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    Does the Rocky Desertification Control Project promote county economic development? An empirical analysis based on DID methods using 88 counties' panel data of Guangxi
    Juan PANG, Ruiping RAN
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 196-206.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.18
    Abstract604)   HTML38)    PDF (2976KB)(3558)      

    The Rocky Desertification Control Project (RDCP) has become a major ecological restoration and livelihood project in the karst areas of Southwest China, which could prevent soil erosion, restore ecological environment, promote social and economic development, and improve household's livelihood. The impact of the RDCP is a major issue worthy of attention. This study theoretically analyzed the influencing mechanism of the RDCP on the development of County economic and evaluated the RDCP's economic impact based on panel data collected from 88 counties of Guangxi province from 2006 to 2016, using the Difference-in-Difference (DID) method. We first estimated the average impact of the RDCP on county economic development. Then we evaluated the dynamic impact of the RDCP, using the panel fixed effect model. The results illustrate that RDCP has a sustainably positive and statistically significant impact on the county economic development. Regardless of whether other variables are controlled, the economic development level of the treat group is significantly higher than that of the control group. Furthermore, the longer the RDCP is implemented, the greater the impact is. It means that with the help of various favorable policy measures for the RDCP, the rocky desertification areas can continuously accumulate favorable factors for economic development and form a “cyclical accumulation. ” With conducting the robustness test, we found that the results of the empirical analysis are reliable. The DID method can indeed give a reasonable estimate of the causal effects of the RDCP and county economic development. The results confirm the positive impact of the first phase of RDCP on the economic development. RDCP will have an important policy implication for the second phase of the RDCP and the establishment of relevant policies.

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    Evaluation and spatio-temporal analysis for agricultural water poverty in China
    Hua ZHANG, Lili WANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 75-86.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.08
    Abstract307)   HTML18)    PDF (3293KB)(1256)      

    In this paper, the concept of "agricultural water poverty" is put forward under the guided by the idea of improving the efficiency of water use in agriculture. Based on the conceptual definition and evaluation index system of agricultural water poverty, the POME-two-level fuzzy pattern recognition model was used to evaluate the agricultural water poverty index of 30 provinces (cities) in China from 2000 to 2016 under the common constraints of existing water resource endowment, water supply facilities, water resource use, ecological environment and social economy, education and people's life. Then calculated by Exploratory Time-space Data Analysis (ESTDA) to analysis its dynamic spatial and temporal pattern from the perspective of time and space coupling. The results show that: Although China has a serious problem of agricultural water poverty, the degree of agricultural water poverty in most provinces (cities) is alleviating. The agricultural water poverty of provinces (cities) in most years has a significant spatial negative correlation, and the spatial difference is gradually expanding. Compared with the southwest region, south China and east China have more dynamic local spatial structure. The spatial and temporal dependence is weak in northeast and northwest China. The spatial pattern of agricultural water poverty has strong spatial integration, the provinces (cities) that showed the same trend increased are mainly distributed in East China and South China, and the provinces (cities) that showed the same trend decreased are mainly distributed in the northern regions. The local spatial linkage of agricultural water poverty in provinces (cities) is relatively weak, and the spatial clustering has relatively high path-locking characteristics. In addition, the countermeasures and suggestions for reducing agricultural water poverty are put forward to provide reference for China's agricultural water resources management and sustainable development.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Plastic resources metabolism in China based on material flow analysis
    LUAN Xiaoyu, LIU Wei, CUI Zhaojie, LIU Yeye, CHEN Yuedong, LU Sheng, WANG Yubiao
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (2): 372-382.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.15
    Abstract575)   HTML177)    PDF (9605KB)(728)      

    With the rapid growth of the production and consumption of plastics, the waste and pollution of plastics become increasingly more serious. It is important to study the metabolic process of plastic resources to save the resources and protect the environment. Based on the material flow analysis method, a material flow analysis dynamic model of plastics was constructed in this study to analyze the life-cycle metabolic process of plastics from production, use, to waste from 1949 to 2018 in China. The flows and stocks of PE, PP, PS, PVC, ABS, PET and other plastic in 11 application areas were calculated, and the key points of resources waste of different kinds of plastics were analyzed. The results show that: (1) From 1949 to 2018, the consumption of plastics was 2205.6 million tons, and the output of waste plastics was 1404.8 million tons, of which 30.0% was recycled, 14.0% was incinerated, 36.0% was into landfill, and 20.0% was directly lost into the environment without treatment; (2) The in-use stocks of plastics were 630.0 million tons, and the loss stocks of plastics were 870.2 million tons, of which 66.7% were in landfill and 33.3% were carelessly discarded in the environment; (3) In 2018, the consumption of plastics was 193.1 million tons, and the output of waste plastics was 140.5 million tons, of which 32.0% was recycled, 26.0% was incinerated, 35.4% was into landfill, and 6.6% was directly lost into the environment. The study found that: The scale of plastic metabolism was large in China, and disposable plastic products had a great influence on plastic metabolism. Waste plastic was the key point of the resource loss, so the recycling of waste plastics was necessary. It was important to control the pollution of waste plastics that had entered the environment. Therefore in the future, research should focus on the risk and pollution mechanism of plastic waste scattered in the environment and improving the utilization efficiency of recycling and reusing of plastic waste, so as to reduce the loss of plastic resources and decrease the environmental pollution.

