu SHI
    2017, 39 (9):  1712-1724.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.10
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    Current research has largely overlooked macro perspective analysis of the impact of investment on regional economic growth. Here,we developed a theoretical analysis framework by including the amount of payment for ecosystem service (PES)fund and its ecological outcomes into the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model. With the developed theoretical model,the impact of PES fund on regional economic growth was analyzed. Our theoretical analysis shows that investment in PES boosts regional economic growth by raising capital growth rate in that area. To consolidate our theoretical findings,we empirically examined the relationship between Grain to Green Project (GTGP) investment and regional economic growth on data obtained from 79 counties in Shaanxi involved in the GTGP. We first employed a two-step clustering algorithm to categorize selected counties into two groups according to their GTGP participation scale. Then,the obtained cluster result for each county was used as the explanatory variable in panel data analysis to estimate the average impact of GTGP investment on regional economic growth. We found that GTGP scale,quantified by a dummy variable obtained from previous clustering analysis,positively impacts regional economic growth at the country level. Further,the marginal impact of GTGP investment on regional economic growth was investigated by employing quantile regression. The impact of GTGP investment on the regional economy increases with the economic growth rate,quantified by the area of farmland conversion and the total area involved in GTGP respectively. Within the GTGP,the contribution to economic growth is larger in farmland conversion compared to barren wasteland afforestation programs and close hillsides to facilitate afforestation program. This difference persists despite changes in the economic growth rate of a county.

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    Industrial land spatial security evaluation based on hierarchical fuzzy matter element modeling of Beichen District,Tianjin
    Lei ZHANG, Xu GAO, Jiang BIAN, Lijun WANG, Xiaoqin CHEN, Qiu HUANG
    2017, 39 (9):  1725-1738.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.11
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    Affected by urbanization and post-industrialization,industrial land-use and urban land-use are moving towards integration and the contradictions between land and people are becoming increasingly acute. How to ensure a reasonable layout and effective supply and improve the integration of land-use remain important questions for the field. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is a critical strategic area of integration and the reasonable layout and effective supply of industrial land-use in the Beijing-Tianjin corridor has become a key link to promote the ordered undertaking and safe production of regional industries. Based on the starting point of a reasonable layout and effective supply of industrial land,we developed a space security diagnosis method:the red line control initial screen-single factor evaluation-spatial comprehensive evaluation. Using GIS and hierarchical fuzzy matter-element modeling,we conducted space layout security appraisal and grade division for industrial land-use in Beichen District. We found that there are 59.72% current industrial land-use of Beichen District is at a general security level in 2015, 11.59% of land-use has a high level of security,the proportion of low security zone and unsafe zone reached 28.69%. In terms of a single indicator,location security conditions such as wind interference area,and traffic convenience,as well as production security conditions(e.g. industrial agglomeration degree and high-tech radiation)have a great influence on evaluation results. On the basis of ensuring regional ecological security,combining with a reasonable scale of industrial land-use and industrial characteristics,the internal intensivism and spatial layout optimization of industrial land-use are realized. This study offers some valuable proposals:strictly control ecological land-use,aggregate in high-security areas and identify industry type. These measures will help achieve the coordinated development of industrial land-use among regional social,economic,environmental and city-industry integration.

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    Multi-scenario land use change simulation in Caidian using CLUE-S based on Tietenberg Modeling
    Bin LI, Yueyan LIU, Bin ZHANG, Jincheng HUANG, Xiaoyu GUO
    2017, 39 (9):  1739-1752.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.12
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    A comparative study of multi-scenario simulation about land use change is an important basis for clarifying the characteristics of different land-use change scenarios , and it can provide multi-decision support for land use planning and policy formulation. Based on the analysis of the transfer of various land types, this paper follows the principle of natural growth and maximum benefit, simulates the future land use change in different situation by combining the CLUE-S model with Markov model and Tietenberg model, then analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and land benefits of land use change in different situations. The results show as follows. Under different scenarios,the structure of urban and residential land and mining land sources is obviously different. In scenario Ⅰ,the increase of urban and residential land and mining land mainly comes from cultivated land and water area from 2010 to 2019. In scenario Ⅱ,the increase of urban and residential land and mining land is mainly from cultivated land. From the view of landscape structure and stability,the cultivated land, urban and residential land and mining lands changed significantly under the two scenarios. The cultivated land presented a change principle of "stability to instability and then to stability" under two scenarios. The landscape stability of urban and residential land and mining lands was higher. The newly generated urban and residential land and mining land's plots have the small area, large quantity characteristics. In different scenarios,the expansion of the urban and residential land and mining land is different. In Scenario Ⅰ,urban and residential and mining lands have been expanding rapidly which is mainly around the core urban area and the surrounding areas. In scenario Ⅱ,urban and residential and mining lands have the characteristics of more rapid expansion and more uniform layout. It encourages the rational urban land to expand in an orderly way. From the perspective of land benefits, the land acquisition income in scenario Ⅱ is higher than that in scenario Ⅰunder the same amount use of land.

