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    Change and adjustment direction of China’s rare earth policy
    ZHOU Meijing, HUANG Jianbai, SHAO Liuguo, YANG Danhui
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (8): 1527-1539.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.08.08
    Abstract242)   HTML0)    PDF (11321KB)(283)      

    This study examined the evolution process of China’s rare earth policy, analyzed the drivers and mechanism of change, and identified the direction of future policy optimization and adjustment accordingly. Based on the key policies, China’s rare earth policy development can be divided into four stages: (1) encouraging the export of rare earth and standardizing mining procedures (1985-2004); (2) implementing export quantity management and enhancing export pricing power (2005-2010); (3) improving industrial rule and order and adjusting organizational structures (2011-2014); and (4) industrial supply-side structural reform (2015-present). Next, this study used the pressure-state-response (PSR) model to analyze the drivers of policy change, and used the causal feedback diagram in system dynamics to describe the policy change mechanism. The results indicate that the drivers of China’s rare earth policy change mainly include the force of industrial supply-side problems, the constraints of national macro-policy adjustments, and the promotion of the global development trend. Generally speaking, the formulation of China’s rare earth policy to some extent lagged behind developments in the industry, was passive in nature, and lacked clear policy objectives, and its driving mechanism was mainly manifested as a forced mechanism and a restraint mechanism. Finally, this study constructed the PSR model of China’s rare earth policy in the new era, pointing out that under the dual pressures in China and internationally, the rare earth industry faces challenges such as mismatch between supply and demand, insufficient downstream application level, imperfect environmental taxation system, and endangered global competitiveness. In the future, a two-way problem-oriented and goal-oriented mechanism should be formed, and response policies should be optimized and adjusted from four aspects: optimizing resource development strategy, stimulating enterprises’ enthusiasm for research and development, improving the environmental taxation system, and formulating global resource strategic layout and industrial governance based on the characteristics of light and heavy rare earth.

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    Construction of a comprehensive observation platform for natural resource elements based on Internet of Things and Open Data Processing Service technologies
    SUN Yi, FANG Mengyang, HE Jianning, LIU Jiufen, ZHANG Siyuan, YANG Wantao, GAO Tiansheng
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1965-1974.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.13
    Abstract193)   HTML4)    PDF (11325KB)(238)      

    The characteristics of the comprehensive observation data of natural resource elements are multiple sources, complex types and huge data volume. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive observation platform for natural resource elements (COPN) for the unified management and utilization of data. This article builds a comprehensive observation platform for natural resource elements (COPN) based on Internet of Things (IoT) and Open Data Processing Service (ODPS) technology, it mainly includes three modules: a natural resource element data center, an Internet of Things center, and a model cloud center. The platform enables the processes of data transmission, processing, and analysis from sensors to model clouds. The COPN serves the integrated management of natural resources across China and provides decision support for macro-control. The platform designed in this study will explore the design of various natural resource element related models and modularize them for scientific research and practical applications.

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    Spatiotemporal variations of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2019
    YE Hong, YI Guihua, ZHANG Tingbin, ZHOU Xiaobing, LI Jingji, BIE Xiaojuan, SHEN Yilin, YANG Zhenglan
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2434-2450.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.14
    Abstract230)   HTML7)    PDF (17129KB)(226)      

    Snow cover, as the most important component of the cryosphere, affects the atmospheric circulation and regional water balance, and is very sensitive to climate change. Using 8-day snow cover data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer/Terra (MODIS/Terra) from 2000 to 2019, the interannual, annual, and seasonal spatiotemporal characteristics of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its variation trends were discussed. The results show that: (1) In recent 20 years, the snow cover in the QTP consisted largely of short-term snow. The spatial distribution of snow cover with one month or shorter duration was the widest, accounting for 72.91% of the total snow-covered area. The longer the snow duration, the higher the snow cover ratio (SCR). The multi-year mean SCR in the mountains surrounding the QTP was high, while the SCR was low in the Qiangtang Plateau, the source region of the rivers, and the Qaidam-Huanghuang high-medium basin, among others. (2) Snow cover area showed repeated fluctuating increase and then decrease with a relative change rate of -15.97%~11.52% during 2000-2019 in the QTP. Snow cover ratio in most areas of the Hengduan Mountains, the Pamirs Plateau, and the Qiangtang Plateau showed an obvious decreasing trend. In the areas surrounding the QTP with high mountains and extremely high mountains of huge difference in relief, hilly mountain plain in the source area of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and high mountain areas of medium or great difference in relief of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, a significant increasing trend of SCR in recent 20 years was observed. (3) The snow-covered area showed a bimodal cyclical trend annually, reaching the peak in March and November and the lowest in August, which was in contrary to the periodic change of air temperature, precipitation, and other climate factors in this region. The widest spatial distribution of snow cover was in the winter, followed by the autumn and the spring, and the smallest was in the summer. In recent 20 years, the snow cover increased significantly in the winter in eastern and southern QTP, and decreased significantly in the autumn and the spring. The snow cover decreased in the summer in the whole QTP. (4) The correlations between snow cover and air temperature and precipitation were strong. Snow cover had a negative correlation with air temperature and a positive correlation with precipitation. The results of the study are useful for understanding the situation of ice and snow melting water change and are indicative of the regional water balance and climate change of the QTP.