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    Unified management of natural resources: a new era, new characteristics, and new trend
    Xianjin HUANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.01
    Abstract1034)   HTML33)    PDF (6409KB)(703)      

    Both the development goal of beautiful China and the national strategy of ecological civilization construction put forward a higher requirement for the management of natural resources in the new era. It is an inevitable requirement for the harmonious coexistence between human beings and nature to unify management of natural resources. In addition, it is a basic character for the sustainable development of mankind. This study has revealed basic characteristics and significance of natural resources based on integrality, region, systematisms, and property. We also summarize the strategies, foundation, and applications of natural resources science and technology support in the new era of land maintenance. Through the accumulation of relevant study, we further explore the new trend of scientific and technological support for the unified management of natural resources in three aspects: the revelation of the overall characteristics, the recognition of systematic laws, and the discovery of correlation relations.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Influencing factors of farmers’ organic fertilizer application behavior and their stratification based on Logistic-ISM model
    Naijuan HU, Xiaoling SUN, Yating XU, Ziyang ZHOU, Liqun ZHU
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (6): 1120-1130.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.11
    Abstract364)   HTML9)    PDF (3540KB)(686)      

    Organic fertilizer application is beneficial for agricultural green development. However, the rate of application in agricultural production is still very low, especially for rice and wheat production. As rice and wheat are the main crops of agricultural production, it is significance to study farmers’ behavior of organic fertilizer application and the key influencing factors for promoting the application of organic fertilizer in rice and wheat croplands. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire survey of 392 farmers from rice-wheat rotation cropland of Jiangsu Province. We analyzed the influencing factors and their relationships by using a Logistic model and interpretive structural modeling (ISM). The results show that there were eight main influencing factors. Higher educational level, understanding of organic fertilizer, understanding of environmental pollution caused by excessive chemical fertilizer application, consideration of damage to soil when purchasing fertilizer, raising poultry, and guidance of agricultural technology department of the government had positive effects on farmers' organic fertilizer application while higher sensitivity to price of fertilizer and labor saving had a negative effect on organic fertilizer application. By an in-depth analysis, the influencing factors formed a “one path, three driving factors” structure. Based on these results, several suggestions were put forward to promote the application of organic fertilizer.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Study on the transformation of cropland protection under the background of rehabilitation system
    Yuzhe WU, Zhiyi XU
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 9-22.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.02
    Abstract854)   HTML12)    PDF (5635KB)(674)      

    China has implemented the most stringent cropland protection system in the world with remarkable results. On the background of the new era, the government has initiated a implementation plan for the rehabilitating of cultivated land, grassland, rivers and lakes, as well as the protection and improvement of the "trinity" of the quantity, quality, and ecology of cropland. However, the supporting cropland system is obviously lagging, which seriously affects the promotion of cropland protection. This paper analyzes the realistic pulse of the protection system of cropland from the following aspects: the analysis of the rehabilitation concept, the problems such as the inconsistency of basic data in the system of cultivated land protection in China, the unscientific system of occupation and compensation, and the failure to establish a spatial planning system for cultivated land and the evolution of the protection system of international farm land. We also characterize the institutional mechanism of the transformation of cropland protection from four aspects: the temporal and spatial pattern, the quality, the security, and the incentive mechanism of farm land. It is the time-space pattern of “one line, one belt, three districts, and six spaces,” the quality management of refined farmland, the incentive mechanism of cultivated land security protection, ecological compensation, and ecological cultural cognition based on Living Cropland Index. From the forward-looking vision of ecological integration and cultural development, the framework of the ecological pattern of sustainable development of farm land has been constructed. It has a significant reference to improve the current farm land protection system in China, to adapt to the implementation of practical work, and to promote to the overall goal of ecological civilization-oriented cropland protection system in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(11)
    Tourist engagement with a destination: Conceptualization and scale development
    Fuyuan WANG, Chunxiao XU, Kaiyong WANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (3): 441-453.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.03.03
    Abstract311)   HTML4)    PDF (3350KB)(658)      

    In the current destination service network featured by multi-channels and multi-actors, consumer engagement has become the key to understanding and predicting tourist behaviors, which is also regarded as an important marketing tool to gain deeper and more strategic customer relationship for tourist destinations. On the basis of theories of consumer engagement, this study attempted to define the concept of tourist engagement with a destination (TE), identify and test its dimensions and indicators combined with the demand of tourists and destination management practice. The TE scale and hypothesis were tested using 401 valid samples collected at the Phoenix Ancient Town, a famous tourist destination in western Hunan Province, China. The definition of TE and a 25-indicators TE scale including five dimensions (identity, attention, enthusiasm, absorption and social interaction) was developed in this study. The results also show that TE has a direct positive influence on destination loyalty, suggesting its good criterion-related validity. This exploratory study of TE in destination context contributes to the tourism marketing theory by perfecting its concept system. The results also have some practical implications for destination marketing management.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of annual temperature in China's first-level basin
    Bin WANG, Peng LI, Guoce XU, Yuting CHENG, Binhua ZHAO, Fang WEI
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 152-163.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.14
    Abstract265)   HTML6)    PDF (13760KB)(635)      

    Temperature is one of the main factors causing the difference between the natural landscape and the ecological environment. Based on the annual temperature data of 735 meteorological stations during the period from 1951 to 2013 in China's first-level basin, the relative difference method, Hurst index and other methods were employed to identify the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of annual temperature. The results illustrated that the annual temperature in China generally showed a significant upward trend, but the annual temperature in the middle of the Yangtze River region did not change significantly. The whole China, Liao River, Hai River and Huai River, Yellow River, Yangtze River, Southwest River, Southeast River, and Pearl River region all existed the best representative meteorological sites for annual temperature. The best representative meteorological sites were Tieganlike, Zhangwu, Laoting, Heze, Haiyuan, Jinggangshan, Jiacha, Wuyishan, and Liuzhou, respectively. The main period of annual temperature change in first-level basin regions in China is approximately 40~50 years. The last 20~30 years were the warmer period, Hurst index analysis showed that the temperature will continue to rise in future for the most parts of China. The annual temperature and the annual precipitation near the connection of “Harbin-Beijing-Shijiazhuang-Xi'an-Chongqing-Guiyang” exhibited a (highly) significant negative correlation. The connection is close to “Hu Line.” The study of the climate near “Hu Line” is of great significance to the ecological environment protection and the Belt and Road strategy of our country. The Hurst index analysis, Mann-Kendall test, and Morlet wavelet analysis of the annual temperature series demonstrate that the best representative meteorological stations can reflect the regional annual temperature trends and major cyclical changes. The method of estimating the annual average temperature of a region using the annual temperature of a representative meteorological site is meaningful. The method is also of great significance for rapid assessment of regional mean annual precipitation and scaling scales.