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    Temporal-spatial change in adverse meteorological conditions during spring maize growth in Southwest China under climate warming
    Yi HUANG, Jing WANG, Di HE, Jianzhao TANG
    2017, 39 (9):  1753-1764.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.13
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    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in adverse meteorological conditions during the maize growing season in Southwest China. Datasets covered observed phenological data from 27 agro-meteorological stations(1981-2010)and daily meteorological data from 66 meteorological stations(1961-2010). These data were used to calculate agro-meteorological indices such as successive overcast weather,high-temperature day,low-temperature day,water surplus and deficit index,indicating adverse meteorological conditions in the most recent 50 years. We found that successive overcast weather occurred frequently from emergence to seventh-leaf and from seventh-leaf to heading,and the frequency increased by 12% and 15%,respectively after climate warming. A total of 11% and 14% of stations decreased during these two periods. Heat stress mainly occurred during the period from milking ripeness to maturity,which mostly centered in northeast of Southwest China. The number of days with heat stress decreased by 2.5 days after climate warming,with 23% of stations decreasing. Low-temperature days occurred during the whole growing season,and the number of days with cold stress decreased by 2.2 days after climate warming,especially during from seventh-leaf to jointing when 56% of stations decreased. High-temperature days mainly occurred from sowing to jointing,and the frequency of light water deficit and medium water deficit increased by 6% and 7%,respectively. The water surplus happened through the maize growing season,but it was always mild. The frequency of light water surplus increased by 15% after climate warming,with 21% and 11% of stations increasing significantly during sowing-jointing and grain filling-maturity,respectively. The decrease in heat stress and cold stress has a good impact on the growth of spring maize,however,the increase in cloudy days and water surplus/deficit may decrease quality and yield.

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    Effect of rain-waterlog on the production factor investment by rice households in Hubei based on Rural Fixed Observation Point Data
    Xue GAO, Gucheng LI, Lixia Fan, Chaojing YIN
    2017, 39 (9):  1765-1776.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.14
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    We used Rural Fixed Observation Point Data and meteorological data for Hubei Province,China from 2003 to 2011 and the Z-index method to calculate the rain-waterlog occurrence for each meteorological observation station. The normal years and years of rain-waterlog were divided and labeled according to Z-index results,and characteristics of the Z-index were analyzed. We focused on the influence of rain-waterlog on production factor investment by rice households and examined whether influences differ among households. We found that from 2003 to 2011 in Hubei,the occurrence frequency of weak rain-waterlogging was less than rain-waterlogging; strong rain-waterlogging did not occur. Areas of rain-waterlogging and weak rain-waterlogging were relatively concentrated. There is a significant difference between production factor investment by rice households in normal years and rain-waterlogged years. The occurrence of rain-waterlogging has a significant positive influence on intermediate investment and labor input,and labor input is more affected. Quantile regression shows that,with the increase in quantiles,the influence of rain-waterlogging on intermediate investment and labor input is gradually increased. It is necessary to strengthen early warning and forecasting of rain-waterlogging in Hubei,and provide necessary public services,knowledge and technological support to rice households. It is also important to improve disaster prevention and risk awareness for large growers at high factor investment levels.

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    The empirical measurement of coupling from indicators to indexes of forestry ecological security
    Bing LIAO, Zhiguang ZHANG
    2017, 39 (9):  1777-1791.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.15
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    Studying the calculation of forestry ecological security is significant for managers to determine policy for supervising forestry ecological security and promote ecological civilization. This study aimed to overcome defects in existing research regarding the essential attribute of forestry ecological security: symbiosis between forestry industry pressure and forest ecology. First, indicators and weightings were determined by means of pressure-state-impact-response(PSIR) and structural equation modeling(SEM). Second, with data for China and thirty-one provinces from 2004-2015, symbiotic degree indexes with ecology economic significance and judgment criteria of forestry ecological security were constructed using Lotka-Volterra method,realizing the coupling from indicators to indexes. Last, the empirical calculation of forestry ecological security in China and thirty-one provinces was carried out and indicators were tracked to determine key reasons for existing problems according to calculated indexes, realizing decoupling from indexes to indicators. We found that the Chinese forestry industry pressure and forest ecology are not at the state of green symbiosis so that forestry ecological security is at state of pre-warning and the potential hidden risk of forestry ecological security will appear; there will be a very long way to go. In all 31 provinces, the quantities of provinces in a state of pre-warning for forestry ecological security(including 18 provinces, 58%) are more than the quantities of provinces which are at state of forestry green security (including 13 provinces, 42%). Forestry green security not only depends on resource endowment and natural conditions but also the symbiotic state between the forestry industry pressure and forest ecology.

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    Preference analysis of household ecological compensation in Crested Ibis protected area in Hanzhong,Shaanxi based on choice experiments
    Bo SUN, Wei DUAN, Huimin DING, Yan FENG, Yali WEN
    2017, 39 (9):  1792-1800.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.09.16
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    Understanding preferences for ecological compensation policies around wetland protected areas helps improve the ecological environment of wetlands and surroundings. Here,we selected 300 valid peasant households in the Crested Ibis protected area in Hanzhong,Shaanxi,and used choice experiments to analyze farmer preferences for different ecological compensation schemes and willingness to accept ecological compensation. We found that the design of compensation policy significantly affected farmer willingness to participate,among which the influence of plan implementation period,land participation and pesticide reduction ratio was negative,and the influence of compensation amount was positive. Age,education level,protection awareness,living in the protected area,family population and per capita annual income affected household preference for wetland ecological compensation attributes,the effect of age on farmer willingness to participate in ecological compensation was negative,and the effect of other individual characteristics was positive. In terms of compensation standard,the mean value of farmer annual willingness to accept compensation surrounding wetland is 608.56CNY/hm2;if the implementation period was extended by one year additional compensation of 8.09CNY/hm2 was needed. If the area involved in land compensation increased by 10% the need for additional compensation was 58.00CNY/hm2. If the farmer reduced the amount of pesticide by 10% additional compensation of 459.09CNY/hm2 was needed. Wetland ecological compensation standards in China should not only consider the influence of different household designs but also population characteristics,and carry out dynamic and elastic compensation standards.

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