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    Retrieval of daily net surface shortwave radiation climatic resources based on machine learning
    YING Wangmin, LIU Xiaojie, FANG Shifeng, LI Xiujuan, LAI Ming, ZHANG Xuzhen, WU Hua
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1998-2009.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.16
    Abstract152)   HTML2)    PDF (14056KB)(213)      

    Daily net surface shortwave radiation (DNSSR) is one of the most important parameters in various global land process and hydrological models and is required in climate change, energy balance, ecological, and atmospheric circulation research. This study constructed a daily net surface shortwave radiation model using the random forest (RF) method and MODIS twin-satellite products. 15531 pairs of samples containing 18 independent variables were extracted by matching MODIS twin-satellite products and FLUXNET daily observations. The Bias, RMSE (root mean square error), and R2 for the proposed DNSSR model using the RF method are -0.1W/m2, 27.8 W/m2, and 0.90, respectively. Based on the process, MODIS-DNSSR global distribution in different seasons were presented. Verification with field observations shows that the results are similar to the ERA5 reanalysis data, which are closely related to the seasonal distribution of solar energy. To further verify the results, ERA5-DNSSR were compared with the FLUXNET-DNSSR. The result shows that the proposed DNSSR model has also better accuracy and higher resolution than the ERA5 data. The RF-based DNSSR model has a good retrieval accuracy, high spatial resolution, and good temporal continuity. It can be effectively transplanted to the retrieval of other climatic resources.

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    Operation and maintenance and data quality control of the Heihe integrated observatory network
    XU Ziwei, LIU Shaomin, CHE Tao, ZHANG Yang, REN Zhiguo, WU Adan, TAN Junlei, ZHU Zhongli, XU Tongren, MA Tao
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1975-1986.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.14
    Abstract135)   HTML1)    PDF (15511KB)(193)      

    Distributed observatory network connects global and regional field sites, which is one of the prerequisites in earth surface processes observation. It is a priori to keep proper operation and maintenance, and perform strict data quality control for obtaining high-quality observation data. The current study took the Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest endorheic basin in China, as an example to introduce the research progress of the site maintenance and data quality control of the Heihe integrated observatory networks. The introduction of the operation and maintenance procedure covers daily, 10-day, monthly, and annual time intervals; while the data quality control process consists of instrument comparison and calibration, data processing, screening and checking, among others. Taking three superstations as an example, the observation data in 2018 are presented. Finally, the achievements of the Heihe integrated observatory network are introduced. The results can serve as a reference for the field observation and data quality control of the endorheic basins along the “Silk Road Economic Belt”.

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    Impact of strategic and critical metals trade network characteristics on the upgrading of industrial structures
    ZHU Xuehong, PENG Ting, CHEN Jinyu
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (8): 1489-1503.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.08.05
    Abstract213)   HTML3)    PDF (11422KB)(229)      

    In order to investigate the impact of strategic and critical metals trade network characteristics on the upgrading of industrial structures, we quantitatively characterized the topological characteristics of the network based on complex network analysis methods, using the trade data of the seven strategic and critical metals from 1996 to 2017. This study measured the degree of centrality from five dimensions: in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and eigenvector centrality. We deciphered the roles and positions of countries in the trade network. Based on these, this study further constructed a panel regression model to examine how the characteristics of strategic and critical metals trade network impact the industrial structure upgrading. The research results show that: (1) The global strategic and critical metals trade network is loose and heterogeneous during 1996-2017 and shows the characteristics of a “small world”. (2) Individually, China, the United States, and Germany were important participants in global strategic and critical metals trade, occupying a central position in the trade network. (3) Further research found that closeness centrality and betweenness centrality showed a significant effect on promoting the upgrading of a country’s industrial structure. This effect was more prominent in low-income countries. But the influence of in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, and eigenvector centrality were not obvious. China should adopt a more open trade policy and enhance its position in the division of labor in the global value chain to promote the optimization and upgrading of its industrial structure.

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    Precipitation observation network and its data application in the alpine region of Qilian Mountains
    HAN Chuntan, WANG Lei, CHEN Rensheng, LIU Zhangwen, LIU Junfeng, YANG Yong, LV Hanqin
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1987-1997.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.15
    Abstract251)   HTML4)    PDF (11322KB)(224)      

    Precipitation is the fundamental replenishment source of surface and groundwater resources, which directly affects the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the distribution and development of mountainous cryosphere. The alpine region of the Qilian Mountains is an area of large amounts of precipitation and runoff. The characteristics of precipitation are greatly affected by topography. However, the existing precipitation observation network cannot reasonably reflect the changes of precipitation on the vertical topographic gradient. To determine how the spatial and temporal change of precipitation affects the hydrological and ecological processes of the alpine mountains, it is necessary to observe the changes of precipitation pattern and type from the vertical gradient of the catchment. This article summarized the gridded, stepped, and automated precipitation observation network in the alpine region of the Qilian Mountains. The network is formed by the Geonor T-200BM3 weighing-type all weather precipitation gauges. A precipitation calibration system is also built in the Aug-one Glacier periglacial area, which is based on the Double Fenced Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In the Aug-one Glacier region, a preliminary analysis of precipitation datasets was conducted, and the applicability of GPM and TRMM precipitation datasets in the Qilian Mountains was evaluated using observational data. The development of this network is important for an in-depth understanding of the changes of rain, snow, and water vapor at different elevations, and minute division of the evaluation of precipitation resources in the alpine mountains. This network provides methods and data products for the comprehensive observation and evaluation of precipitation resources across China.