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    Eco-environmental impact and spatial control of mineral resources exploitation in the Yellow River Basin
    MA Li, TIAN Huazheng, KANG Lei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 137-149.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.14
    Abstract1096)   HTML309)    PDF (12850KB)(607)      

    The Yellow River Basin is also known as China’s energy basin. Rational and orderly exploitation of mineral resources and overall coordination of the relationship between mineral resources exploitation and ecological environment protection are of great practical significance for the sustainable development of energy and mineral resources and ecological protection in the region. Taking the Yellow River Basin as the study area, this study comprehensively analyzed the characteristics and spatial distribution of environmental stress of regional mineral resources exploitation using multi-indicator comprehensive evaluation method, stress coupling analysis method, and GIS spatial analysis from the perspectives of ecological background fragility, spatial stress to important ecological function areas, and the degree of stress to important ecological environment factors. The 46 mining cities in the Yellow River Basin were divided into eight types, including background stress areas, ecological function stress areas, development stress areas, background with development stress areas, development with ecological function stress areas, background with ecological function stress areas, comprehensive stress areas, and no stress areas. Finally, the article put forward the control path of mineral resources development areas in the Yellow River Basin in view of ecological environment protection, including: (1) Spatial management and control by strictly restricting large-scale and high-intensity industrialization and urbanization development, especially controlling the development boundary of mining areas. (2) Intensity control for areas with fragile ecological background, the intensity and the overall development scale should be controlled simultaneously. (3) Development mode control to pay attention to the structural adjustment and upgrading of energy and mining industries. It is necessary to focus on spatially concentrated development of mining in places where mining is suitable, of industry where industrial development is suitable, and of cities and towns where urban development is suitable.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    New energy technology innovation effect of key industrial policy
    Le XU, Lingdi ZHAO
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 113-131.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.11
    Abstract247)   HTML5)    PDF (7182KB)(565)      

    Could industrial policy successfully induce new energy technology innovation plays an important role in building a clean energy system and a green technology innovation system. It is vital to promote China's industrial energy revolution and green development. Establishing the Quasi-Natural Experiment according to the key industrial policy in national and provincial governments’ “Five-Year Plan” and combining the panel data of new energy patents which is matched to the industrial sectors of use in China during 2006 to 2015, the current study examines the impacts and mechanisms of key industrial policy on new energy technology innovation from the demand side with fixed effect model, difference-in-difference method, and triple difference method. The findings show that the key industrial policy significantly promotes new energy technology innovation. However, the effects of key industrial policies differ significantly from each other due to different governments, implemented regions, and industrial characteristics. In terms of different governments, the key industrial policy that promoted by national government and provincial governments synchronously has a stronger impact on new energy technology innovation. In terms of different regions, the implementation of key industrial policy in the eastern region is better. In terms of different industries, new energy technology innovation in high-tech industries requires a higher quality industrial policy environment. From the perspective of mechanisms, the key industrial policy promotes new energy technology innovation by foreign investment and inhibits new energy technology innovation through environment regulation. However, the market competition mechanism is polarized. On the one hand, it can positively promote municipalities’ new energy technology innovation. Alternatively, it postpones new energy technology innovation in general provinces. The central government and local governments should combine development practices and form the “industrial policy synergy” to promote new energy technology innovation.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Study on the coordination mechanism between strategies of Northeast China revitalization and development of RussianFar East and Baikal region
    Yang YANG, Suocheng DONG, Fujia LI, Hao CHENG, Qian LIU, Zehong LI, Yu LI
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 43-52.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.05
    Abstract291)   HTML5)    PDF (3911KB)(562)      

    Under regional development strategies such as the construction of China—Mongolia—Russia Economic Corridor, the revitalization of Northeast China and the development of Russian Far East and Baikal region, strengthening coordination mechanism study between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region is of great significance to promote the mutual development of the above regions. This paper comprehensively evaluates the economic development level of Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal Region. It is concluded that the economic aggregate level, industrialization level, and infrastructure level of Northeast China is much higher than that of Russian Far East and Baikal Region. However, the degree of opening—up and economic growth potential is lower than that of Russian Far East and Baikal Region. Based on this, the current study deeply analyzed the coordination of Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region in the aspects of economic development demand, resource advantage, production capacity demand, and regional development strategies. It is found that the economic development demand, resource advantage, production capacity demand, and regional development strategies are highly coordinated. Strengthening cooperation between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region will not only alleviate the problems of economic downturn, resource exhaustion, and production overcapacity in Northeast China, promote its economic recovery, but also greatly promote the economic development of Russian Far East and Baikal region. Then, six cooperation priorities between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region including the interconnectivity of transportation infrastructure, energy and mineral resources cooperation, ports construction, superior productivity cooperation, agricultural cooperation, and labor service cooperation are proposed. This study will provide scientific support and theoretical guidance for the practical cooperation between Northeast China and Russian Far East and Baikal region.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Framework and basic issues of promoting development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing
    Chang WANG, Hongjun GENG, Huiling SONG, Qiao SUN, Fenghua LU
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 53-62.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.06
    Abstract274)   HTML3)    PDF (6648KB)(560)      

