Table of Content

    20 May 2017, Volume 39 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Review and prospects of national metal resource security
    Chang WANG, Huiling SONG, Lvshui ZUO, Jianbai HUANG
    2017, 39 (5):  805-817.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.01
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (809KB) ( )   Save

    Metal resources are critical materials for Chinese economic development,and their security is closely related to national security. Here we systemically review the connotation and mechanisms,driving factors,evaluation methods,national strategies and policies of national metal resource security(NMRS). The content of NMRS covers the security of supply,price and environment. The key factors that influence the security status of NMRS are resource endowment,economic development,technical progress,and ecological environment. In principle,existing studies apply three approaches to assess the criticality of metals,criticality matrices,criticality indices and quantitative future supply and demand analysis. The most used approaches in metal demand forecasting are the trend extrapolation method,bottom-up approach and mathematical statistics. The market power and pricing of metals are estimated by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index,Lerner index,and equilibrium game models. Different strategies and policy tools for metal security are adopted by countries or regions depending on their national circumstances. Based on these findings and the needs of social development,future study in NMRS should focus mainly on the following four areas:(1)comprehensive research on the mechanism of NMRS;(2)the influence of new technological revolution on NMRS;(3)impacts of changing international trade rules and pricing mechanism on NMRS;and (4)evaluation of the impact of international significant strategies on NMRS.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Modeling of farmer household psychological decision-making in farmland transfer
    Jian CHENG, Jiumiao CHENG, Luocheng FEI, Yuting XU, Yihu ZHOU
    2017, 39 (5):  818-826.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.02
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (888KB) ( )   Save

    Based on questionnaire data from rural households in Suzhou , Jieshou , Langxi , Feixi and Fengyang of Anhui Province,the behavioral intention of households to participate in farmland transfer was analyzed from the perspective of internal psychological characteristics using theory of planned behavior and structural equation modeling. We found that during the decision-making of farmland transfer,households' attitudes toward behavior,subjective norms and perceived behavioral control have significant effects on decision-making. For these three influencing factors,attitudes toward behavior has the greatest effect,the perceived behavioral control has a minor effect and subjective norms have the smallest effect. The attitudes toward behavior are mainly based on the instrumental attitude influence, transfer benefit and sustainable livelihoods are the major factors to formulate attitudes toward behavior. Perceived behavioral control affects willingness expression and directly affects behavioral occurrence. In subjective norms,the group's opinion has the greatest effect,so the design of transfer policies should pay more attention to grassroot self-governing organizations. Household transfer behavior and willingness are mostly the same,some differences are mainly due to the moderating effect of objective factors such as family resource endowment, market environment and policy systems.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Satisfaction regarding village relocation and combination in the South-North Community of Qihe County
    Dekun DONG, Yan SHI, Fei SHEN, Shuzhong GU
    2017, 39 (5):  827-835.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.03
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1591KB) ( )   Save

    Village relocation and combination can intensify rural residential land use and is one of the important ways to build a new socialist countryside. However,land consolidation involves the vital interests of majority farmers,and residents' satisfaction is an important assessment indicator of the project. We hoped that by analyzing the factors influencing residents' satisfaction,we could determine project problems and put forward countermeasures to provide references for similar projects. We used economic social materials obtained from South-North Community surveys in Qihe County,Shandong,China to analyze satisfaction and influencing factors using a logistic model. We found that the completeness of rural infrastructure,public service facilities and new community construction have significantly improved residents' living environments and raised the average income level of the families. Because of this,the overall satisfaction of residents was higher,and the average score reached 8.03 (out of 10). Some factors reduced satisfaction,such as the deficiency of new community function,and compensation standards unreasonable. These factors,including residents' cultural level,non-agriculture employment populations,original housing value,amount of family farmland,cost of living,expenditure of decoration and furniture,expenditure of house purchase and living tendency had a significant impact on satisfaction. As the project implementation of the case area required farmers to pay a certain amount of capital,so,economic factors were important factors affecting satisfaction. In the future,when the government implements similar projects it should plan policy promotion,resident participation,planning and design,compensation and new community development to avoid implementation risks and achieve a new socialist countryside.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Construction land utilization efficiency based on SBM-Undesirable and Meta-frontier model
    Lei NIE, Zhongxing GUO, Chong PENG
    2017, 39 (5):  836-845.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.04
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1062KB) ( )   Save