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    The logics, paths, and effects of public participation in environmental management
    GUO Jin, XU Yingzhi
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (7): 1372-1383.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.13
    Abstract213)   HTML9)    PDF (3258KB)(214)      

    As an essential stakeholder of environmental resource, the public has become the third force that assists in promoting environmental governance together with local governments and polluting enterprises. Considering the advantages of public participation in solving the problem of information asymmetry and improving the supervisory role of public opinion, this study expounded the theoretical logics and paths of exercising public participation in environmental management. Then, we divided public participation into complaints that focus on back-end management and suggestions that focus on front-end management, and constructed an inter-provincial balance panel data set of China from 2011 to 2015 to evaluate the effect of public participation in environmental management. The results indicated that: (1) In the ternary environmental management system consisting of local governments, enterprises, and the public, on the one hand, public participation relied on government environmental enforcement to force polluting enterprises to internalize external costs, and thus indirectly take part in local environmental management. On the other hand, its deterrent effect on polluting enterprises could also produce similar effect as government environmental enforcement, to promote environmental management directly. (2) The two types of public participation showed heterogeneous environmental management effects. Public participation’s effect in promoting environmental management was mainly reflected in complaints as a representative of back-end management, while the effect of suggestions as a representative of front-end management did not pass the significance test. (3) Public participation’s effect in promoting environmental management was further enhanced after adopting instrumental variables to alleviate the endogeneity problem. This study also found that residents’ average education level had a significant positive effect on public participation. At last, some suggestions were offered to expand the level of public participation in environmental management.

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    Nexus between low-carbon energy and critical metals: Literature review and implications
    WANG Peng, WANG Qiaochu, HAN Ruru, TANG Linbin, LIU Yu, CAI Wenjia, CHEN Weiqiang
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 669-681.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.03
    Abstract203)   HTML10)    PDF (2948KB)(196)      

    There is a close interdependence between critical metals and low-carbon energy technologies. To improve the understanding of this relationship, this study made a comprehensive literature review (including about 200 papers published since 2000) to explore the objects, methods, and progress related to the research of the metal-energy nexus. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) The low-carbon energy transition has driven the rapid growth of the production and trade of critical metals, and led to serious environmental pollution and the intensified competitions globally; (2) The global low-carbon energy transition could be constrained by the potential supply risks of critical metals caused by insufficient reserves, fragile trade networks, unequal geographical distribution, and high environmental pollution; (3) China, as a major producer and consumer of various critical metals, has borne the huge resource and environmental costs to support the global low-carbon energy transition, and its supply risks of critical metals are also high to support domestic needs. Under the target of “carbon peak” and “carbon neutrality”, we highlight that higher attentions are needed from researchers and policymakers in China on the research of the metals-energy nexus, coordinated management of critical metals and low-carbon energy, assessment of the potential critical metals constraint on low-carbon energy transition, and the emerging geopolitical risks concerning critical metals.

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    Decoupling Analysis of China’s Resource Consumption and Economic Growth over the Period 1998-2008
    LU Zhongwu, WANG Heming, YUE Qiang
      
    Abstract104)      PDF (4356KB)(160)      
    Decoupling resource consumption from economic growth is an effective way of fundamentally improving environmental quality. Material flow analysis (MFA) has emerged as an important approach to quantifying and monitoring human use of natural resources. In this study, we compiled the amount of China’s domestic material consumption (DMC) for the resources of biomass, metal ores, non-metal ores and fossil fuels over the period 1998-2008 using the method of MFA. Then, we applied the decoupling indicator for resource consumption ( Dr) and decoupling chart to the decoupling analysis of China’s resource consumption and GDP in the study period. Conclusions drawn from the analyses are as follows. With respect to China’s total resource consumption, only in year 2000 when absolute decoupling happened, in years 2003 and 2006, non-decoupling happened. In the other 7 years, relative decoupling happened. In terms of resource groups, biomass had relative higher decoupling indicators with the average value of 0.9, which is quite close to the critical value of absolute decoupling (1.0). In years 2000, 2001, and 2003 absolute decoupling happened for biomass, and in the other 7 years relative decoupling happened. Metal ores had the lowest decoupling indicators. Only over the period 1999-2001, relative decoupling was achieved for metal ores, and in the other 7 years no decoupling occurred. A volatile fluctuation was observed for the decoupling indicators of non-metal ores, for which absolute decoupling took place in 2000, and relative decoupling happened in years 1999, 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2008. For fossil fuels, relative decoupling was achieved in most years of the observation period, except for 2003-2005, in which no decoupling was achieved. During the study period, biomass had much higher decoupling indicators than metal ores, non-metal ores, and fossil fuels. The key reason for this phenomenon is that China was in the process of industrialization, particularly in the process of heavy industrialization, which caused rapid growth of infrastructure construction and consumed vast amount of basic materials. Therefore, when making decoupling policies, we should pay more attention to resources of metal ores, non-metal ores, and fossil fuels with lower decoupling indicators, rather than biomass with higher decoupling indicators. In addition, to restrain irrationally increasing total resource consumption, an effective means would be matching the indicators of GDP growth ( g) and the decreasing rate of resource consumption per unit of GDP ( t) appropriately according to the formula of Dr when designing economic and environmental plans.
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    Cited: Baidu(11) CSCD(17)
    Plastic resources metabolism in China based on material flow analysis
    LUAN Xiaoyu, LIU Wei, CUI Zhaojie, LIU Yeye, CHEN Yuedong, LU Sheng, WANG Yubiao
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (2): 372-382.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.15
    Abstract577)   HTML177)    PDF (9605KB)(753)      

