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    Plastic resources metabolism in China based on material flow analysis
    LUAN Xiaoyu, LIU Wei, CUI Zhaojie, LIU Yeye, CHEN Yuedong, LU Sheng, WANG Yubiao
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (2): 372-382.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.15
    Abstract577)   HTML177)    PDF (9605KB)(753)      

    With the rapid growth of the production and consumption of plastics, the waste and pollution of plastics become increasingly more serious. It is important to study the metabolic process of plastic resources to save the resources and protect the environment. Based on the material flow analysis method, a material flow analysis dynamic model of plastics was constructed in this study to analyze the life-cycle metabolic process of plastics from production, use, to waste from 1949 to 2018 in China. The flows and stocks of PE, PP, PS, PVC, ABS, PET and other plastic in 11 application areas were calculated, and the key points of resources waste of different kinds of plastics were analyzed. The results show that: (1) From 1949 to 2018, the consumption of plastics was 2205.6 million tons, and the output of waste plastics was 1404.8 million tons, of which 30.0% was recycled, 14.0% was incinerated, 36.0% was into landfill, and 20.0% was directly lost into the environment without treatment; (2) The in-use stocks of plastics were 630.0 million tons, and the loss stocks of plastics were 870.2 million tons, of which 66.7% were in landfill and 33.3% were carelessly discarded in the environment; (3) In 2018, the consumption of plastics was 193.1 million tons, and the output of waste plastics was 140.5 million tons, of which 32.0% was recycled, 26.0% was incinerated, 35.4% was into landfill, and 6.6% was directly lost into the environment. The study found that: The scale of plastic metabolism was large in China, and disposable plastic products had a great influence on plastic metabolism. Waste plastic was the key point of the resource loss, so the recycling of waste plastics was necessary. It was important to control the pollution of waste plastics that had entered the environment. Therefore in the future, research should focus on the risk and pollution mechanism of plastic waste scattered in the environment and improving the utilization efficiency of recycling and reusing of plastic waste, so as to reduce the loss of plastic resources and decrease the environmental pollution.

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    Eco-environmental impact and spatial control of mineral resources exploitation in the Yellow River Basin
    MA Li, TIAN Huazheng, KANG Lei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 137-149.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.14
    Abstract1119)   HTML309)    PDF (12850KB)(611)      

    The Yellow River Basin is also known as China’s energy basin. Rational and orderly exploitation of mineral resources and overall coordination of the relationship between mineral resources exploitation and ecological environment protection are of great practical significance for the sustainable development of energy and mineral resources and ecological protection in the region. Taking the Yellow River Basin as the study area, this study comprehensively analyzed the characteristics and spatial distribution of environmental stress of regional mineral resources exploitation using multi-indicator comprehensive evaluation method, stress coupling analysis method, and GIS spatial analysis from the perspectives of ecological background fragility, spatial stress to important ecological function areas, and the degree of stress to important ecological environment factors. The 46 mining cities in the Yellow River Basin were divided into eight types, including background stress areas, ecological function stress areas, development stress areas, background with development stress areas, development with ecological function stress areas, background with ecological function stress areas, comprehensive stress areas, and no stress areas. Finally, the article put forward the control path of mineral resources development areas in the Yellow River Basin in view of ecological environment protection, including: (1) Spatial management and control by strictly restricting large-scale and high-intensity industrialization and urbanization development, especially controlling the development boundary of mining areas. (2) Intensity control for areas with fragile ecological background, the intensity and the overall development scale should be controlled simultaneously. (3) Development mode control to pay attention to the structural adjustment and upgrading of energy and mining industries. It is necessary to focus on spatially concentrated development of mining in places where mining is suitable, of industry where industrial development is suitable, and of cities and towns where urban development is suitable.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Changes of climate and land cover in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River over the past 2000 years
    ZHENG Jingyun, WEN Yanjun, FANG Xiuqi
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 3-19.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.01
    Abstract1026)   HTML303)    PDF (8514KB)(512)      

    Based on the research on the changes of climate, disasters, vegetation, and land use in the past 40 years, this study made a comprehensive assessment of the characteristics of changes of temperature, dry/wet conditions, and extreme droughts and floods, and the general trend of land cover caused by the agricultural land use, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River over the past two millennia. We also discussed the general relationships between the above changes and the sedimentation, breaches, and avulsions in the lower Yellow River from a historical perspective. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) During the past two millennia, multi-scale periodic fluctuations of temperature and dry/wet conditions were significant in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, but the dry/wet changes in the middle and the lower reaches were not completely synchronized. Frequencies of extreme droughts and floods varied in different time periods. (2) As early as in the late Western Han Dynasty, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River had already been developed into an agricultural area with a spatial range similar to today’s, where, especially on relative flat terrains, only limited natural vegetation remained. Since then, the intensity of reclamation showed an increasing trend in general, although it fluctuated greatly over time. (3) The changes of climate and land cover had influenced the water-sediment balance, channel sedimentation, and riverbed stability in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and driven, as an important trigger, the repeated diking-sedimentation-suspended river-burst and avulsion cycle in the lower Yellow River during the historical period. These understandings can provide historical backgrounds for further revealing the characteristics of environmental change in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and their impacts on the security of the lower Yellow River region.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Spatial distribution and temporal changes of facility agriculture on the Tibetan Plateau
    Hui WEI, Changhe LV, Yaqun LIU, Kaijie YANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (6): 1093-1101.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.08
    Abstract593)   HTML14)    PDF (15723KB)(562)      