    Improving the utilization efficiency of construction land is critical to meet the demand of urban construction land in China. Considering environmental pollution under the condition of undesirable output,we employed the SBM-Undesirable and meta-frontier model based on 2000-2014 panel data for 238 cities in China to investigate the utilization efficiency of urban construction land using types heterogeneity and meta-frontier and group-frontier respectively. The results show that there are significant differences in the utilization efficiency of construction land between cities. At the meta-frontier,from 2000 to 2010 the average efficiency is from high to low in order from regional comprehensive city,industry oriented city,other type of city and resource city. At the group-frontier,there is no obvious characteristic of types of differentiation in average efficiency. Comparing the utilization efficiency of construction land between different types of cities under the meta-frontier and group frontier,other type of city and regional comprehensive city are small, respectively for 0.082 and 0.106,followed by the industry city at 0.118,and the resource-based city at 0.267. The non-difference between the meta-frontier and group-frontier confirmed the scientific rationality of the utilization efficiency of construction land from the perspective of urban types heterogeneity. Considering the pollution of the environment as a kind of undesirable output,the utilization efficiency of construction land is generally low,especially in resource city(e.g. mean efficiency no more than 0.6),meaning that ecological civilization construction,urban construction land use efficiency is improved. We conclude that a one size fits all approach is inappropriate when improving urban land management and that people should consider the heterogeneity of functions among cities when developing different solutions.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Regional land resource security evaluation based on system dynamics in Nanjing City
    Hui CHEN, Guanghui FU, Youzhao LIU, Pengyu TAI
    2017, 39 (5):  846-859.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.05
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (979KB) ( )   Save

    Land resource security is an important part of national and regional security. Taking Nanjing as our research focus,a regional land resource security evaluation model structure was designed in accordance with Pressure-State-Response(PSR). Based on system dynamics,land resource security points for three subsystems (food security,land economic security,land ecological security)and the relationship between regional social economy and the ecological environment were analyzed and simulated. The model can fully reveal the land resource system stability and security and continuity. Through the establishment of regional land resource security evaluation of the system flow chart,SD dynamic simulation analysis and evaluation were conducted. Fifteen kinds of schemes were designed,and the optimal scheme of land resource security strategy development was obtained through SD simulation. Vensim PLE was used for adaption and consistency checking for the established model. Option 3,6,2 and 9 were selected as the optimization mode in Nanjing,and Option 3 is optimal. The SD simulation model constructed here is a set of social,economic,environmental,external systems and internal structures as an integrated subsystem of dynamic analysis modeling,and the model is able to clearly express the entire network of land resource security system. This model will help regional land resource security evaluation,and in particular comparative study using a time dimension.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Assessing the delivery of soil erosion control benefits at the watershed level following the WATEM/SEDEM concept
    Yu LIU, Jiakun TENG
    2017, 39 (5):  860-870.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.06
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1221KB) ( )   Save

    Soil erosion and sediment delivery occurs widely in terrestrial environments. It has on-site and off-site environmental and social-economic effects. Soil erosion control provides various benefits for human beings,such as prevention of soil productivity loss,and reducing impoundment of reservoirs. For a land plot,the off-site benefits of soil erosion control is equal to the reduction of sediment export. Previously,assessments of off-site benefits of soil erosion control mostly rely on estimation of on-site soil retention,which is equal to the difference between estimated actual soil erosion and soil erosion without any prevention measures,and an invariant sediment delivery ratio (SDR). The scale effect of SDR and its correlation with the spatial and temporal variation of watershed characteristics and driven factors,such as spatial variation of rainfall regime,are often ignored. Consequently,quantitative and spatially explicit evaluations of soil erosion control benefits (SECB)and delivery across space are missing. For these reasons,an approach following the framework of WATEM/SEDEM model combining soil erosion and sediment delivery was developed to assess SECB provision and delivery over watershed. This approach integrates the on-site soil erosion prevention and reduction of sediment delivery. A case study was conducted in the Nianzhuang Watershed on the Loess Plateau. The SECB balance and spatial pattern in this loess watershed in the Hilly and Gully Area of the Loess Plateau was assessed. Based on the grid-cell-based modelling,the SECB import and export for each land use type were quantified and mapped. This approach identifies SECB supply areas and external beneficiary areas. In addition,it has potential to link SECB supply areas with beneficiary areas of SECB in a quantitative and spatially explicit way. Thanks to its spatial explicit feature,this approach is capable of serving the location-specific payments for ecosystem services provision.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Dynamic evaluation of natural capital using the Three-Dimension Ecological Footprint Model:the Jiulong River Basin in Southeast China
    Weijing MA, Bin LIU, Dewei YANG, Qinghai GUO
    2017, 39 (5):  871-880.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.07
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1233KB) ( )   Save