    With the rapid growth of the production and consumption of plastics, the waste and pollution of plastics become increasingly more serious. It is important to study the metabolic process of plastic resources to save the resources and protect the environment. Based on the material flow analysis method, a material flow analysis dynamic model of plastics was constructed in this study to analyze the life-cycle metabolic process of plastics from production, use, to waste from 1949 to 2018 in China. The flows and stocks of PE, PP, PS, PVC, ABS, PET and other plastic in 11 application areas were calculated, and the key points of resources waste of different kinds of plastics were analyzed. The results show that: (1) From 1949 to 2018, the consumption of plastics was 2205.6 million tons, and the output of waste plastics was 1404.8 million tons, of which 30.0% was recycled, 14.0% was incinerated, 36.0% was into landfill, and 20.0% was directly lost into the environment without treatment; (2) The in-use stocks of plastics were 630.0 million tons, and the loss stocks of plastics were 870.2 million tons, of which 66.7% were in landfill and 33.3% were carelessly discarded in the environment; (3) In 2018, the consumption of plastics was 193.1 million tons, and the output of waste plastics was 140.5 million tons, of which 32.0% was recycled, 26.0% was incinerated, 35.4% was into landfill, and 6.6% was directly lost into the environment. The study found that: The scale of plastic metabolism was large in China, and disposable plastic products had a great influence on plastic metabolism. Waste plastic was the key point of the resource loss, so the recycling of waste plastics was necessary. It was important to control the pollution of waste plastics that had entered the environment. Therefore in the future, research should focus on the risk and pollution mechanism of plastic waste scattered in the environment and improving the utilization efficiency of recycling and reusing of plastic waste, so as to reduce the loss of plastic resources and decrease the environmental pollution.

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    Spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape ecological risks on the Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Jie, BAI Wanqi, TIAN Guohang
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (9): 1739-1749.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.09.09
    Abstract172)   HTML5)    PDF (15019KB)(191)      

    Using the land cover data of the Tibetan Plateau in 1992, 2001, 2008, and 2015 and ArcGIS 10.5 and Fragstats 4.2 software, this research built an ecological risk index based on landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability, and used geo-statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods to conduct an ecological risk assessment for the Tibetan Plateau, then analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape ecological risks. It provides a scientific basis for the prevention of land use ecological risks of the Tibetan Plateau. The results show that: (1) The distribution of landscape ecological risks on the Tibetan Plateau has an spatial aggregation effect. On the whole, the risk in the northwest is high, while it is low in the southeast. The spatial distribution of landscape ecological risks is closely related to the natural terrain of the Tibetan Plateau, which is mainly affected by the geographical conditions. (2) From 1992 to 2015, the landscape ecological risks of the Tibetan Plateau showed a downward trend, which is mainly manifested in the reduction of the high and the medium-high risk areas, and the expansion of the low and the medium-low risk areas. The main reason for this change is the influence of the warming and wetting process of the Tibetan Plateau and ecological construction on the land cover structure since the 1990s. (3) There are significant differences in the distribution and characteristics of landscape ecological risk change on the Tibetan Plateau. The regions with higher landscape ecological risk values mainly exist in the marginal areas where different terrains meet. Forest land has the highest proportion of low ecological risk areas, while barren land, glacier, and snow cover have the highest proportion of high ecological risk areas. The declining rate of barren land with high ecological risk grade was the highest, followed by grassland, which reflect that the change of barren land and grassland had the most significant impact on the landscape ecological risks of the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Discussion on the indicator system of comprehensive observation of natural resource elements
    ZHANG He, WANG Shaoqiang, WANG Liang, CHENG Shubo, JIANG Zhenglong, ZHANG Zifan
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (10): 1883-1899.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.10.06
    Abstract260)   HTML3)    PDF (10601KB)(136)      

    In order to achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources, long-term, stable, and continuous comprehensive observations are necessary for acquiring basic resource data and information on resource types, quantity, quality, and processes of interactions. It is necessary to construct an indicator system of the comprehensive observation of natural resources. However, due to the lack of a unified indicator system of natural resources observation in China, there exist big gaps in observation and management between different regions, which make it difficult to standardize the management and improve the utilization of natural resources on a national scale. Hence, a scientific, systematic, and normative indicator system of comprehensive observations, which can be applied on a national scale in China, is urgently needed. Based on the primary issues to be addressed and with reference to the existing indicator systems in China and internationally, the authors summarized the basic principles of establishing the indicator system and the selection of indicators. On the basis of the classification of natural resource elements, the authors established a comprehensive observation indicator system that consists of 36 classification modules, 6 comprehensive observation subsystems, and several functional modules, by a combination of forward and inverse inference methods, modularization, and other construction methods. Through the establishment of a multidimensional comprehensive observation network across the atmosphere-surface-subsurface levels and the individual-landscape-regional scales, the data of natural resource elements can be obtained and the management, evaluation, and utilization of natural resources can be achieved.

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    Impacts of reclaimed water recharge to a river channel on ambient water bodies: A case study of the Chaobai River in Beijing
    JIANG Ruixue, HAN Dongmei, SONG Xianfang, YANG Lihu, LI Binghua
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2419-2433.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.13
    Abstract136)   HTML5)    PDF (12205KB)(116)      

    Reclaimed water is used primarily for replenishing rivers and lakes in Beijing, but the impact of reclaimed water on ambient water environment has also been a concern. This research monitored the water quality of the reclaimed water, surface water, and shallow groundwater in the Chaobai River in Beijing from 2015 to 2017. This study used mathematical statistics and hydrochemical analysis to investigate the characteristics of the ambient water bodies under long-term reclaimed water recharge to the river. The results show that the total nitrogen in surface water exceeded the quality standard at all monitoring points because the reclaimed water had a high nutrient content. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased and the pH value increased along the river, which was more significant in the summer. This is related to photosynthesis and denitrification. The surrounding shallow groundwater level showed seasonal variation only. The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater was mainly HCO3·Cl-Na·Ca type, which was similar to the reclaimed water. But the main ion concentrations in different water bodies were different due to cation exchange and absorption during the infiltration process and mixing. The maximum distance of the reclaimed water impact on shallow groundwater quality was about 425 m away from the center of the river course. Of the 140 water samples, 120 met the class Ⅱ to IV groundwater quality standard, and the groundwater quality tended to get better along the groundwater flow direction. The ammonia nitrogen concentration of 19 water samples exceeded the quality standard. It mainly occurred near the Henan Village dam. Nitrogen might have come from soil nitrogen, irrigation, and fertilization input in the surrounding agricultural and forestry lands. This study provided important references for improving the water quality of the ambient water bodies in the Chaobai River and increasing the utilization of reclaimed water.