    During the past decade, the rapid growth of facility agriculture has been a new highlight of agricultural development in the Tibetan Plateau. Revealing the spatial distribution and change characteristics of facility agriculture is helpful for understanding its development trend and can provide supports for its planning and spatial layout on the plateau. Based on the high-resolution imagery data of Google Earth in 2018, this study obtained and revealed the spatial distribution of facility agriculture on the plateau by visual interpretation combined with geostatistical analysis. Further, the spatiotemporal changes of facility agriculture in Xining and Lhasa Cities were analyzed based on high-resolution images of 2008 and 2018. The results show that: (1) In 2018, the total area of facility agriculture on the Tibetan Plateau was 7821.74 hm2, mainly distributed at the periphery of cities in river basins, roughly in line with the rivers. Of the total facility agriculture lands, 58.10% was distributed in Qinghai Province and 36.49% in Tibet Autonomous Region; (2) Facility agriculture showed a significant altitudinal differentiation under the influence of topographic factors. The land was distributed between 1400 m and 4600 m, mostly concentrated in two elevation zones of 2200~2600 m and 3600~3700 m; (3) Facility agriculture grew rapidly in Xining and Lhasa Cities from 2008 to 2018, with the area increased from 293.73 hm2 and 429.01 hm2 to 2111.45 hm2 and 1422.30 hm2, respectively. At the same time, more than 60% of facility agriculture lands in the urban areas was occupied by built-up land, resulting in significant changes in the spatial pattern; (4) There is a good prospect for the development of facility agriculture in the region because of strongly anticipated growing demands for vegetables and melons driven by the rapid urbanization and tourism development. To that end, a general planning for facility agricultural development is needed in order to avoid the lands being frequently changed and resulting in wasteful use, improve the situation of highly depending on single type of greenhouses, and avoid possible ecological problems such as plastic pollution.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Spatiotemporal change and driving factors of comprehensive energy efficiency in the Yellow River Basin
    GUAN Wei, XU Shuting, GUO Xiuyao
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 150-158.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.15
    Abstract756)   HTML278)    PDF (3986KB)(389)      

    The Yellow River Basin is an important energy base in China. The comprehensive energy efficiency of the Yellow River basin directly affects the ecological protection and high-quality development of the region. Using the super efficiency slack based measure (SBM) model to measure the comprehensive energy efficiency of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in the Yellow River Basin from 1997 to 2017, the nuclear density estimation method was selected to analyze the temporal and spatial change characteristics of comprehensive energy efficiency, and the driving factors of comprehensive energy efficiency were analyzed with the help of the geographical detector. The results show that: (1) From 1997 to 2017, the comprehensive energy efficiency of the Yellow River Basin showed a U-shaped trend of high-low-high. The comprehensive energy efficiency of the Yellow River Basin decreased from 1997 to 2003, decreased in 2009 after rapid growth from 2004 to 2010, and increased in 2015 after continuous decline from 2011 to 2017. (2) Spatially, the comprehensive energy efficiency of the western provinces of the Yellow River Basin is relatively low, and the comprehensive energy efficiency of the central provinces is greatly affected by multiple factors, while the comprehensive energy efficiency of the eastern province Shandong is significantly higher. The comprehensive energy efficiencies of the eastern, central, and western provinces and the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin have all changed from spatially unbalanced to balanced. (3) With regard to the driving factors, the explanation power of factors is in the order of financial decentralization, urbanization level, human capital level, and the degree of opening to the outside world. Expansion of local financial expenditure, acceleration of urbanization, upgrading of talent structure, and improvement of opening-up in the Yellow River Basin jointly drive the improvement of comprehensive energy efficiency. Give full play to the comparative advantages of the Yellow River Basin, and strengthen collaboration within the basin under various policies for promoting the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    High-quality development level and its spatiotemporal changes in the Yellow River Basin
    XU Hui, SHI Nuo, WU Lingling, ZHANG Dawei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 115-126.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.12
    Abstract1335)   HTML206)    PDF (4213KB)(465)      

    To promote the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, it is necessary to construct an evaluation index system for a scientific assessment of such development. Based on the two areas of economic and social development and ecological security, and considering five dimensions of economic development, innovation, improvement of people’s livelihood, environmental conditions, and ecological conditions, this study constructed a high-quality development evaluation index system for the Yellow River Basin. Using the data of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in the Yellow River Basin during 2008-2017, the entropy weight method was used in calculation. The results are as follows: The high-quality development level of the Yellow River Basin basically showed the spatial distribution of “high on both sides and low in the central area,” but the gap was decreasing year by year; The high-quality development level in each province (autonomous region) remained stable in 2008-2010, and continued to grow in 2011-2017, with a high growth rate in 2016; The overall high-quality development level of the basin showed an upward trend, with small fluctuations during 2008-2010 and a significantly increase from 2011. Over the last decade, all five dimensions improved. Accordingly, the study put forward specific suggestions and the directions for further research: (1) Strengthen regional linkages and expand the overall opening-up level of the Yellow River Basin. (2) On the basis of protecting the ecological environment, the provinces (autonomous regions) in western China should develop characteristic industries, combining with their factor endowments. (3) Shandong and Henan Provinces should strengthen the protection of the ecological environment while developing the economy. Shanxi and Gansu Provinces should improve people’s living standards urgently. Qinghai Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region need to increase investments in innovation and improve innovation capacity. Finally,the study proposed the further research directions.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Change and adjustment direction of China’s rare earth policy
    ZHOU Meijing, HUANG Jianbai, SHAO Liuguo, YANG Danhui
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (8): 1527-1539.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.08.08
    Abstract242)   HTML0)    PDF (11321KB)(283)      

    This study examined the evolution process of China’s rare earth policy, analyzed the drivers and mechanism of change, and identified the direction of future policy optimization and adjustment accordingly. Based on the key policies, China’s rare earth policy development can be divided into four stages: (1) encouraging the export of rare earth and standardizing mining procedures (1985-2004); (2) implementing export quantity management and enhancing export pricing power (2005-2010); (3) improving industrial rule and order and adjusting organizational structures (2011-2014); and (4) industrial supply-side structural reform (2015-present). Next, this study used the pressure-state-response (PSR) model to analyze the drivers of policy change, and used the causal feedback diagram in system dynamics to describe the policy change mechanism. The results indicate that the drivers of China’s rare earth policy change mainly include the force of industrial supply-side problems, the constraints of national macro-policy adjustments, and the promotion of the global development trend. Generally speaking, the formulation of China’s rare earth policy to some extent lagged behind developments in the industry, was passive in nature, and lacked clear policy objectives, and its driving mechanism was mainly manifested as a forced mechanism and a restraint mechanism. Finally, this study constructed the PSR model of China’s rare earth policy in the new era, pointing out that under the dual pressures in China and internationally, the rare earth industry faces challenges such as mismatch between supply and demand, insufficient downstream application level, imperfect environmental taxation system, and endangered global competitiveness. In the future, a two-way problem-oriented and goal-oriented mechanism should be formed, and response policies should be optimized and adjusted from four aspects: optimizing resource development strategy, stimulating enterprises’ enthusiasm for research and development, improving the environmental taxation system, and formulating global resource strategic layout and industrial governance based on the characteristics of light and heavy rare earth.