    Natural capital assessment is an important way to analyze the regional ecosystem balance and sustainable development. Based on the Three-Dimensional Ecological Footprint Model,the per capita footprint depth,footprint size and three-dimensional ecological footprint from 2000 to 2015 were calculated for regional and different land types in the Jiulong River Basin,southeast China. We analyzed the occupation of regional natural capital flow and natural capital stocks,and differences among different land types using the capital flow occupancy rate,use ratio of stocks to flows and other indices. We found that in the Jiulong River Basin,the per capita footprint depth increased from 2.34 to 4.33,the per capita footprint size increased from 0.463hm2 to 0.655hm2,and the per capita three-dimensional ecological footprint expanded from 1.08hm2 to 2.84hm2. This means that the occupation level of regional natural capital flows gradually increased,the consumption of natural capital stocks rapidly increased,and thus resulted in the more intensive pressure on ecosystem services. Significant differences lie in the use of natural capital in different land types. All land types but forest and grassland performed were in ecological deficit from 2011. Increased demand on fossil energy land was the fastest and led to accelerated increase in the regional ecological footprint. Increasing natural capital flows and reducing the consumption of natural capital stocks are urgently required in order to achieve regional sustainability. More measures are encouraged to regulate construction land scale,protect limited cultivated land,improve energy use efficiency and promote conservation-oriented consumption.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Ecological compensation,psychological factors,willingness and behavior of ecological protection in the Qinba ecological function area
    Wenbin ZHANG, Guoping LI
    2017, 39 (5):  881-892.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.08
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1688KB) ( )   Save

    This paper studied the effect of psychological factor and ecological compensation policy on local residents' ecological protection willingness and behavior using 614 questionnaires from two national key ecological function areas in Zhashui and Zhen'an. We put forward six hypotheses about the effects of ecological compensation policies and local residents' psychological factors,i.e behavior attitude,subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on the residents' willingness and behavior. We then tested the six hypotheses using the Structural Equation Model and found that three local resident psychological factors had a positive and significant effect on ecological protection willingness. The direct influence coefficients were 0.367,0.184,and 0.305 respectively,and had a indirect influence on ecological protection behavior through the ecological protection willingness,the coefficient is 0.159,0.079 and 0.132 respectively. The direct influence coefficient of the ecological compensation policy on the ecological protection willingness and behavior were 0.182 and 0.142 respectively,and indirectly influenced ecological protection behavior through ecological protection willingness,the indirect influence coefficient was 0.079. The direct influence coefficient of ecological protection willingness on ecological protection behavior was 0.432. At the same time,the results show that the impact coefficient of ecological compensation policy on ecological protection willingness and behavior is relatively small,the incentive effect of ecological compensation policy has not been fully utilized,and there is still room for further exploration. We suggest affecting local residents' psychological factors and exerting the direct and indirect effects of ecological compensation policy to enhance ecological compensation willingness and behavior.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Analysis of willingness to pay for ecosystem services and influence factors based on the TPB
    Qin GAO, Changlin AO, Biqi MAO, Yuxuan LU
    2017, 39 (5):  893-901.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.09
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (776KB) ( )   Save