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    Abstract158)      PDF (413KB)(100)      
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    The spatial network structure of energy-environmental efficiency and its determinants in China
    Jie HUANG
    Resources Science    2018, 40 (4): 759-772.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2018.04.10
    Abstract204)   HTML2)    PDF (887KB)(617)      

    Improving energy-environmental efficiency is not only an objective requirement of ecological civilization construction in China, but also an inevitable choice in sustainable economic and social development. In order to measure the energy-environmental efficiency of 30 provinces in China, we used the non-radial, non-angle, dual-oriented DEA window model on the basis of interprovincial panel data from 1995 to 2015. In addition, using the VAR Granger causality test method we identified the spatial association of energy-environmental efficiency in China. Through the use of Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods we revealed the characteristics of the spatial correlation network and its determinants of interprovincial energy-environmental efficiency in China. The results show that there exists a significant and complex spatial network structure in China’s interprovincial energy-environmental efficiency. In the blocks of the spatial association network of energy-environmental efficiency, eastern provinces are mainly located in the “net spillover block”, playing the role of “engine” in the process of improving China’s energy-environmental efficiency. Most of the eastern provinces are in a central location, while western provinces are mainly in the “net benefit block” which lies at an edge position of the spatial correlation network of energy-efficiency. Thus, differences in economic development level, energy consumption structure, industrial structure, environmental regulation and technological innovation were significantly correlated with the spatial correlation network of energy and environmental efficiency. In the meantime, similar economic performance level, industrial structure and technical competence contribute to interprovincial spatial networks of energy-environmental efficiency in China. The spatial correlation network structure of energy-environmental efficiency poses serious challenges to the formulation and implementation of energy efficiency policy, but also creates favorable conditions for the implementation of regional coordinated development and construction of synergy promotion mechanisms of inter-regional energy-environmental efficiency.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    Simulating China's carbon emission peak path under different scenarios based on RICE-LEAP model
    HONG Jingke, LI Yuanchao, CAI Weiguang
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 639-651.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.01
    Abstract497)   HTML30)    PDF (4170KB)(141)      

    As the world's largest carbon emitter and second largest economy, achieving the carbon emission peak is urgent for China to combat with global climate change. By coupling the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE) and Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, this study established a new energy-economy-environment integrated assessment model covering end-use economic sectors. Under the business-as-usual, carbon-constraint, and supply-side structural reform scenarios, China's carbon emission peak path and global climate change trend from 2020 to 2050 were systematically investigated. The results reveal that: (1) China's energy-related carbon emission trajectory presents an inverted U shape under the three dynamic scenarios. Under the supply-side structural reform scenario, carbon emissions peak earliest, with the lowest carbon emission peak in comparison to other scenarios. (2) China's energy-related carbon emissions mainly concentrate in end-use sectors such as industry and transportation, where carbon emissions contribute approximately 80% in a stable manner during the whole investigated period. In addition, carbon intensity in these carbon-intensive sectors drops relatively slowly. (3) Energy structure becomes more optimized and advanced under the supply-side structural reform scenario, where the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption has increased in all end-use sectors, with natural gas and non-fossil energy dominating in the commerce and service industry and households. Therefore, in order to achieve China's carbon emission peak the soonest, the central government should adopt policy-oriented “dual control” goals for the total energy consumption and energy intensity, and make great efforts to adjust industrial structure and optimize energy structure by taking the supply-side structural reform as the main line.

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    Research hotspots and prospects of homestead withdrawal and reuse
    ZHANG Bailin, ZHANG Fengrong, QU Yanbo, JIANG Guanghui, XIE Zhen, CAI Weimin
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (7): 1277-1292.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.01
    Abstract160)   HTML13)    PDF (8574KB)(99)      

    Exploring the separation of ownership, qualification right, and use right of homestead and promoting the withdrawal and reuse of idle homesteads is an important task for land system reform. In this study, CiteSpace and document analysis method were used for the bibliometric analysis to identify hotspots of homestead withdrawal and reuse research and analyze its progress. The results show that: (1) With the transfer of rural population to urban areas and village hollowing, the willingness and behavior of farmers’ homestead withdrawal became a hot research topic, and relevant studies gradually focus on the relationship between them and satisfaction of farmers in the process; the mechanism and models of withdrawal are the core of homestead withdrawal research. In existing research scholars have constructed the incentive and constraint mechanism of homestead withdrawal and income distribution and guarantee mechanism, and extracted and analyzed the homestead withdrawal models and their applicability in typical areas; the compensation of homestead withdrawal and farmers’ interest after withdrawal have also become the focus of research. (2) Under the background of “Separation of Three Rights”, research on the reuse of homesteads after withdrawal became the key and hotspots of reform of the homestead system, which focuses on the ways of reuse, models, and approaches. The ways of homestead reuse focus on reclamation for farmland and green land, and transfer to other farmers for the same use or as land for new industries and commercial activities; the models of homestead reuse can be divided into development model and organization mode; the approaches of homestead reuse include trading, leasing, equity, and joint operation. (3) In the future, the research of homestead withdrawal and reuse should aim at rural revitalization, focusing on homestead value evaluation, models of reuse, and benefits of reuse, promoting the reform of rural homestead “Separation of Rights”. Future research should also focus on sustainable livelihoods of farmers and rural social sustainability to improve the homestead withdrawal and reuse policy system, and promote land system reform.