    With the next science and technology revolution and the industrial transformation background, intelligent manufacturing has become the mainly focused development trend of China's manufacturing industry. However, the lagging development of advanced materials has restricted China’s manufacturing industry structure adjustment and upgrading transition process. It has recently become an urgent concern to promoting development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing. Previous studies mainly focused on the innovation evolution, technological innovation, commercialization, national policies of advanced materials; little attention was paid to the identification of the strategy and development direction of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing. Based on advanced materials intrinsic characteristics of technology uncertainty and market uncertainty, this study argues that the development of advanced materials is determined by its technological innovation capacity and commercial capability. Thus, to promote the breakthrough development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing, we should clearly characterize the following basic problems: "how to recognize the law of innovation of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing and grasp the trend of advanced materials innovation " and "how to identify the strategic intervention link of promoting breakthrough development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing and construct the national strategy system of promoting breakthrough development of advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing." According to the two basic problems, we suggest that future research on advanced materials for intelligent manufacturing should focus on development rules and trend, technological innovation breakthrough path, commercialization mode, strategies and polices. This study can provides a theoretical and policy support for the industrial development of China's advanced materials and realization of the strategic goal of manufacturing power.

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    Spatial distribution and temporal changes of facility agriculture on the Tibetan Plateau
    Hui WEI, Changhe LV, Yaqun LIU, Kaijie YANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (6): 1093-1101.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.08
    Abstract581)   HTML14)    PDF (15723KB)(560)      

    During the past decade, the rapid growth of facility agriculture has been a new highlight of agricultural development in the Tibetan Plateau. Revealing the spatial distribution and change characteristics of facility agriculture is helpful for understanding its development trend and can provide supports for its planning and spatial layout on the plateau. Based on the high-resolution imagery data of Google Earth in 2018, this study obtained and revealed the spatial distribution of facility agriculture on the plateau by visual interpretation combined with geostatistical analysis. Further, the spatiotemporal changes of facility agriculture in Xining and Lhasa Cities were analyzed based on high-resolution images of 2008 and 2018. The results show that: (1) In 2018, the total area of facility agriculture on the Tibetan Plateau was 7821.74 hm2, mainly distributed at the periphery of cities in river basins, roughly in line with the rivers. Of the total facility agriculture lands, 58.10% was distributed in Qinghai Province and 36.49% in Tibet Autonomous Region; (2) Facility agriculture showed a significant altitudinal differentiation under the influence of topographic factors. The land was distributed between 1400 m and 4600 m, mostly concentrated in two elevation zones of 2200~2600 m and 3600~3700 m; (3) Facility agriculture grew rapidly in Xining and Lhasa Cities from 2008 to 2018, with the area increased from 293.73 hm2 and 429.01 hm2 to 2111.45 hm2 and 1422.30 hm2, respectively. At the same time, more than 60% of facility agriculture lands in the urban areas was occupied by built-up land, resulting in significant changes in the spatial pattern; (4) There is a good prospect for the development of facility agriculture in the region because of strongly anticipated growing demands for vegetables and melons driven by the rapid urbanization and tourism development. To that end, a general planning for facility agricultural development is needed in order to avoid the lands being frequently changed and resulting in wasteful use, improve the situation of highly depending on single type of greenhouses, and avoid possible ecological problems such as plastic pollution.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Review and prospect of advanced material innovative development
    Chang WANG, Huiling SONG, Hongjun GENG, Yifang ZHOU, Cuihong ZHANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (2): 207-218.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.01
    Abstract354)   HTML6)    PDF (3925KB)(550)      

    Advanced materials are the cornerstone and precursor of the future development of high-tech industries. This paper provides a systemic review about the innovation evolution, technological innovation, commercialization, national strategies, and policies of advanced materials. It indicates that industrial upgrading has continuously put forward new requirements and challenges for advanced materials. The advanced materials innovation will further promote industrial upgrading. Therefore, different strategies and policy tools for the material innovation are adopted by countries or regions depending on their national circumstances. However, advanced material is highly uncertain in technology and market, demonstrating that it will face two problems of technological innovation and commercialization. Based on these findings and the development of advanced materials, future study in advanced materials innovation should focus mainly on the following four areas: (1) the in-depth study on the impact of intelligent manufacturing technology economic paradigm change and key areas of intelligent transformation on advanced materials innovation. (2) the emphasis study on the paths design for advanced materials technology innovation under special circumstances in China. (3) the in-depth study on the innovation of commercialization models of different kinds of advanced materials. And (4) the in-depth study on the advanced materials policy design on the synergy between government, market and society.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    The behavior options for energy terminal consumption: flexible driving force of environmental concern
    Haoyue PENG, Guohao ZHAO
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 132-141.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.12
    Abstract251)   HTML4)    PDF (2968KB)(544)      

    The reduction of carbon emissions has been a common vision for the whole world. When the public use much more energy to satisfy their daily life, household energy consumption has become the second largest part in our country. In order to lower down the total carbon emission of China and make a better place to live, it is very important to help the public making rational low-carbon behavior choices. With theoretical analysis and literature review, the article constructed a theoretical framework for the public energy consumption. The results showed that, as the major environmental awareness, the environmental concern quality had deep inner connections with residents’ energy saving behaviors. By using the Grounded theory, from the face to face interviews of 41 interviewees, with the open coding and axis coding technology, the research revealed main factors influencing the formation of environmental concern quality. Further, authors used structural equation to test the influence significance between such major factors and the public energy saving behaviors. From putting forward 6 main hypotheses and building up 3 structural equation models, the article wiped out the wrong hypotheses and calculated each path coefficient. Based on the analysis, there were three conclusions. The first, there were 9 elements, economic development, geographical conditions, household income, the number of family member, education level, age, job type, gender and ecological behavior awareness, affecting the level of environmental concern. The second, the maturity of ecological technology and the convenience of ecological facilities could adjust the driving force of environmental concern for the residents’ energy saving behaviors. The third, shaping the ecological culture, promoting the eco-technological innovation, establishing the post-materialist consumption values and lifting the economic rewarding of energy saving behaviors would contribute to the green energy terminal consumption.