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    Effects of age on farmers’ adoption of intertemporal green agricultural technology
    ZHANG Tongchao, YAN Tingwu, QIU Tongwei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (6): 1123-1134.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.06.10
    Abstract270)   HTML4)    PDF (3715KB)(299)      

    Based on the intertemporal technical attributes, this study systematically explored the influence of age on farmers’ adoption of intertemporal green agricultural technology, and conducted an empirical test by employing the survey data of 1,372 farmers in Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, and Hubei Provinces and using a mediating effect model. The results show that, first, the effect of age on farmers’ adoption of intertemporal green agricultural technology is inverted U-shaped. Second, human capital and risk preference are two important mediating variables for the influence of age, whose mediating effects explain 71.94% of the effect of age. Third, information and scale of land parcels play an important role in promoting the younger farmers’ adoption of intertemporal green agricultural technology, while economic value cognition, poverty, water supply, subsidies, and punishment policies have a positive impact on the adoption of intertemporal green agricultural technology by older farmers. Social capital has a negative impact on the adoption of green technology of young farmers, but it is beneficial for old farmers to take action. In the long run, speeding up the cultivation of new professional farmers, improving the new agricultural management system, and further developing the agricultural insurance system are important ways and necessary guarantee for the adoption of intertemporal green agricultural technology.

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    Spatial distribution and dynamic change of water use efficiency in the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Huajun, QIAO Liecheng, SUN Shuhui
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 57-68.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.06
    Abstract902)   HTML211)    PDF (6532KB)(334)      

    Improving water use efficiency is the key measure to realize the sustainable development of water resources. It is of great significance to explore the spatial pattern and dynamic change of water use efficiency in order to promote the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. In this study, we built a global Minimum Distance to Strong Efficient Frontier (MinDS model) based on unexpected output to accurately measure the water use efficiency of the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2017. The spatial pattern of water use efficiency of the Yellow River Basin was comprehensively depicted from the perspective of national, regional, and intraregional comparisons. The change of distribution dynamics of water use efficiency was investigated by an extended distribution dynamic model. The results show that the water use efficiency of the Yellow River Basin is higher than the average level in China. The water use efficiency of the lower reaches is higher than that of the upper reaches. A spatial pattern of “high in the east and low in the west” is very clear. The polarization of water use efficiency in the Yellow River Basin is obvious in some years. Spatial factors can significantly affect the regional distribution of water use efficiency. The interaction of water use efficiency in adjacent areas leads to the gradual narrowing of water use efficiency gap in the Yellow River Basin in the long term. And water use efficiency converges to the middle level.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Verification and comparison of three high-resolution surface evapotranspiration products in North China
    HE Shaoyang, TIAN Jing, ZHANG Yongqiang
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 2035-2046.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.19
    Abstract275)   HTML6)    PDF (14387KB)(265)      

    The North China Plain is a critical agricultural region in China and one of the most severe water deficient areas in the world. Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest component of water resource consumption, therefore obtaining accurate ET data is an important basis for water resource management on the North China Plain. In this study, accuracy verification and spatiotemporal comparison of three global high-resolution ET products were conducted in North China in order to provide a reference for the selection of a high-resolution ET data product that is more suitable for the North China Plain and can better serve the purpose of water resource research and management. Through the comparison with the eddy correlation measurement, the research showed that the PML_V2 product had the highest accuracy in North China, followed by SSEBop_V4 and MOD16A2, with correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.74, and 0.52, respectively. The root mean square errors were 0.87, 1.52, and 1.44 (mm/d), respectively. PML_V2 showed the highest consistency with the fluctuation trend observed at the site. The correlation between the estimated and observed ET of the three products in the growing season of wheat was higher than that of maize. SSEBop_V4 ET and PML_V2 ET estimates had the highest correlation with the observed ET in wheat season and maize season, respectively. Comparatively, PML_V2 and SSEBop_V4 are more similar in spatial distribution, with the highest correlation coefficient of 0.76. The spatial distribution of MOD16A2 is very different from that of the other two products. The biggest difference of the three products appears in the cultivated land area. In 2003-2018, MOD16A2 showed a clear trend of increase for three land use types, while SSEBop_V4 and PML_V2 showed no obvious change.

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    Spatial evolution of specialized villages and influencing factors in the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Chenguang
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2300-2313.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.04
    Abstract140)   HTML9)    PDF (15830KB)(257)      

    The Yellow River Basin is an important core area of grain production in China and an important area to win the battle against poverty. Exploring the general pattern of the distribution and evolution of the specialized villages in the area is of great significance for the high-quality economic development of the region. Taking the specialized villages in the Yellow River Basin as the research object and using ArcGIS spatial analysis and Geodetector tools, this study comprehensively analyzed the spatial pattern evolution and influencing factors from 2008 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The concentration of the overall spatial distribution is increasing, and the concentrated distribution area is in the Guanzhong Plain and the lower Yellow River Basin; (2) The spatial pattern at the county level has changed from bands to clusters. The cluster-like agglomeration forms include suburban agglomeration, township agglomeration, and rural hinterland agglomeration; (3) Specialized villages are mainly distributed in low-altitude areas, areas with gentle slopes, along rivers, and along highways, with rapid growth; (4) The influencing factors of specialized village distribution in the Yellow River Basin are mainly in the technological, institutional, cultural, and market dimensions, and the core impact factors of spatial distribution vary in different regions. Therefore, it is recommended that underdeveloped regions, on the basis of fully exploiting their own advantages, should improve infrastructure, introduce advanced technology, and strive to produce high quality agricultural products. The developed regions should make full use of advanced technologies, well-developed management systems, and innovative culture to promote and lead the sustainable and healthy development of specialized villages.