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    Changes of climate and land cover in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River over the past 2000 years
    ZHENG Jingyun, WEN Yanjun, FANG Xiuqi
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 3-19.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.01
    Abstract1026)   HTML303)    PDF (8514KB)(512)      

    Based on the research on the changes of climate, disasters, vegetation, and land use in the past 40 years, this study made a comprehensive assessment of the characteristics of changes of temperature, dry/wet conditions, and extreme droughts and floods, and the general trend of land cover caused by the agricultural land use, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River over the past two millennia. We also discussed the general relationships between the above changes and the sedimentation, breaches, and avulsions in the lower Yellow River from a historical perspective. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) During the past two millennia, multi-scale periodic fluctuations of temperature and dry/wet conditions were significant in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, but the dry/wet changes in the middle and the lower reaches were not completely synchronized. Frequencies of extreme droughts and floods varied in different time periods. (2) As early as in the late Western Han Dynasty, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River had already been developed into an agricultural area with a spatial range similar to today’s, where, especially on relative flat terrains, only limited natural vegetation remained. Since then, the intensity of reclamation showed an increasing trend in general, although it fluctuated greatly over time. (3) The changes of climate and land cover had influenced the water-sediment balance, channel sedimentation, and riverbed stability in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and driven, as an important trigger, the repeated diking-sedimentation-suspended river-burst and avulsion cycle in the lower Yellow River during the historical period. These understandings can provide historical backgrounds for further revealing the characteristics of environmental change in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and their impacts on the security of the lower Yellow River region.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Eco-environmental impact and spatial control of mineral resources exploitation in the Yellow River Basin
    MA Li, TIAN Huazheng, KANG Lei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 137-149.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.14
    Abstract1119)   HTML309)    PDF (12850KB)(611)      

    The Yellow River Basin is also known as China’s energy basin. Rational and orderly exploitation of mineral resources and overall coordination of the relationship between mineral resources exploitation and ecological environment protection are of great practical significance for the sustainable development of energy and mineral resources and ecological protection in the region. Taking the Yellow River Basin as the study area, this study comprehensively analyzed the characteristics and spatial distribution of environmental stress of regional mineral resources exploitation using multi-indicator comprehensive evaluation method, stress coupling analysis method, and GIS spatial analysis from the perspectives of ecological background fragility, spatial stress to important ecological function areas, and the degree of stress to important ecological environment factors. The 46 mining cities in the Yellow River Basin were divided into eight types, including background stress areas, ecological function stress areas, development stress areas, background with development stress areas, development with ecological function stress areas, background with ecological function stress areas, comprehensive stress areas, and no stress areas. Finally, the article put forward the control path of mineral resources development areas in the Yellow River Basin in view of ecological environment protection, including: (1) Spatial management and control by strictly restricting large-scale and high-intensity industrialization and urbanization development, especially controlling the development boundary of mining areas. (2) Intensity control for areas with fragile ecological background, the intensity and the overall development scale should be controlled simultaneously. (3) Development mode control to pay attention to the structural adjustment and upgrading of energy and mining industries. It is necessary to focus on spatially concentrated development of mining in places where mining is suitable, of industry where industrial development is suitable, and of cities and towns where urban development is suitable.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    A research on destination image and perceived dimension difference based on big data of tourists’ comments: a case of Nanjing
    Feifei XU, Liqing LA, Feng YE
    Resources Science    2018, 40 (7): 1483-1493.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2018.07.16
    Abstract290)   HTML0)    PDF (5302KB)(341)      

    With the development of web 2.0 technology, internet data has become an important data source for the study of tourism destination image. Taking Nanjing as an example, this paper collected 10077 online reviews about Nanjing from a specialized travel blog site Ma Feng Wo by using the web crawler tool. Through data mining techniques such as word frequency, network semantic analysis, the paper discussed the dimensions of destination perceived image by analyzing TGC (Tourist Generated Comments). First, the results of data analysis show that the importance of dimensions of destination perceived image is different. It is suggested that for the six dimensions of destination perceived image, the tourism attraction is the first level, general infrastructure is the second level, tourist leisure and recreation, tourism environment and atmosphere of the place are the third level, tourist infrastructure is the fourth level. Second, the salient cognitive components in Nanjing's perceived image stem from the dimensions of tourist attractions and public infrastructure. The emotional image of Nanjing is positive. The conative image of Nanjing has been formed and generated the effect of “word of mouth”. In addition, we found that the overall image of Nanjing mainly originated from the perception dimensions of tourism attractions and public infrastructure, which also verified the hierarchy of perception dimensions of destination image. This paper verifies the relevant theories of tourism destination image, enriches the research methods of big data in the field of tourism research, and provides a scientific basis for the construction and development of tourism image in Nanjing.

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    Abstract71)      PDF (301KB)(41)      
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    Cited: CSCD(22)
    Risk assessment and countermeasures of chromiumresource supply in China
    Quanwen LIU, Jinghua SHA, Jingjing YAN, Guofeng ZHANG, Songmei FAN, Gengyu HE
    Resources Science    2018, 40 (3): 516-525.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2018.03.06
    Abstract238)   HTML3)    PDF (4365KB)(680)      

    Chromium is an important raw material in the production of stainless steel. Given China’s scarce mineral resources, the safety of chromium resource supply has a bearing on the steady development of the stainless steel industry. It is essential to determine the main risks and risk levels when assessing current supply risks of chromium resources in China. Here, we selected appropriate indicators from three the aspects of resource, market and politics and collected data on reserves, production, consumption, international trade, price, rate of recovery and World Governance Index from 2000 to 2016. We introduce the pattern of quantitative classified evaluation to assess supply risks using the method of multi index comprehensive evaluation. We found that the supply risks mainly include serious shortage of China’s chromium resources, increasing degree of dependence on foreign trade, low rates of recovery, weak market power, a high import concentration and great geostrategic risk. Enterprises should be promoted to invest and develop overseas resources as a high priority. It is necessary to increase the rate of recovery of chromium waste materials and strengthen the melting technology of stainless steel scraps. The central government should establish a reserve system of chromium resources to stabilize market expectations and improve the support capacity of chromium resources.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Regional disparity and decoupling evolution of China’s carbon emissions by province
    HAN Mengyao, LIU Weidong, XIE Yitian, JIANG Wanbei
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 710-721.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.06
    Abstract208)   HTML10)    PDF (2396KB)(110)      