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    Benchmark discount rate calculation for forest resource asset valuation via capital asset pricing model
    Min DONG, Pingliu CHEN, Guofang ZHANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (3): 572-581.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.03.14
    Abstract303)   HTML6)    PDF (2443KB)(513)      

    Discount rate has a significant impact on the assessed value of forest resource asset and is a parameter whose value is most difficult to determine. Applying a capital asset pricing model, and based on quantitative calculation of risk-free rate of return, market risk premium, and market risk coefficient of forestry industry, this study empirically calculated the benchmark discount rate for forest resource asset valuation. The result shows that, taking 31 December 2016 as the base date of valuation, the final benchmark discount rate for forest resource asset valuation was 4.50%, among which, risk-free return rate was 1.84%, market risk premium was 2.88%, market risk coefficient was 0.92, and risk return rate was 2.65%. According to the calculation result of benchmark discount rate on the valuation date combined with existing research results, this article suggests that, without considering valuation date, the general value of the benchmark discount rate for forest resource asset valuation is 5.0%, among which, risk-free return rate is 2.0%, risk return rate is 3.0%, and the value of operating risk, financial risk, and industry risk in the risk return rate is 1.0% respectively. However, specific discount rates used in practical forest resource asset valuation with different types of businesses and operation objectives and characteristics could be different, and the setting of specific discount rates in practice should take the general discount rate as the reference.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Changes of climate and land cover in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River over the past 2000 years
    ZHENG Jingyun, WEN Yanjun, FANG Xiuqi
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 3-19.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.01
    Abstract1018)   HTML303)    PDF (8514KB)(508)      

    Based on the research on the changes of climate, disasters, vegetation, and land use in the past 40 years, this study made a comprehensive assessment of the characteristics of changes of temperature, dry/wet conditions, and extreme droughts and floods, and the general trend of land cover caused by the agricultural land use, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River over the past two millennia. We also discussed the general relationships between the above changes and the sedimentation, breaches, and avulsions in the lower Yellow River from a historical perspective. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) During the past two millennia, multi-scale periodic fluctuations of temperature and dry/wet conditions were significant in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, but the dry/wet changes in the middle and the lower reaches were not completely synchronized. Frequencies of extreme droughts and floods varied in different time periods. (2) As early as in the late Western Han Dynasty, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River had already been developed into an agricultural area with a spatial range similar to today’s, where, especially on relative flat terrains, only limited natural vegetation remained. Since then, the intensity of reclamation showed an increasing trend in general, although it fluctuated greatly over time. (3) The changes of climate and land cover had influenced the water-sediment balance, channel sedimentation, and riverbed stability in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and driven, as an important trigger, the repeated diking-sedimentation-suspended river-burst and avulsion cycle in the lower Yellow River during the historical period. These understandings can provide historical backgrounds for further revealing the characteristics of environmental change in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and their impacts on the security of the lower Yellow River region.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Impact of low-carbon pilot policy on the performance of urban carbon emissions and its mechanism
    Di ZHOU, Fengnian ZHOU, Xueqin WANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (3): 546-556.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.03.12
    Abstract314)   HTML6)    PDF (2816KB)(496)      

    Low-carbon pilot project is an important policy to realize the development of low-carbon economy in China. Objectively evaluating its implementation effect is not only conducive to better promoting low-carbon work in low-carbon pilot project areas, but also of great significance for the further promotion of low-carbon pilot policy. However, there is no consistent conclusion on whether the low-carbon pilot policy can enhance the performance of carbon emissions. Taking the second batch of low-carbon pilot projects as an example and using city panel data from 2012 to 2016, this study examined the impact of low-carbon pilot policy on the reduction of local carbon emission intensity by using the Propensity Score Matching-Difference in Difference (PSM-DID) method in order to effectively reduce the processing effect bias caused by the problem of sample selection and policy endogeneity. It was found that the low-carbon pilot policy had a significant and sustained effect on local carbon intensity reduction. Further mechanism identification results show that low-carbon pilot areas mainly achieve a decline in carbon intensity through the improvement of energy efficiency and upgrading of industrial structure, and the upgrading of industrial structure shows a trend of increase year by year. However, the goal of reducing carbon emissions by raising the level of carbon sink in urban green spaces has not yet been achieved. Based on this conclusion, we believe that China should further promote the low-carbon pilot policy and actively explore the development model of low-carbon cities, in particular by further establishing a livable and green urban environment.

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    Influences of coastal resort vacationers’ environmental and climate satisfactions on their perceived destination restorative qualities
    Ganghua CHEN, Wang XI, Songshan HUANG, Xianyang HU
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (3): 430-440.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.03.02
    Abstract290)   HTML4)    PDF (3138KB)(490)      

    This study aimed at uncovering the influences of coastal resort vacationers’ environmental and climate satisfactions on their perceived destination restorative qualities (PDRQs), to provide a new perspective in understanding how the environment and the climate impact tourists’ mental and physical health and restoration, as well as a better understanding of PDRQs. The data were collected via a questionnaire survey in two typical coastal resorts in Sanya City, Hainan Province Dadonghai and Yalong Bay (N=527). Applying the principal component-based structural equation modeling technique of partial least squares (PLS_SEM), the results show that both vacationers’ climate satisfaction and environmental satisfaction significantly and positively influenced their PDRQs (compatibility, extent, mentally away, physically away, and fascination). Implications for the sustainable development of resort destinations are provided. Specifically, for companies and managers in coastal resort destinations, improving vacationers’ satisfaction with the environment and the climate through publicizing information on the environmental and climate conditions and protecting the natural environment would facilitate vacationers in experiencing more of the restorative qualities, and thus having a deeper mental and physical restoration. Finally, the increase of perceived destination restorative qualities would help a resort destination to strengthen its competitive edges in the tourism market.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    High-quality development level and its spatiotemporal changes in the Yellow River Basin
    XU Hui, SHI Nuo, WU Lingling, ZHANG Dawei
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 115-126.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.12
    Abstract1329)   HTML206)    PDF (4213KB)(456)      