    Ecosystem service assessment is the basis of decision making for environmental management policy. The validity and reliability of the Choice Experiment method for evaluating non-market items by acquiring individual's payment will be a very important issue for scholars. Taking the Sanjiang Plain Wetland as an example,we built a method to evaluate willingness to pay for wetland ecosystem services based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore potential motives for willing to pay for wetland ecosystem services. This method improves the reliability and scientificity of traditional Choice Experiments which only contain socioeconomic information parameters. By fitting multi-Logit models chosen according to the utility function of wetland ecosystem services,we empirically analyzed respondent willingness to pay for wetland ecosystem services and influence factors. The wetland ecosystem service function is mainly reflected by the four ecosystem service properties:wetland area,biodiversity,water conservation and natural landscape. We found that residents’ preferences for wetland ecosystem services from high to low respectively are water conservation,wetland area,natural landscape and biodiversity. Model test results show that fitting the multi-logit model introduces behavioral attitudes,subjective norms and perceived behavior as control variables is better and explains the choices of consumer payments. The marginal prices of ecosystem service function properties are prefixed targets in order to realize Sanjiang Plain Wetlands ecosystem service function in the future:willingness to pay for improving water conservation 98.92 CNY;the willingness to pay for maintaining the existing wetland area is 58.90 CNY;the willingness to pay to improve the natural landscape is 54.09 CNY;and the willingness to pay to improve the biodiversity is 46.06 CNY.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Application of the deliberation contingent valuation method to the non-use value of resources in the Dalai Lake Protected Area
    Pengwei WANG, Lirong HAN, Rui ZHOU, Rong MEI, Fengwei AI, Linsheng ZHONG
    2017, 39 (5):  902-910.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.10
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2900KB) ( )   Save

    Monetary valuation of environments and resources contributes to quantifying their value,enables more accurate accounting of environmental costs and benefits of policies,promotes resource and environmental assets into the national economic accounting system,and accelerates the construction of ecological civilization. In developing countries,there are particular methodological and epistemological challenges that require novel valuation methodologies. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)is the main method to evaluate the non-use value of resources and environments,but there are many biases in CVM such as information bias,hypothetical bias and protest bias. We integrated deliberation interventions into CVM across the Dalai Lake Protected Area to determine if deliberative interventions could elicit deeper held values and influence preferences,and determine whether deliberative interventions enable participants to express different values. We found that the initial willingness to pay for the Dalai Lake Protected Area was 68.55 CNY;following deliberative intervention the willingness to pay increased by 62.5%. The group-based deliberative approach combined with participatory interventions,resulted in significant learning for participants. This included a more sophisticated view of ecological-cultural linkages,greater recognition of deeper held values,and greater awareness of the consequences of human actions for the environment. The use of a group-based participatory approach helped to overcome many of the practical difficulties associated with valuation in developing countries. Given the impact of learning on valuation outcomes,participation and deliberation should be integrated into valuation of any complex good in developing economies,which helps to assess deeper held values and ensure policies take into account the extent to which human life is dependent on resources and environments.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Coupling induction of environmental regulation and government subsidy on enterprise technological innovation
    Lijing YUAN, Xiaofan ZHENG
    2017, 39 (5):  911-923.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.11
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1278KB) ( )   Save

    Although lots of countries are committed to win-win development of environmental protection and economy growth, the gap between regulatory results and objectives shows that the study about the field still needs to go further. More attention has been paid to the single-layer relationship between environmental regulation and enterprise technological innovation, while the coupling induction of multi-policy was ignored. Nowadays one of the trends in the analysis of policy impact mechanisms is multi-policy study, since business decisions are the result under multiple policies in practice, and the effectiveness of individual policies is closely related to other policies. This paper analyzes the coordinative role of government subsidy between environmental regulation and enterprise technological innovation based on complementary advantages, and constructs a comprehensive influence model of environmental regulation and government subsidy to enterprise technological innovation. The study finds that the government subsidy does not affect the U-shaped relationship between environmental regulation and enterprise technological innovation, but the appropriate government subsidy can weaken the negative impact of environmental regulation on technological innovation and promote enterprises to implement technological innovation earlier. Through the analysis of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in 30 provinces during 1998-2008, the paper puts forward the threshold of the intensity of China's environmental regulation and the moderation range of government subsidy, and then proposes the adjustment plan of environmental regulation and government subsidy in different provinces, which contributes to related research and policy development.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Scale efficiency of grain production and influencing factors based on survey data from Heilongjiang,Henan and Sichuan
    Lin JIA, Ying XIA
    2017, 39 (5):  924-933.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.12
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (732KB) ( )   Save