    The carbon emission reduction target of a country/region depends on the relationship between economic growth and carbon emission decline, and the relative decoupling between carbon emissions and economic development is an essential guarantee to achieve China’s carbon emission targets. Based on the Theil index and Tapio model, this work examined the relationship between China’s carbon emissions and economic development, and analyzed the regional disparity and decoupling evolution of carbon emissions by province during 2005 and 2017. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The carbon emissions and economic development of most regions in China kept increasing, while the carbon emission intensities kept decreasing; (2) Although the regional disparity in the economic development of China’s provinces narrowed, the carbon emission disparity, especially the cross-regional disparity expanded by year; (3) The decoupling status of most provinces changed from expansive negative decoupling, expansive coupling, to weak decoupling, but the decoupling stability of some provinces was relatively low; (4) Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Zhejiang, and Shandong were constantly approaching a strong decoupling status, however, the decoupling status in some other regions still alternated between expansive coupling and expansive negative decoupling. This study would be useful for identifying the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development in different regions and for implementing feasible low-carbon development strategies combined with different carbon emission and economic development levels, which are expected to provide practical implications to achieve the carbon peak and carbon neutral targets.

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    Resources Science    2021, 43 (7): 1275-1276.  
    Abstract111)   HTML28)    PDF (960KB)(65)      
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    Resource endowment, economic foundation, and the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port
    CHENG Yeqing, ZHANG Jinping, CHEN Yan
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 229-240.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.03
    Abstract230)   HTML2)    PDF (4001KB)(59)      

    The construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port is a momentous measure of China’s reform and opening up and a major strategic decision scientifically planned by The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, which has great significance for China’s in-depth reform and innovation, establishing a new high-level open and modern economic system, supporting economic globalization, and building a community with a shared future for mankind. Facing the overall goals and practical needs of the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and from the perspective of comprehensive geographical research based on the policy interpretation and theoretical analysis of the overall plan of the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, this study analyzed the resource endowment, economic foundation, industrial transformation, and the existing problems in the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and discussed the optimal allocation of resources and economic transformation path in response to regional changes, resource constraints, and economic globalization, aiming at providing a scientific basis and practical reference for promoting the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port. The study concluded that: (1) Hainan has superior geographical conditions and abundant natural resources, which can provide resource support for the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, but it faces a number of resource constraints such as poor geographic proximity to major economic centers, insufficient reserve land resources, and shortage of high-end human resources. (2) Since the establishment of Hainan Province and the special economic zone, the economic scale of the region has continued to grow, the industrial structure has been continuously optimized, the level of industrial specialization has been improved, and the supporting capabilities of key industries have been enhanced, but there still exist outstanding problems such as relatively poor quality of economic growth, weak advantages of dominant industries, low degree of industrial specialization, and suboptimal industrial spatial layout. (3) We should pay more attention to the limitation of geographical location, shortcomings of resource and quality of economic growth of Hainan, and strengthen the construction of transport infrastructure and economic cooperation with the Chinese hinterland and the international market, optimize the allocation of natural and social resources, accelerate economic transformation and industrial upgrading, and promote its economic location advantages, resource guarantee capabilities, and economic quality and competitiveness, so as to promote the institutional reform and innovation, the construction of modern industrial systems, and the construction process of the Hainan Free Trade Port effectively and achieve the development goal of a high-level free trade port.

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    Spatiotemporal change of coastal blue carbon and its service value evaluation:A case study of Jiaozhou Bay
    SUI Yuzheng, CHEN Xiaoxuan, LI Shujuan, SUN Dapeng, MA Xinning, ZHOU Tao
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (11): 2119-2130.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.14
    Abstract360)   HTML18)    PDF (7947KB)(323)      

    Coastal blue carbon is a carbon pool similar to marine blue carbon and terrestrial green carbon, which has huge carbon sink potential and it is of important practical significance to study its carbon sequestration capacity. In this study, remote sensing data of the Jiaozhou Bay in 1997, 2007, and 2017 ,were used for interpretation and acquisition of coastal wetland data in the Jiaozhou Bay area by ArcGIS,.Based on the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs(InVEST) model, this study evaluated the change of spatial and temporal patterns of blue carbon distribution and its service value in the Jiaozhou Bay coastal zone. The results show that: (1) In terms of time: the total blue carbon in 1997-2007 and 2007-2017 was 3.49 × 10 8 and 2.32 × 10 8 tons respectively, showing a decreasing trend. (2) Spatially, from 1997 to 2007, the maximum blue carbon was mainly distributed in the sub-tidal zone and the areas of reed, suaeda salsa, spartina and aquaculture ponds in Hetao, Shangma, Jiuhongtan, Jiulong Street, and in the areas of aquaculture ponds and reeds in Jiulong, Liuting, Jinghongtan and Shangma Street from 2007 to 2017. (3) The total value of blue carbon in the Jiaozhou Bay in recent 20 years is 8522.13×10 8 CNY, it is urgent to protect the coastal blue carbon ecosystem because of its huge carbon sink potential.