    To promote the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, it is necessary to construct an evaluation index system for a scientific assessment of such development. Based on the two areas of economic and social development and ecological security, and considering five dimensions of economic development, innovation, improvement of people’s livelihood, environmental conditions, and ecological conditions, this study constructed a high-quality development evaluation index system for the Yellow River Basin. Using the data of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in the Yellow River Basin during 2008-2017, the entropy weight method was used in calculation. The results are as follows: The high-quality development level of the Yellow River Basin basically showed the spatial distribution of “high on both sides and low in the central area,” but the gap was decreasing year by year; The high-quality development level in each province (autonomous region) remained stable in 2008-2010, and continued to grow in 2011-2017, with a high growth rate in 2016; The overall high-quality development level of the basin showed an upward trend, with small fluctuations during 2008-2010 and a significantly increase from 2011. Over the last decade, all five dimensions improved. Accordingly, the study put forward specific suggestions and the directions for further research: (1) Strengthen regional linkages and expand the overall opening-up level of the Yellow River Basin. (2) On the basis of protecting the ecological environment, the provinces (autonomous regions) in western China should develop characteristic industries, combining with their factor endowments. (3) Shandong and Henan Provinces should strengthen the protection of the ecological environment while developing the economy. Shanxi and Gansu Provinces should improve people’s living standards urgently. Qinghai Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region need to increase investments in innovation and improve innovation capacity. Finally,the study proposed the further research directions.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Ten relations of territorial planning in the new era
    DONG Zuoji
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (9): 1589-1599.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.01
    Abstract610)   HTML31)    PDF (2665KB)(444)      

    Territorial spatial planning, as a main aspect of the “integration of multi-planning,” has addressed the fundamental requirements of constructing an ecological civilization and the practical needs of changing the governance mode of land and space. Numerous theoretical and practical issues need to be studied in depth. This article focuses on ten basic relations. Among them, the two major relations are planning versus market and spatial planning versus development planning, which constitute the basic relations of territorial spatial planning. Only by properly handling these two relations can we reasonably determine the functional orientation and responsibility boundary of territorial spatial planning and ensure the healthy development of the “integration of multi-planning” reform. Four other major relationships surrounding spatial planning are high-quality development versus high-quality national space, agglomerated development versus balanced development, new urbanization versus rural revitalization, and new town development versus urban renovation, which constitute the themes and main contents of land spatial planning. Only by dealing with these four relations properly can we give full play to the role of land spatial planning. From an methodological perspective, the four important relations include the division of “three zones” (urban space, agricultural space, ecological space) versus the delimitation of “three lines” (ecological protection, permanent basic agricultural land, urban development boundary), standardization versus special characteristics, policy innovation versus technological innovation, and planning versus planning implementation, which make up the key approaches of territorial spatial planning. Dealing with these four relations well is the premise and basis of scientific compilation and effective implementation of territorial spatial planning.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Issues regarding on spatial pattern change of national land space and its overall implementation onbeautiful vision in new era
    Wenhui KUANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 23-32.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.03
    Abstract448)   HTML9)    PDF (27227KB)(433)      

    Accurately delineating the background of China's land space pattern change since the 21st century and planning the future control of national land space scientifically and effectively is an important measure to realize the centralized management of landscape natural resources and China's beautiful vision. This study systematically identified the scientific connotation of the spatial pattern optimization and regulation. Then, the spatiotemporal characteristics of the national land space change since the 21st century were analyzed. Finally, we proposed the optimal allocation of the 2035 and 2050 beautiful vision and regulating modes of the realization of this vision. China has experienced rapid urban and industrial land expansion, arable land reduction, "grain for green" and other modes of land development and ecological protection in the 21st century. In the new era, it is necessary to strengthen the land space management and control of different development intensity types (artificial constructing activities, agricultural developing activities and natural ecosystem protection). It is also essential to strengthen the optimization of the internal structure of each ecosystem type and the improvement of quality to achieve the national food security, ecological security and sustainable development goals. At the same time, on the basis of the state detection, problem diagnosis and controlling threshold definition of the national land space background, the beautiful vision of 2035 and 2050 will be achieved. On the background of unified management of natural resources and the integration of multiple plans, the basic farmland protection and quality improvement, ecological grass and animal husbandry construction development, and the "target-oriented high-ranking examples" livable urban environment should be attached to the realization of the future vision of the national natural ecosystem protection.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Mode of classified treatment of rural domestic wastes and suggestions
    Yajuan JIA, Minjuan ZHAO, Xianli XIA, Liuyang YAO
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (2): 338-351.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.02.12
    Abstract405)   HTML10)    PDF (6991KB)(427)      