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    Dynamics and sustainability of social-ecological systems in the Loess Plateau
    WANG Shuai, FU Bojie, WU Xutong, WANG Yaping
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 96-103.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.10
    Abstract652)   HTML180)    PDF (2056KB)(352)      

    Driven by global environmental changes and human activities, the dynamic changes of social systems and ecological systems are increasing. Revealing the interaction mechanisms of this coupled system is the scientific basis for maintaining and enhancing resilience and sustainability. The Loess Plateau (LP) is one of the regions under great pressure from population, resources, and environment in China. It is also an important water and sediment source area of the Yellow River. Rational land use and the coordination of soil and water conservation with water resources use and sediment control are the main requirements of watershed management and regional sustainable development in the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Based on the frontier research of coupled social-ecological system (SES) and the national needs for sustainable development and ecological construction, feedback mechanisms for regional social and ecological systems and coupled SES simulation are the key issues of research. Social-ecological system research in the Loess Plateau needs to illustrate the dynamics and mechanisms of SES evolution, develop methods for analyzing system dynamics and identifying regime shifts, and develop land-use optimization models for sustainable development in the LP, which are useful for the development of theories of SES and practices of sustainable development of the Loess Plateau.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Regional correlation degree derived from the sand-fixing service spatial flow: A case study of the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm control engineering area
    ZHANG Biao, WANG Shuang, LI Qingxu, XIE Gaodi
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (5): 969-979.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.05.14
    Abstract374)   HTML4)    PDF (10988KB)(257)      

    Ecosystem service spatial flow is the delivery of an ecosystem service to people or the movement of material and people. Its assessment elucidates the dominant contributors of ecosystem services and their spatial relationships. In this study, we defined a concept of regional correlation degree as the flow quantity of ecosystem services from a supply area to a demand area, which can be used as an important reference for regional ecological compensation. Based on the characteristics of wind direction and spatial location in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm control engineering area, this study developed a regional correlation model with the provision degree and influencing degree of sand-fixing services. Subsequently, we estimated the sand-fixing services in the sandstorm control engineering area in 2015 by the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ), and analyzed the ecological links between different administrative districts of the sandstorm control engineering area and Beijing Municipality. The results indicate that the regional correlation degrees of sand-fixing services ranged from 0 to 13.43%. Chicheng County in Zhangjiakou City presented the highest correlation degree with Beijing, and the high correlation zones of sand-fixing services were Sunnitezuo Banner, Xuanhua District, Huaian County, Xiahuayuan District, and Suniteyou Banner. However, Wengniute Banner, Chengde County, Ningcheng County, Jixian County, and Yangyuan County showed the lowest ecological links with Beijing in sand-fixing services. The regional correlation of sand-fixing services was generally high in the west and low in the east. This phenomenon mainly can be attributed to the predominant wind direction in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm control engineering area, and the spatial heterogeneities of sand-fixing services. Additionally, the social and economic development levels in different districts presented negative correlation with the correlation degree of sand-fixing services. This result implies that the regions of higher correlation degree of sand-fixing services with Beijing were suffering from more severe poverty. Therefore, we concluded that Beijing should pay more ecological compensation to those counties with high correlation degrees in sand-fixing services to ensure the sustainable provision of sand-fixing services.

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    Construction of a comprehensive observation platform for natural resource elements based on Internet of Things and Open Data Processing Service technologies
    SUN Yi, FANG Mengyang, HE Jianning, LIU Jiufen, ZHANG Siyuan, YANG Wantao, GAO Tiansheng
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1965-1974.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.13
    Abstract193)   HTML4)    PDF (11325KB)(238)      

    The characteristics of the comprehensive observation data of natural resource elements are multiple sources, complex types and huge data volume. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive observation platform for natural resource elements (COPN) for the unified management and utilization of data. This article builds a comprehensive observation platform for natural resource elements (COPN) based on Internet of Things (IoT) and Open Data Processing Service (ODPS) technology, it mainly includes three modules: a natural resource element data center, an Internet of Things center, and a model cloud center. The platform enables the processes of data transmission, processing, and analysis from sensors to model clouds. The COPN serves the integrated management of natural resources across China and provides decision support for macro-control. The platform designed in this study will explore the design of various natural resource element related models and modularize them for scientific research and practical applications.

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    Surface runoff changes and their causes in the Russian pan-Arctic Region
    WANG Guan, CHEN Hanru, WANG Ping, WANG Tianye, YU Jingjie, LIU Changming, YANG Linsheng
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (2): 346-357.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.13
    Abstract456)   HTML16)    PDF (11111KB)(276)      

    Using the surface runoff data from the Global Runoff Data Base (GRDB) and the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (ArcticGRO), this study analyzed the surface runoff variation characteristics of the six major river basins in the pan-Arctic region of Russia since 1930, and summarized the impacts of climate change and human activities on the surface runoff. The results provide a theoretical basis to further the scientific understanding of the runoff changes in the Arctic region of Russia under the background of climate change and increasing human activities, and for the rational development and utilization of water resources in the region. The results show that the annual runoff of the Severnaja Dvina, Pechora, Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Kolyma Rivers increased at a rate of 1.53 m 3/s, 7.27 m 3/s, 15.37 m 3/s, 19.59 m 3/s, 38.41 m 3/s, and 21.15 m 3/s, respectively. The seasonal distribution characteristics of runoff are characterized by a decrease in flood peak flow during spring and summer, and an increase in runoff during winter. Seasonal distribution of surface runoff tended to be more even during the year. The change in annual runoff is mainly affected by climate change. In contrast, human activities have little effect on annual runoff in most areas. The two dominant factors, climate change and human activities, jointly drive the change in the annual distribution of runoff. Annual runoff of these rivers has increased as a result of global warming, while the annual distribution of runoff tends to be uniform under the combined effects of climate change and human activities.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Impact of strategic and critical metals trade network characteristics on the upgrading of industrial structures
    ZHU Xuehong, PENG Ting, CHEN Jinyu
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (8): 1489-1503.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.08.05
    Abstract213)   HTML3)    PDF (11422KB)(229)      