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    High-quality development level and its spatiotemporal changes in the Yellow River Basin
    XU Hui, SHI Nuo, WU Lingling, ZHANG Dawei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 115-126.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.12
    Abstract1335)   HTML206)    PDF (4213KB)(465)      

    To promote the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, it is necessary to construct an evaluation index system for a scientific assessment of such development. Based on the two areas of economic and social development and ecological security, and considering five dimensions of economic development, innovation, improvement of people’s livelihood, environmental conditions, and ecological conditions, this study constructed a high-quality development evaluation index system for the Yellow River Basin. Using the data of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in the Yellow River Basin during 2008-2017, the entropy weight method was used in calculation. The results are as follows: The high-quality development level of the Yellow River Basin basically showed the spatial distribution of “high on both sides and low in the central area,” but the gap was decreasing year by year; The high-quality development level in each province (autonomous region) remained stable in 2008-2010, and continued to grow in 2011-2017, with a high growth rate in 2016; The overall high-quality development level of the basin showed an upward trend, with small fluctuations during 2008-2010 and a significantly increase from 2011. Over the last decade, all five dimensions improved. Accordingly, the study put forward specific suggestions and the directions for further research: (1) Strengthen regional linkages and expand the overall opening-up level of the Yellow River Basin. (2) On the basis of protecting the ecological environment, the provinces (autonomous regions) in western China should develop characteristic industries, combining with their factor endowments. (3) Shandong and Henan Provinces should strengthen the protection of the ecological environment while developing the economy. Shanxi and Gansu Provinces should improve people’s living standards urgently. Qinghai Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region need to increase investments in innovation and improve innovation capacity. Finally,the study proposed the further research directions.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    On the space-time evolution of carbon emissions and reduction potential in Chinese grain crop fertilizer application
    DENG Mingjun,DENG Junjie,LIU Jiayu
    Resources Science    2016, 38 (3): 534-554.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2016.03.16
    Abstract526)   HTML1)    PDF (2133KB)(156)      

    Researching the carbon emissions trend evolution rule and carbon reduction potential in regional crop fertilizer application is of great significance for formulating reasonable agricultural carbon reduction policy.Based on actual outputs and fertilizer inputs and types for three main grain crops in China we used the carbon emissions coefficient method to estimate and analyze the space-time evolution of carbon efficiency and carbon emissions reduction potential in Chinese grain crop fertilizer consumption from 2005 to 2013. We found that the amount of carbon emissions per unit product in the Jiangsu,Anhui,Ningxia,Gansu and Shanxi maize-growing area,Hubei,Shanxi and Ningxia wheat planting and Liaoning,Shandong,Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shanxi and Hunan rice-growing area decreased significantly. Carbon emissions per unit product in the Heilongjiang,Jilin and Xinjiang maize-growing area,Yunnan and Henan wheat-growing area and Jilin,Guangxi and Yunnan rice-growing area increased. Compared with soil testing and formula fertilization,carbon emissions per unit product were high in 2013 in the Jiangsu,Shanxi,Hubei,Guizhou,Guangxi and Yunnan maize-growing area,Shanxi,Neimenggu,Shanxi,Gansu,Ningxia,Xinjiang,Hebei,Sichuan,Yunnan and Jiangsu wheat-growing area,and Hunan,Jiangsu,Hainan,Anhui,Yunnan,Guangdong and Guangxi rice-growing area. The carbon emission reduction potential of the maize-growing in China is 5.74 million t CE and focuses on Heilongjiang,Liaoning,Jilin,Shandong,Neimenggu,Shanxi,Yunnan,Guizhou and Guangxi. The carbon emission reduction potential of the wheat-growing in China is 4.75 million t CE,focusing on Hebei,Jiangsu,Shandong and Henan. The carbon emission reduction potential of rice-growing in China is 2.06 million t CE,focusing on Hunan,Guangdong,Guangxi,Jiangsu and Jiangxi. Combined with field investigation and analysis we propose potential carbon emission reductions in food crop cultivation through policy incentives and market operations in order to improve the effect of soil testing and fertilizer application technology.

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    Implications of international experiences for the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port
    MENG Guangwen
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 217-228.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.02
    Abstract230)   HTML7)    PDF (1466KB)(61)      

    The planning and development of Hainan pilot free trade zone and Free Trade Port is not only out of the needs of Hainan’s development, but also an important measure and a strategic step for China to deepen reforms, expand opening up, achieve economic transformation, and respond to international competitions and challenges. The current research focuses on the theoretical basis, planning sce-narios, management mode, legal issues, and value and effect of Hainan free trade zone and domestic and international cases, but there is a lack of systematic and in-depth research on the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port. This study examined the types and functions, industrial development, spatial structure, policy and supervision, business environment, and risk prevention of Hainan Free Trade Port in an attempt to spur further debates among the policymakers and aca-demic community. Hainan Free Trade Port should become a pilot zone of the “double circulation” strategy, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and China-EU Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI), a complex and comprehensive free trade zone, which should take shipping logistics and international trade, and tourism and service trade as leading sectors, and research and development, manufacturing, and modern agriculture as auxiliary sectors. It should take the main island as the key platform, the outlying islands as the auxiliary, and various types of parks as the focus of development. On the basis of the management of the island’s customs zone, it should implement the management mode of “zones in free trade port”, and speed up the legislation of the Basic Law of Hainan Free Trade Port, which should be enacted to facilitate the free flow of goods, investments, capital, personnel, and information, and implement low tax policies, simplify the form and content of laws and regulations. In order to achieve sustainable development, Hainan should gradually improve the living environment and enhance the comprehensive transportation level, prevent economic and political risks, establish a coastal defense center and an illegal immigrant deporting center, and limit the development intensity of land and coastal zone and population size and density. This study has both theoretical and practical significance for enriching the academic research on free trade zones and the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port.

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