    Classified treatment of rural domestic wastes is an important practice of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, and an important part of improving the quality of human settlement environment and realizing people’s longing for a better life. Based on the survey of pilot areas of rural domestic wastes classified treatment and resource utilization in Shaanxi and from the perspective of supply main body, this paper compares the basic situation, the practice mode of classified treatment, and the main body of supply of the four pilot villages using the case analysis method and further comprehensively evaluates the degree of end classification of domestic wastes, resource utilization rate, annual unit cost resource utilization, reduction and harmless treatment effect of each pilot village. The analysis shows that capital investment is one of the keys to solving the problem of rural domestic wastes. For most ordinary rural areas, the treatment mode cannot be simply copied. Instead, an effective waste classified treatment mode will be selected according to local conditions with reference made to the practice mode of the pilot villages. Therefore, in order to fully realize the classified treatment of rural domestic wastes, it is necessary not only to encourage the government, the market, the third sector, rural communities and farmers to participate in cooperative supply so as to raise funds through multiple channels and in multiple ways, but also to strengthen publicity, reward and punishment, and improve the rural domestic waste treatment system combining the rule of law, the rule of virtue, and self-governance.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    Resource representativeness of international protected areas and implications for national park development in China
    Ye TIAN, Jiangfeng LI, Xiaoji TANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (3): 484-493.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.03.07
    Abstract268)   HTML5)    PDF (2608KB)(416)      

    The international protected areas are areas of unique international value or significance, and the resources they protect should be representative. The main purpose of China's national park construction is to protect the national representative natural ecosystem. There are certain similarities in the protection objects between them. Studying the representative resources of international protected areas can provide reference for the construction of national park. This paper takes China's UNESCO World Biosphere Reserves, Global Geoparks, and World Heritage Sites as the research object of international protected areas. We further analyze the construction status, representativeness of its natural ecology, geological features, cultural heritage, and the way of resource protection and management in China and identify the characteristics of resource representation in international protected areas. The results show that the representativeness of resources in international protected areas is reflected in the typicality of ecosystems, the uniqueness of species, the scientific value of geological resources, the aesthetic value of landscapes, and the symbolic nature of cultural heritages. In resource management, the public welfare use of resources is guaranteed through regular assessment. The representative resources of international protected areas can provide reference for the construction and selection of national parks. China's cultural heritages are profound and cultural resources with national representation can be used as a special feature of national park. In resource management, we should focus on cultivating and improving public awareness of public welfare in national parks.

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    Study on the improvement path of water resource utilization efficiency from the perspective of public products
    Junpeng LI, Fengyi ZHENG, Zhongchao FENG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 98-112.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.10
    Abstract314)   HTML6)    PDF (3646KB)(398)      

    Based on the variable capital depreciation rate (capital depreciation rate changes with time, space, and specific infrastructure) and the SBM model considering unsatisfactory output, the capital stock and water resource utilization efficiency of China's inter-provincial water conservancy facilities were estimated in this study. On the basis of controlling variable such as the structure of water resources utilization and government regulation, this paper implemented a Tobit Spatial Dobbin Econometric Model (Tobit-SDM) to analyze the provincial panel data of China from 2002 to 2016 and explore the spatial impact (direct influence and spillover effect) of water conservancy facilities on water resources utilization efficiency. It is found that: (1) the impact of water conservancy facilities on water resources utilization efficiency was obviously lagging behind, and it exhibited an "inverted U type". (2) the level of water conservancy facilities in China is still on the left side of the "inverted u-shaped" curve, i. e. , water conservancy facilities improve the allocation efficiency of water resources among regions, reduce the unsatisfactory output of water resources utilization, and improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in the local region and other regions. In other words, the impact of water conservancy facilities demonstrates a significant positive direct influence and spillover effect. Based on the conclusions above, it is believed that the construction of regional water conservancy facilities needs to be placed in a broader perspective, to achieve the support and coordination of regional construction, to avoid duplication or excessive investment and construction, and to make full use of the spillover effects of water conservancy facilities. In addition, it is also a feasible measure to optimize the industrial allocation and realize the rational allocation of water resources to promote the endogenous growth of water use efficiency.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Trend of ecological degradation and restoration technology requirement in typical ecological vulnerable regions
    Lin ZHEN, Yunfeng HU, Yunjie WEI, Qi LUO, Yueqi HAN
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 63-74.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.07
    Abstract299)   HTML9)    PDF (5836KB)(394)      

    Over the past decades, ecological degradation was grim on global level, especially in typical ecological vulnerable regions. To combat such degradation issues, tremendous efforts have been made among the scientific community, decision makers, and practitioners in the world. A lot of restoration technologies have been developed and applied, which played a key role in restoring and mitigating degraded ecosystems. However, some of the restoration technologies ignored the real needs on the ground and thus affected their applications. This paper aims to describe the trend of ecological degradation at the global level in general and China in specific, assess the technological needs for restoration using data and information from interviews of stakeholders from 18 countries, and 21 assessment reports from international organizations. The results illustrate that the major degradation issues in the vulnerable regions include soil and water erosion, desertification, rock desertification, and ecosystem degradation. Over the past 15 years (2000-2014), degradations in overwhelming majority of the regions remained unchanged or improved, about 22% (global level) and 11% (in China) of the regions exhibited a worsening trend. Technology needs for restoration varied among the regions, indicating an increasing trend in demanding combination of different technologies, rather than single technology, which gave the complexity of degradation issues and their impact on socio-economic development of the region. It is recommended that selection and application of restoration technology shall consider specific degradation issue, phase and drivers of degradation, as well as local conditions including economic, cultural, policy, and institutional settings. Technology required assessment is vital for identifying suitable restoration measures, investigating potential areas for exporting and importing technologies, and promoting ecological construction of China.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Study on the resource environment, economy and urbanization situation and green rise strategy in Central China
    Suocheng DONG, Dan SHI, Fujia LI, Jiajun LIU, Fei LI, Zhenyu YE, Zehong LI, Yu LI, Rongxia ZHANG, Yang REN, Jingnan LI, Wenbiao ZHANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 33-42.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.04
    Abstract246)   HTML6)    PDF (9181KB)(391)      