    In order to investigate the impact of strategic and critical metals trade network characteristics on the upgrading of industrial structures, we quantitatively characterized the topological characteristics of the network based on complex network analysis methods, using the trade data of the seven strategic and critical metals from 1996 to 2017. This study measured the degree of centrality from five dimensions: in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and eigenvector centrality. We deciphered the roles and positions of countries in the trade network. Based on these, this study further constructed a panel regression model to examine how the characteristics of strategic and critical metals trade network impact the industrial structure upgrading. The research results show that: (1) The global strategic and critical metals trade network is loose and heterogeneous during 1996-2017 and shows the characteristics of a “small world”. (2) Individually, China, the United States, and Germany were important participants in global strategic and critical metals trade, occupying a central position in the trade network. (3) Further research found that closeness centrality and betweenness centrality showed a significant effect on promoting the upgrading of a country’s industrial structure. This effect was more prominent in low-income countries. But the influence of in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, and eigenvector centrality were not obvious. China should adopt a more open trade policy and enhance its position in the division of labor in the global value chain to promote the optimization and upgrading of its industrial structure.

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    Spatiotemporal variations of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2019
    YE Hong, YI Guihua, ZHANG Tingbin, ZHOU Xiaobing, LI Jingji, BIE Xiaojuan, SHEN Yilin, YANG Zhenglan
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2434-2450.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.14
    Abstract230)   HTML7)    PDF (17129KB)(226)      

    Snow cover, as the most important component of the cryosphere, affects the atmospheric circulation and regional water balance, and is very sensitive to climate change. Using 8-day snow cover data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer/Terra (MODIS/Terra) from 2000 to 2019, the interannual, annual, and seasonal spatiotemporal characteristics of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its variation trends were discussed. The results show that: (1) In recent 20 years, the snow cover in the QTP consisted largely of short-term snow. The spatial distribution of snow cover with one month or shorter duration was the widest, accounting for 72.91% of the total snow-covered area. The longer the snow duration, the higher the snow cover ratio (SCR). The multi-year mean SCR in the mountains surrounding the QTP was high, while the SCR was low in the Qiangtang Plateau, the source region of the rivers, and the Qaidam-Huanghuang high-medium basin, among others. (2) Snow cover area showed repeated fluctuating increase and then decrease with a relative change rate of -15.97%~11.52% during 2000-2019 in the QTP. Snow cover ratio in most areas of the Hengduan Mountains, the Pamirs Plateau, and the Qiangtang Plateau showed an obvious decreasing trend. In the areas surrounding the QTP with high mountains and extremely high mountains of huge difference in relief, hilly mountain plain in the source area of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and high mountain areas of medium or great difference in relief of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, a significant increasing trend of SCR in recent 20 years was observed. (3) The snow-covered area showed a bimodal cyclical trend annually, reaching the peak in March and November and the lowest in August, which was in contrary to the periodic change of air temperature, precipitation, and other climate factors in this region. The widest spatial distribution of snow cover was in the winter, followed by the autumn and the spring, and the smallest was in the summer. In recent 20 years, the snow cover increased significantly in the winter in eastern and southern QTP, and decreased significantly in the autumn and the spring. The snow cover decreased in the summer in the whole QTP. (4) The correlations between snow cover and air temperature and precipitation were strong. Snow cover had a negative correlation with air temperature and a positive correlation with precipitation. The results of the study are useful for understanding the situation of ice and snow melting water change and are indicative of the regional water balance and climate change of the QTP.

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    Precipitation observation network and its data application in the alpine region of Qilian Mountains
    HAN Chuntan, WANG Lei, CHEN Rensheng, LIU Zhangwen, LIU Junfeng, YANG Yong, LV Hanqin
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1987-1997.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.15
    Abstract251)   HTML4)    PDF (11322KB)(224)      

    Precipitation is the fundamental replenishment source of surface and groundwater resources, which directly affects the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the distribution and development of mountainous cryosphere. The alpine region of the Qilian Mountains is an area of large amounts of precipitation and runoff. The characteristics of precipitation are greatly affected by topography. However, the existing precipitation observation network cannot reasonably reflect the changes of precipitation on the vertical topographic gradient. To determine how the spatial and temporal change of precipitation affects the hydrological and ecological processes of the alpine mountains, it is necessary to observe the changes of precipitation pattern and type from the vertical gradient of the catchment. This article summarized the gridded, stepped, and automated precipitation observation network in the alpine region of the Qilian Mountains. The network is formed by the Geonor T-200BM3 weighing-type all weather precipitation gauges. A precipitation calibration system is also built in the Aug-one Glacier periglacial area, which is based on the Double Fenced Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In the Aug-one Glacier region, a preliminary analysis of precipitation datasets was conducted, and the applicability of GPM and TRMM precipitation datasets in the Qilian Mountains was evaluated using observational data. The development of this network is important for an in-depth understanding of the changes of rain, snow, and water vapor at different elevations, and minute division of the evaluation of precipitation resources in the alpine mountains. This network provides methods and data products for the comprehensive observation and evaluation of precipitation resources across China.

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    Development efficiency of tourism and influencing factors in China’s prefectural-level administrative units
    JI Xiaomeng, QIN Weishan, LI Shitai, LIU Xiaomei, WANG Qiuxian
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 185-196.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.15
    Abstract144)   HTML3)    PDF (11949KB)(223)      

    The development efficiency of tourism is an important indicator of the input-output status of tourism in a region. This study used the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and data from 329 prefectural-level administrative regions of China to comprehensively measure the development efficiency of tourism in 2018. Spatial autocorrelation, Getis-Ord Gi*, and geographical detector were used to explore the spatial pattern and influencing factors of tourism development efficiency. The main conclusions include: (1) Areas with high level, medium-high level, medium level, medium-low level, and low level of comprehensive tourism development efficiency accounted for 16.11%, 17.93%, 27.96%, 26.75%, and 11.25% of the evaluated administrative units respectively. There were clear regional differences in pure technical efficiency, and the high level areas were mainly distributed in the junction of the terrain ladders, the Yangtze River Delta city group, and the Pearl River Delta city group. In terms of scale efficiency, the division was roughly along the “Hu Line”, higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest. (2) The efficiency of tourism development showed spatial autocorrelation, characterized by “large agglomeration and small dispersion” on the whole. Cold and hot spots showed obvious spatial clustering characteristics hot in the south and cold in the north with southwest, South, and East China showing high value clustering, and North, Northeast, and northwest China showing low value clustering. According to the development level and spatial characteristics, tourism development efficiency can be divided into four types: radiation-driven, edge-dependent, overall promotion, and optimized promotion. (3) The efficiency of tourism development is affected by multiple factors, among which tourism service level, tourism development quality, and tourism resource endowments are the leading factors for the spatial differentiation of tourism development efficiency. Promoting tourism development and improving tourism service level and tourism resource use conversion rate are important ways to improve the efficiency of tourism development. By analyzing the spatial pattern and influencing factors of the tourism development efficiency of Chinese prefectural-level administrative units, we hoped to provide a decision-making basis and theoretical support for exploring the effective ways of improving the quality and efficiency of tourism, transforming and upgrading the tourism industry, and increasing the investment and utilization level of tourism development resources.

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    Stationary and systematic characteristics of land use and land cover change in the national central cities of China using intensity analysis: A case study of Wuhan City
    YANG Jianxin, GONG Jian, GAO Jing, YE Qin
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (4): 701-716.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.08
    Abstract335)   HTML7)    PDF (13896KB)(535)      
    We revised the intensity analysis framework proposed by Aldwaik and then applied it to examine the temporal stationary and systematic characteristics of land use and land cover change (LULCC) patterns in the national central cities of China. This hierarchical framework analyzes LULCC at three levels: time interval, category, and transition, based on land use change confusion matrices. Given the inconvenience of transition level intensity analysis in presenting the detailed pattern of LULCC across multiple time intervals, we put forward a new method termed as land transition pattern confusion table to systematically show all the land conversion processes in one figure so as to help link LULCC process to pattern and clarify their driving mechanisms from a bottom-up perspective. Taking Wuhan City as a case study area, this article analyzes the stationary and systematic characteristics of LULCC patterns from 1996 to 2015 with the improved framework. Also, LULCC patterns in other national central cities in recent years were investigated. The results show that the overall LULCC intensity in Wuhan City increased in recent years. The influx of rural residential land, urban construction land, and farmland intensified. The efflux of farmland, water, and unused land grew as well. Notably, the transition from farmland to urban construction land and to rural residential land is characterized by a stable and systematic change pattern. The LULCC patterns and processes in different national central cities show great similarity. This improved intensity analysis framework can be more intuitive in reflecting the stationary and systemic characteristics of LULCC pattern. The research results can play an important role in illustrating LULCC patterns in the national central cities and facilitate linking processes and mechanisms to these observed patterns.
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    Spatiotemporal change of coastal blue carbon and its service value evaluation:A case study of Jiaozhou Bay
    SUI Yuzheng, CHEN Xiaoxuan, LI Shujuan, SUN Dapeng, MA Xinning, ZHOU Tao
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (11): 2119-2130.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.14
    Abstract360)   HTML18)    PDF (7947KB)(323)      

    Coastal blue carbon is a carbon pool similar to marine blue carbon and terrestrial green carbon, which has huge carbon sink potential and it is of important practical significance to study its carbon sequestration capacity. In this study, remote sensing data of the Jiaozhou Bay in 1997, 2007, and 2017 ,were used for interpretation and acquisition of coastal wetland data in the Jiaozhou Bay area by ArcGIS,.Based on the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs(InVEST) model, this study evaluated the change of spatial and temporal patterns of blue carbon distribution and its service value in the Jiaozhou Bay coastal zone. The results show that: (1) In terms of time: the total blue carbon in 1997-2007 and 2007-2017 was 3.49 × 10 8 and 2.32 × 10 8 tons respectively, showing a decreasing trend. (2) Spatially, from 1997 to 2007, the maximum blue carbon was mainly distributed in the sub-tidal zone and the areas of reed, suaeda salsa, spartina and aquaculture ponds in Hetao, Shangma, Jiuhongtan, Jiulong Street, and in the areas of aquaculture ponds and reeds in Jiulong, Liuting, Jinghongtan and Shangma Street from 2007 to 2017. (3) The total value of blue carbon in the Jiaozhou Bay in recent 20 years is 8522.13×10 8 CNY, it is urgent to protect the coastal blue carbon ecosystem because of its huge carbon sink potential.

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    Unified management of natural resources: a new era, new characteristics, and new trend
    Xianjin HUANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.01
    Abstract1043)   HTML33)    PDF (6409KB)(709)      

    Both the development goal of beautiful China and the national strategy of ecological civilization construction put forward a higher requirement for the management of natural resources in the new era. It is an inevitable requirement for the harmonious coexistence between human beings and nature to unify management of natural resources. In addition, it is a basic character for the sustainable development of mankind. This study has revealed basic characteristics and significance of natural resources based on integrality, region, systematisms, and property. We also summarize the strategies, foundation, and applications of natural resources science and technology support in the new era of land maintenance. Through the accumulation of relevant study, we further explore the new trend of scientific and technological support for the unified management of natural resources in three aspects: the revelation of the overall characteristics, the recognition of systematic laws, and the discovery of correlation relations.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Spatial variability of causative factors of heat islands from the perspective of metropolitan functional blocks
    WU Rongrong, XIE Miaomiao, LIU Qi, LI Hanting, GUO Qiang, LI Xinyu
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2463-2474.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.16
    Abstract144)   HTML1)    PDF (10380KB)(219)      

    In previous urban heat island (UHI) studies, factor interaction and spatial heterogeneity analysis are generally lacking in the exploration of causative factors, which results in difficulties and ineffectiveness in the implementation of UHI effect mitigation strategy. To address this problem, our study used the functional blocks of human activity as study unit based on point-of-interest data, and applied Geodetector to analyze the relationship between the interaction of various causative factors and surface temperature. The metropolitan area of Beijing was taken as the study area. The results show that the influencing degree of individual factors on land surface temperature as well as that of interacting factors varies significantly among the 14 types of functional blocks. Individual factor detection shows that the contribution of vegetation cover is as high as 72.3% in the whole area, while the degree of influence in different functional blocks differs. Population and economic development level are more prominent in functional blocks with frequent human activities. Factor interaction detection shows that the effect of interactive factors can explain much greater amount of the variance of temperature than that of individual factors. The interaction of vegetation and population has the most significant influence on the variation of temperature in the study area. In the commercial activity-related blocks and the public administration-related blocks, the dominant interactive influence is from vegetation and population. But in the industrial-related blocks, the dominant interactive influence is from impervious surface and economic development level, and impervious surface and vegetation. There is a significant nonlinear enhancement effect in 50 % of all blocks. It is also identified that the administration and public services and commercial mixed blocks and commercial blocks are the areas with the highest risk of high temperature in the city. The Geodetector model using functional blocks performed better than the global model at the municipal level, which can better quantify the influence of various factors on the surface temperature in different spatial locations. This study can provide some reference for alleviating the urban heat island effect for different areas within a metropolitan.

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    Evolution of urban mineral resources research based on knowledge maps
    WEI Wei, LI Jinkai, GUO Chonghui
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (3): 489-500.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.06
    Abstract111)   HTML0)    PDF (21456KB)(217)      

    Urban mineral resources are an inevitable product of industrialization and urbanization process, which has significant ecological and economic values. Scientific and comprehensive research on urban mineral resources is conducive to their sustainable development and use. This study combined scientometrics with text mining methods, and took 4351 Chinese publications on urban mineral resources from 1988 t`o 2018 as the research object to quantitatively analyze the dynamic change of relevant research in this field over the period and future development. The results show that (1) The development of urban mineral resources research in China is in a bottleneck period and there are five main research teams in the field, mainly conducting theoretical research. Among these five teams, Zhai Xin and Zhou Yongsheng’s teams begin earlier in this field in 2010-2014, Zhao Yuzhu and Li Jinhui’s teams are more prominent in 2015-2016, and Wang Chang’s team becomes more prominent in 2017-2018. (2) “Mineral Resources”(1995), “Sustainable Development”(2002), “Mining Cities”(2004), “Resource-Based Cities”(2005) and “Recycling Economy”(2007) play an important role of transition in the formation of “urban mineral resources”(2010), which is related to the deepening of people’s understanding of urban mineral resources. (3) The research hotspots in this field are distinctive and clearly influenced by government policies in different time period, and incorporating social concerns is the future development trend. (4) Policy tools and technological advancement and innovation are the important topics for future research in this field. The analysis of change of urban mineral resources research based on literature mining can help researchers and decision makers to quickly understand and grasp the current status and trend of the research, and provide an important reference for the in-depth research and decision-making of urban mineral resource development.

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    Potential ecological suitability evaluation of urban construction land: A case study in Baoshan District, Shanghai
    HE Zongfei, YU Jia, CHEN Yun, WEN Jiahong, YIN Zhan’e
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (3): 558-569.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.03.14
    Abstract365)   HTML12)    PDF (11720KB)(258)      

    Traditional ecological suitability evaluation methods based on current land use status have their limitation in supporting development decision for urban construction land in rapid urban-expansion regions. This article first proposed the concept and method of potential ecological suitability evaluation of urban construction land. The method highlights the predicted future urban land-use distribution that is regarded as an important factor in the ecological suitability evaluation framework, and generates the evaluation result that is suitable for future planning and decision making of urban construction land. This study took Baoshan District, Shanghai Municipality, China as the study area and presented the spatial distribution of ecological suitability of urban construction land in 2050 under the background of urban expansion. The result was compared with the traditional ecological suitability evaluation results. The comparison revealed that potential ecological suitability evaluation can effectively reduce the high overlaps of the lands unsuitable or moderately unsuitable to be developed and the future urban buildup areas (reducing the overlap from 9.74% and 22.7% to 0.0% and 14.5%). It can match the urban development boundary planning and ecological space planning better and highlights the key protected ecological regions in future development. The case study proved the soundness and effectiveness of the new evaluation method, which can provide better decision supporting for ecological urban planning under the background of urban expansion.

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    Mechanism and typical patterns of rural ecological industrialization in the Loess Hilly-Gully region of China
    ZHANG Xuanchang, LIU Yansui, LI Yurui, GUO Yuanzhi, CAO Zhi
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (7): 1275-1284.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.05
    Abstract200)   HTML11)    PDF (3359KB)(227)      

    Rural ecological industrialization is an important approach to promote the healthy interaction of ecological construction and industrial development, which could advance the sustainable development of regional rural systems in the new era. China’ Loess Hilly-Gully region is a typical geomorphic unit of the Loess Plateau locating in the middle reaches of the Yellow river, regional eco-environment was fragile and conflict of the rural human-land relationship was prominent. The Grain-for-Green Project significantly improved the ecological functions, but rural issues were still prominent, including weak agricultural foundation, the increase of water-soil constrains, and relatively low production efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent to promote ecological industrialization for improving rural production and living functions. From the perspective of ecological resource value proliferation, this study analyzed the mechanism of rural ecological industrialization in the Loess Hilly-Gully region. Meanwhile, the typical patterns and its sustainable approaches were explored according to the existing practices after the Gully Land Consolidation Project in Yan’an City. The results indicate that: (1) Rural ecological industrialization should be based on regional rural system, and follow the law of evolution, the mechanism of system coupling, and the principle of value transformation. The key processes are as follows: cultivation of ecological resources by geographical engineering, asset management of ecological resources by establishing ecological property rights system, capitalization of ecological assets through asset circulation, stakeholder development and industrial integration, and the marketization of ecological products and services through improving the ecological market trading mechanism. (2) Some villages in Yan’an City realized ecological resources cultivation relying on the Gully Land Consolidation Project, explored the path of resources translating to assets, then turning to capitals and finally converting to funds. Three typical patterns of ecological industrialization have gradually formed: efficient planting-breeding, leisure agriculture, and integration of multiple factors. (3) In the future, weaknesses in the industrialization process could be overcome by geographical engineering effect maintenance, property rights system development, rural talents cultivation, social forces participation, and dynamic evaluation mechanism development. The above approaches would effectively advance the organic integration of rural production, living, and ecological functions, and achieve the aims of rural revitalization of thriving businesses, pleasant living environments, and prosperity.

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    Retrieval of daily net surface shortwave radiation climatic resources based on machine learning
    YING Wangmin, LIU Xiaojie, FANG Shifeng, LI Xiujuan, LAI Ming, ZHANG Xuzhen, WU Hua
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1998-2009.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.16
    Abstract152)   HTML2)    PDF (14056KB)(213)      

    Daily net surface shortwave radiation (DNSSR) is one of the most important parameters in various global land process and hydrological models and is required in climate change, energy balance, ecological, and atmospheric circulation research. This study constructed a daily net surface shortwave radiation model using the random forest (RF) method and MODIS twin-satellite products. 15531 pairs of samples containing 18 independent variables were extracted by matching MODIS twin-satellite products and FLUXNET daily observations. The Bias, RMSE (root mean square error), and R2 for the proposed DNSSR model using the RF method are -0.1W/m2, 27.8 W/m2, and 0.90, respectively. Based on the process, MODIS-DNSSR global distribution in different seasons were presented. Verification with field observations shows that the results are similar to the ERA5 reanalysis data, which are closely related to the seasonal distribution of solar energy. To further verify the results, ERA5-DNSSR were compared with the FLUXNET-DNSSR. The result shows that the proposed DNSSR model has also better accuracy and higher resolution than the ERA5 data. The RF-based DNSSR model has a good retrieval accuracy, high spatial resolution, and good temporal continuity. It can be effectively transplanted to the retrieval of other climatic resources.

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    Spatiotemporal differentiation and influencing factors of the coupling and coordinated development of new urbanization and ecological environment in the Yellow River Basin
    ZHAO Jianji, LIU Yan, ZHU Yakun, QIN Shengli, WANG Yanhua, MIAO Changhong
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 159-171.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.16
    Abstract1052)   HTML213)    PDF (9139KB)(328)      

    Taking the Yellow River Basin as an example, in this study the coupling and coordinated development of new urbanization and ecological environment was examined, and the spatiotemporal differentiation and synchronous development state of the coupling and coordination from 2005 to 2016 were measured. Based on the Tobit model of random effect, the influencing factors of the coupling of new urbanization and ecological environment in the Yellow River Basin were explained. The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Index values of the new urbanization and ecological environment subsystems and the coupling and coordination degree of the Yellow River Basin were rising first and then declining. (2) The average coupling degree of new urbanization and ecological environment was between 0.34~0.70, which was in the stage of moderate development. The average coordination degree of new urbanization and ecological environment in the Yellow River Basin was between 0.20~0.60, which was in the stage of low coordination and moderate coordination; (3) More than 78% of the cities in the Yellow River Basin lagged behin in ecological environment protection and the pressure of ecological environment are prominent under the background of rapid urbanization. (4) The level of economic development, capacity of the governments, and investment in science and technology have a positive impact on the degree of coupling and coordination; the degree of opening and the level of industrialization have different effects on the coupling and coordination of the upper and middle-lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Additional, reducing path dependency has great significance for promoting the coupling of new urbanization and ecological environment. Differentiated strategies should be adopted to promote the coupling development of new urbanization and ecological environment across the Yellow River Basin.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    A theoretical framework and empirical analysis of the formation mechanism of green agricultural industry cluster:A case study of the Shouguang vegetable industry cluster in Shandong Province
    YANG Yang, LI Erling
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 69-81.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.06
    Abstract145)   HTML6)    PDF (11046KB)(202)      

    Global agricultural development shows the trend of greening and spatial concentration. Developing green agriculture industrial cluster is a natural way to combine green development and spatial aggregation. Based on the relevant theory of agriculture industrial cluster, this study constructed an analytical framework of the formation mechanism of green agriculture industrial clusters, and took a representative green agricultural cluster in China Shandong Shouguang Vegetable Industry Cluster as an example, to analyze the formation process and conditions of green agriculture industrial cluster from the perspective of green network formation and organization. The results show that: (1) At the level of micro subjects, various agricultural subjects undergo green transformation under the role of green innovation and environmental regulation, forming green production subjects, green management subjects, green service subjects and green regulatory subjects; (2) At the level of meso network, green subjects interconnect under the role of knowledge spillover and specialized division of labor, forming green organizational network; (3) At the level of macro environment, green development environment is formed under the thrust of institutional innovation and scientific and technological innovation, binding force of environmental regulation and the pull of supportive policies and intermediary services. (4) The formation mechanism of green agro-industrial clusters is the flow and synergy of green innovation and environmental regulation in the value chain network, i.e., the normative green development environment and standardized agricultural production technology prompt the green transformation of the subjects within the cluster, and then the green agro-industrial clusters are formed by the green network organized by the specialized division of labor of green subjects under the external economic effect. The formation of green agro-industrial cluster is the greening of the whole industry chain within the cluster, the greening and synergy of green innovation and environmental regulation for each link, each behavior and each subject in the three levels.

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    Nexus between low-carbon energy and critical metals: Literature review and implications
    WANG Peng, WANG Qiaochu, HAN Ruru, TANG Linbin, LIU Yu, CAI Wenjia, CHEN Weiqiang
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 669-681.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.03
    Abstract203)   HTML10)    PDF (2948KB)(196)      

    There is a close interdependence between critical metals and low-carbon energy technologies. To improve the understanding of this relationship, this study made a comprehensive literature review (including about 200 papers published since 2000) to explore the objects, methods, and progress related to the research of the metal-energy nexus. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) The low-carbon energy transition has driven the rapid growth of the production and trade of critical metals, and led to serious environmental pollution and the intensified competitions globally; (2) The global low-carbon energy transition could be constrained by the potential supply risks of critical metals caused by insufficient reserves, fragile trade networks, unequal geographical distribution, and high environmental pollution; (3) China, as a major producer and consumer of various critical metals, has borne the huge resource and environmental costs to support the global low-carbon energy transition, and its supply risks of critical metals are also high to support domestic needs. Under the target of “carbon peak” and “carbon neutrality”, we highlight that higher attentions are needed from researchers and policymakers in China on the research of the metals-energy nexus, coordinated management of critical metals and low-carbon energy, assessment of the potential critical metals constraint on low-carbon energy transition, and the emerging geopolitical risks concerning critical metals.

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