    Farm size and scale efficiency are hot issues. In recent years,farm size has expanded rapidly in China. Due to the lack of scale management experience,farmers have not realized yield or income growth and farmers' enthusiasm for production has declined. It is therefore necessary to study the scale efficiency of grain production. Here,we discuss farmer's scale efficiency using maize farming households as an example. The data was collected from three maize producing provinces,Heilongjiang,Henan and Sichuan,located in Northeast,North and Southwest China. Based on 517 surveys we employed the DEA approach to estimate maize scale efficiency and utilized a Tobit regression to analyze influencing factors. The results indicated that overall scale efficiency is 0.90. It is high but there is room for efficiency improvements. The scale efficiency of maize production is significantly different in the provinces. The highest scale efficiency is in Heilongjiang and the lowest is in Sichuan. By dividing the data according to farmer scale we found that scale efficiency drops with increasing scale after rising first. Based on these findings we should promote scale management suiting local conditions instead of expanding blindly. Tobit regression shows that the higher the education level of household head,household head as a migrant worker in cities have a significant positive impact on the scale efficiency. The proportion of non-farming income to net income of household is negatively correlated with scale efficiency. Therefore we should strengthen the training of farmers,cultivate new professional farmers and provide better technical support for scale farmers.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research on adoption behavior of green control techniques by family farms
    Yang GAO, Xiao ZHANG, Jiao LU, Lei WU
    2017, 39 (5):  934-944.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.13
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (716KB) ( )   Save

    Technique adoption behavior by family farms comprises three stages of progressive relation:information collection,adoption willingness,and adoption intensity. In order to explore the factors influencing the adoption of green control techniques by family farms,we focused on the following sample selection problems:understanding (or not)and willingness (or not). This study used bivariate probit and regression linear modeling based on field survey data from 676 family farms in five provinces spanning the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in China. We found that the frequency of neighbor communication,strength of extension of agricultural technique sector,strength of media publicity,farmer gender,education of farmers,and degree of risk preference of farmers each influence green control technique information collection. The perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness by farmers about green control techniques,number of laborers,strength of extension of agricultural technique sector,education of farmers,and degree of risk preference positively influence the adoption willingness of green control techniques. The perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness by farmers about green control techniques,fund status,strength of media publicity,strength of extension of agricultural technique sector,and education of farmers positively influences the adoption intensity of green control techniques. The frequency of neighbor communion,gender of farmers,and the degree of risk preference of farmers negatively influences the adoption intensity of green control techniques.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Construction of a resource tax system based on natural ecological space
    Zhenxing XIONG, Keqiang WANG, Hongmei LIU
    2017, 39 (5):  945-953.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.14
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (665KB) ( )   Save

    Extending the resource tax to the occupancy of natural ecological space is a new component of resource tax reform in China. This requires a protection of the ecological functions of resources to achieve environmental protection. From the perspective of natural ecological space,resource tax reform should enlarge the range of tax collection to all resources,cover all related aspects of resources from mining to discharge,and raise the overall tax rate of resource use. In the tax clearance fee legislation principle,retaining necessary charges and adding new resource tax items,from the height of the natural ecological space to protect resources and the environment. The water and forest resources should be included in the scope of resource taxation,and awareness of conservation and realization of payment for services should be increased. We need to change cultivated land occupation tax to farmland occupation tax,establish an idle tax on construction land and include unused land,rural construction land and idle construction land into the system of taxes on resources. The mineral resources should be taxed using amounts and prices respectively from the mining and marketing chain,not only reflecting market supply and demand but also the degree of scarcity. We need to increase tax items for restoration of ecological environments after mining and develop alternative energy resources. Tax reform for waste resource management is needed,and forming a resource tax system for all kinds of natural resources such as land,forests,water and minerals to effectively manage all aspects of exploitation and emissions is needed. Finally,to achieve economical and intensive utilization of resources and protection of natural ecological space we should promote the protection of resources and environmental legislation,registration of natural ecological spaces,reform other taxes related to resources and environment and improve the degree of tax greening.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The characteristics of extreme minimum temperature events and exposure of farmland in China
    Anqian WANG, Buda SU, Yanjun WANG, Guojie WANG, Jinlong HUANG, Chengyi ZHAO
    2017, 39 (5):  954-963.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.15
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2571KB) ( )   Save