    Central China has the geographical advantages of locating at the transition point of the east and the west of China, and connecting the south and north of China, which is a key development zone for the regional harmonious development of the country. The central region is the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the Yellow River Economic Belt crossing the driving region. It is the regional development strategy of the country's overall development strategy. It is the rising and radiating region of the central urban agglomerations. It is an important industrial transfer bearing area and a regional coordinated development of China. In recent years, the level of urbanization in the central region has been continuously improved and the economic strength has been greatly improved. It has entered a new stage of accelerating development and comprehensive rise. A series of serious environmental problems have emerged. It is urgent to seek a green road to rise. Based on the judgment of the basic situation of economic and social development and urbanization in the central region, this study conducts a comparative analysis of the typical resource and environmental problems. We further identify that its pollution situation is aggravating. Based on the environmental Kuznets curve and the system dynamics model, the analysis shows that the economic growth and environmental pollution in the central region continue the trend of traditional “first pollution after treatment” model. The main pollutant emission reduction input path is refined. In the future, the central region should actively respond to the green rising strategy, establish and improve the ecological compensation and pollution joint prevention and control mechanism, promote the optimization of industrial structure, and explore a new mechanism for coordinated and sustainable development of the economy, society and resources.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Spatiotemporal change and driving factors of comprehensive energy efficiency in the Yellow River Basin
    GUAN Wei, XU Shuting, GUO Xiuyao
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (1): 150-158.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.15
    Abstract749)   HTML278)    PDF (3986KB)(385)      

    The Yellow River Basin is an important energy base in China. The comprehensive energy efficiency of the Yellow River basin directly affects the ecological protection and high-quality development of the region. Using the super efficiency slack based measure (SBM) model to measure the comprehensive energy efficiency of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in the Yellow River Basin from 1997 to 2017, the nuclear density estimation method was selected to analyze the temporal and spatial change characteristics of comprehensive energy efficiency, and the driving factors of comprehensive energy efficiency were analyzed with the help of the geographical detector. The results show that: (1) From 1997 to 2017, the comprehensive energy efficiency of the Yellow River Basin showed a U-shaped trend of high-low-high. The comprehensive energy efficiency of the Yellow River Basin decreased from 1997 to 2003, decreased in 2009 after rapid growth from 2004 to 2010, and increased in 2015 after continuous decline from 2011 to 2017. (2) Spatially, the comprehensive energy efficiency of the western provinces of the Yellow River Basin is relatively low, and the comprehensive energy efficiency of the central provinces is greatly affected by multiple factors, while the comprehensive energy efficiency of the eastern province Shandong is significantly higher. The comprehensive energy efficiencies of the eastern, central, and western provinces and the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin have all changed from spatially unbalanced to balanced. (3) With regard to the driving factors, the explanation power of factors is in the order of financial decentralization, urbanization level, human capital level, and the degree of opening to the outside world. Expansion of local financial expenditure, acceleration of urbanization, upgrading of talent structure, and improvement of opening-up in the Yellow River Basin jointly drive the improvement of comprehensive energy efficiency. Give full play to the comparative advantages of the Yellow River Basin, and strengthen collaboration within the basin under various policies for promoting the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Analysis on residents’ behavior of domestic solid waste source separation based on structural equation
    Xiaoyan MENG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (6): 1111-1119.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.10
    Abstract448)   HTML11)    PDF (4059KB)(380)      

    The resident is one of the key subjects in the municipal solid waste separation and recovery system. Residents’ participation in source separation of domestic solid waste is one of the most important factors affecting the success or failure of the urban solid waste seperation work. In this study, in order to analyze the mechanisms of residents’ waste seperation and recovery behaviors, Suzhou City was chosen as a case, a field questionnaire survey of the residents in its central area was conducted, and the key factors affecting residents’ waste sorting and recovery behaviors and their paths were explored using the statistical analysis method of structural equation modeling (SEM). The research results show that the domestic solid waste source separation behaviors of the surveyed residents are closely related to four subjective factors and seven objective factors, and the latter’s comprehensive effect is almost twice that of the former. Among all the factors, the latent variable “environmental facilities and services” has the greatest combined impact, while “public education”, “convenience of recycling facilities”, “convenience of separation facilities”, “willingness to participate”, and “environmental awareness” are the top five factors that affect residents’ domestic solid waste separation behaviors. In order to further accelerate the source separation of domestic solid waste in China, it is recommended to strengthen the planning and construction of municipal solid waste separation and recycling facilities, extensively carry out publicity and education on domestic solid waste separation and recycling, improve relevant laws and regulations, and establish an effective incentive and restraint mechanism.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Strategic considerations and path selection for China’s participation in global energy governance
    Limao WANG, Qiushi QU, Chufu MOU, Yebing FANG, Chenran XIONG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (5): 825-833.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.05.01
    Abstract253)   HTML6)    PDF (3500KB)(371)      

    The current global energy governance system lacks authority, unity, and coordination and the governance structure has been in a fragmented state. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) are the world’s most influential governance organizations, representing the energy consumer and energy exporting countries respectively. The International Energy Forum (IEF) is a communication platform for energy production and consumption countries, but it is only a mechanism for dialogue and lacks organizational framework and control mechanism. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) was confined to Europe and lacks participation of big oil production and consumption countries; and the G7 and the G20 only have the function of high-level coordination, lack of practical operability, and they are a global governance system but not specific energy governance organizations. How can China play a role and participate in the current global energy governance framework? In this article, we put forward a general framework for China’s participation in global energy governance. China should use the exiting international Energy Charter Treaty as the basis of future energy governance, rely on the Belt and Road initiative, and take the energy Internet as the breakthrough point. The roadmap would be participation-integration-reforming-reshaping. China as a big energy consuming state should play a key role to improve the global energy governance system, and ultimately achieve the goal of a fair and more reasonable global energy governance system.

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