    Based on daily minimum temperature data from 543 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2014,characteristics of extreme minimum temperature events over China were analyzed. By taking the spatial and temporal continuity characteristics of extreme minimum temperature events into account,the Intensity-Area-Duration(IAD)method was applied to assess the relationship between intensity and coverage of extreme minimum temperature events at different durations and evaluate the area of farmland exposed to extreme minimum temperature events. We found that the areas where single-site extreme minimum temperature events occur more frequently are located in the northern and northeastern regions and that most events last 1~2 days. In northwestern and southeastern areas,where extreme minimum temperature events are comparatively lesser,most events last longer (last 3~5 days,or more than six days). Coverage of extreme minimum temperature events has decreased from the 1960s to 1990s,and increased in the 21st century. The coverage of extreme minimum temperature events was lowest in the 1990s for different durations. Before the 21st century,regional extreme minimum temperature events were of short duration but greater area and intensity. Since the beginning of the 21st century,both the coverage and intensity of extreme minimum temperature events has decreased,but the duration has increased. The area of farmland exposed to extreme minimum temperature events increased before 1969,but then decreased. The maximum and minimum farmland area exposed to extreme minimum temperature events was in 1969 and 2007 respectively. Farmland area exposed to extreme minimum temperature events has stabilized since the beginning of the 21st century.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of potential evapotranspiration and impact factors in China from 1961 to 2015
    Xia WU, Peijuan WANG, Zhiguo HUO, Yueming BAI
    2017, 39 (5):  964-977.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.16
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4114KB) ( )   Save

    The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of ETo regarding national and four climatic regional scales were analyzed at annual,seasonal and decadal scales to obtain the spatio-temporal pattern for ETo. Results show that the average annual ETo is 620-1729mm in China. The regions with the highest ETo are mainly distributed in arid regions,while areas with lower ETo are concentrates in semi-arid,humid and semi-humid regions at both 55-year average and different decadal scales. At a seasonal scale,the spatial distributions of ETo show a clear pattern:ETo is the highest in summer,followed by spring and autumn,and the lowest in winter,accounting for 39%,30%,21% and 10% of average annual ETo respectively. Temporally,the average annual ETo decreased at a rate of 0.52mm/a from 1961 to 2015,and the decreasing trend has a mutation phenomenon in 1972. Although there is an increasing trend since the last decade of the 20th century,it did not detect the mutation year using Mann-Kendall methods. Trends of ETo in different climate regions are distinctive. ETo in most sites decreased in arid region and humid regions,and the meteorological stations tended to decrease in arid regions more than in humid regions. In semi-arid and semi-humid regions,the number of sites is roughly equivalent regarding those that increased or decreased for ETo. More than 85% of the sites in our country have ETo mainly affected by wind speed and sunshine time. The decreasing trend of ETo in recent 55 years was mainly caused by a decrease in wind speed,reduced sunshine time and a slight increase in vapor pressure. The major reason of ETo increase was vapor pressure, and the second were sunshine time and the lowest air temperature.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research of the carbon dioxide emission efficiency and reduction potential of cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
    Dong FENG, Jian LI
    2017, 39 (5):  978-986.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.17
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (811KB) ( )   Save

    Scientifically measuring the carbon dioxide emission efficiency and reduction potential of Chinese cities is an important basis of hitting peak emissions as soon as possible. Under a background of promoting the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei synergetic development strategy,we chose 13 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region as the research object and focused on the carbon dioxide emission efficiency and reduction potential of each city,to provide a reference for peak emissions. We adopted the SBM model which considers undesirable outputs to calculate the carbon dioxide emission efficiency of the 13 cities from 2005 to 2014. We then applied the carbon reduction potential index based on the principles of fairness and efficiency to quantitatively analyze the reduction potential;we were able to divide the 13 cities into four types:‘high equity and high efficiency’,‘high equity and low efficiency’,‘low equity and high efficiency’ and ‘low equity and low efficiency’. We found that the overall carbon emission efficiency of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region decreased during the research period and only Beijing’s and Qinhuangdao’s carbon emission efficiency are relatively effective. Although the carbon reduction potential indexes of each city are different,they are characterized by a relatively stable situation whereby the index of Beijing is the lowest and the index of Tangshan the highest. According to the category result of each city based on the equity index and efficiency index,these data confirm the key work of carbon emission reduction,strict control of carbon dioxide emissions,and coordinated development between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth into the future.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics