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    Spatial evolution of specialized villages and influencing factors in the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Chenguang
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2300-2313.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.04
    Abstract140)   HTML9)    PDF (15830KB)(257)      

    The Yellow River Basin is an important core area of grain production in China and an important area to win the battle against poverty. Exploring the general pattern of the distribution and evolution of the specialized villages in the area is of great significance for the high-quality economic development of the region. Taking the specialized villages in the Yellow River Basin as the research object and using ArcGIS spatial analysis and Geodetector tools, this study comprehensively analyzed the spatial pattern evolution and influencing factors from 2008 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The concentration of the overall spatial distribution is increasing, and the concentrated distribution area is in the Guanzhong Plain and the lower Yellow River Basin; (2) The spatial pattern at the county level has changed from bands to clusters. The cluster-like agglomeration forms include suburban agglomeration, township agglomeration, and rural hinterland agglomeration; (3) Specialized villages are mainly distributed in low-altitude areas, areas with gentle slopes, along rivers, and along highways, with rapid growth; (4) The influencing factors of specialized village distribution in the Yellow River Basin are mainly in the technological, institutional, cultural, and market dimensions, and the core impact factors of spatial distribution vary in different regions. Therefore, it is recommended that underdeveloped regions, on the basis of fully exploiting their own advantages, should improve infrastructure, introduce advanced technology, and strive to produce high quality agricultural products. The developed regions should make full use of advanced technologies, well-developed management systems, and innovative culture to promote and lead the sustainable and healthy development of specialized villages.

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    Spatiotemporal variations of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2019
    YE Hong, YI Guihua, ZHANG Tingbin, ZHOU Xiaobing, LI Jingji, BIE Xiaojuan, SHEN Yilin, YANG Zhenglan
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2434-2450.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.14
    Abstract230)   HTML7)    PDF (17129KB)(226)      

    Snow cover, as the most important component of the cryosphere, affects the atmospheric circulation and regional water balance, and is very sensitive to climate change. Using 8-day snow cover data of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer/Terra (MODIS/Terra) from 2000 to 2019, the interannual, annual, and seasonal spatiotemporal characteristics of snow cover in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its variation trends were discussed. The results show that: (1) In recent 20 years, the snow cover in the QTP consisted largely of short-term snow. The spatial distribution of snow cover with one month or shorter duration was the widest, accounting for 72.91% of the total snow-covered area. The longer the snow duration, the higher the snow cover ratio (SCR). The multi-year mean SCR in the mountains surrounding the QTP was high, while the SCR was low in the Qiangtang Plateau, the source region of the rivers, and the Qaidam-Huanghuang high-medium basin, among others. (2) Snow cover area showed repeated fluctuating increase and then decrease with a relative change rate of -15.97%~11.52% during 2000-2019 in the QTP. Snow cover ratio in most areas of the Hengduan Mountains, the Pamirs Plateau, and the Qiangtang Plateau showed an obvious decreasing trend. In the areas surrounding the QTP with high mountains and extremely high mountains of huge difference in relief, hilly mountain plain in the source area of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and high mountain areas of medium or great difference in relief of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, a significant increasing trend of SCR in recent 20 years was observed. (3) The snow-covered area showed a bimodal cyclical trend annually, reaching the peak in March and November and the lowest in August, which was in contrary to the periodic change of air temperature, precipitation, and other climate factors in this region. The widest spatial distribution of snow cover was in the winter, followed by the autumn and the spring, and the smallest was in the summer. In recent 20 years, the snow cover increased significantly in the winter in eastern and southern QTP, and decreased significantly in the autumn and the spring. The snow cover decreased in the summer in the whole QTP. (4) The correlations between snow cover and air temperature and precipitation were strong. Snow cover had a negative correlation with air temperature and a positive correlation with precipitation. The results of the study are useful for understanding the situation of ice and snow melting water change and are indicative of the regional water balance and climate change of the QTP.

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    Development efficiency of tourism and influencing factors in China’s prefectural-level administrative units
    JI Xiaomeng, QIN Weishan, LI Shitai, LIU Xiaomei, WANG Qiuxian
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 185-196.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.15
    Abstract144)   HTML3)    PDF (11949KB)(223)      

    The development efficiency of tourism is an important indicator of the input-output status of tourism in a region. This study used the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and data from 329 prefectural-level administrative regions of China to comprehensively measure the development efficiency of tourism in 2018. Spatial autocorrelation, Getis-Ord Gi*, and geographical detector were used to explore the spatial pattern and influencing factors of tourism development efficiency. The main conclusions include: (1) Areas with high level, medium-high level, medium level, medium-low level, and low level of comprehensive tourism development efficiency accounted for 16.11%, 17.93%, 27.96%, 26.75%, and 11.25% of the evaluated administrative units respectively. There were clear regional differences in pure technical efficiency, and the high level areas were mainly distributed in the junction of the terrain ladders, the Yangtze River Delta city group, and the Pearl River Delta city group. In terms of scale efficiency, the division was roughly along the “Hu Line”, higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest. (2) The efficiency of tourism development showed spatial autocorrelation, characterized by “large agglomeration and small dispersion” on the whole. Cold and hot spots showed obvious spatial clustering characteristics hot in the south and cold in the north with southwest, South, and East China showing high value clustering, and North, Northeast, and northwest China showing low value clustering. According to the development level and spatial characteristics, tourism development efficiency can be divided into four types: radiation-driven, edge-dependent, overall promotion, and optimized promotion. (3) The efficiency of tourism development is affected by multiple factors, among which tourism service level, tourism development quality, and tourism resource endowments are the leading factors for the spatial differentiation of tourism development efficiency. Promoting tourism development and improving tourism service level and tourism resource use conversion rate are important ways to improve the efficiency of tourism development. By analyzing the spatial pattern and influencing factors of the tourism development efficiency of Chinese prefectural-level administrative units, we hoped to provide a decision-making basis and theoretical support for exploring the effective ways of improving the quality and efficiency of tourism, transforming and upgrading the tourism industry, and increasing the investment and utilization level of tourism development resources.

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    Spatial variability of causative factors of heat islands from the perspective of metropolitan functional blocks
    WU Rongrong, XIE Miaomiao, LIU Qi, LI Hanting, GUO Qiang, LI Xinyu
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2463-2474.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.16
    Abstract144)   HTML1)    PDF (10380KB)(219)      

    In previous urban heat island (UHI) studies, factor interaction and spatial heterogeneity analysis are generally lacking in the exploration of causative factors, which results in difficulties and ineffectiveness in the implementation of UHI effect mitigation strategy. To address this problem, our study used the functional blocks of human activity as study unit based on point-of-interest data, and applied Geodetector to analyze the relationship between the interaction of various causative factors and surface temperature. The metropolitan area of Beijing was taken as the study area. The results show that the influencing degree of individual factors on land surface temperature as well as that of interacting factors varies significantly among the 14 types of functional blocks. Individual factor detection shows that the contribution of vegetation cover is as high as 72.3% in the whole area, while the degree of influence in different functional blocks differs. Population and economic development level are more prominent in functional blocks with frequent human activities. Factor interaction detection shows that the effect of interactive factors can explain much greater amount of the variance of temperature than that of individual factors. The interaction of vegetation and population has the most significant influence on the variation of temperature in the study area. In the commercial activity-related blocks and the public administration-related blocks, the dominant interactive influence is from vegetation and population. But in the industrial-related blocks, the dominant interactive influence is from impervious surface and economic development level, and impervious surface and vegetation. There is a significant nonlinear enhancement effect in 50 % of all blocks. It is also identified that the administration and public services and commercial mixed blocks and commercial blocks are the areas with the highest risk of high temperature in the city. The Geodetector model using functional blocks performed better than the global model at the municipal level, which can better quantify the influence of various factors on the surface temperature in different spatial locations. This study can provide some reference for alleviating the urban heat island effect for different areas within a metropolitan.

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    Evolution of urban mineral resources research based on knowledge maps
    WEI Wei, LI Jinkai, GUO Chonghui
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (3): 489-500.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.03.06
    Abstract111)   HTML0)    PDF (21456KB)(217)      

    Urban mineral resources are an inevitable product of industrialization and urbanization process, which has significant ecological and economic values. Scientific and comprehensive research on urban mineral resources is conducive to their sustainable development and use. This study combined scientometrics with text mining methods, and took 4351 Chinese publications on urban mineral resources from 1988 t`o 2018 as the research object to quantitatively analyze the dynamic change of relevant research in this field over the period and future development. The results show that (1) The development of urban mineral resources research in China is in a bottleneck period and there are five main research teams in the field, mainly conducting theoretical research. Among these five teams, Zhai Xin and Zhou Yongsheng’s teams begin earlier in this field in 2010-2014, Zhao Yuzhu and Li Jinhui’s teams are more prominent in 2015-2016, and Wang Chang’s team becomes more prominent in 2017-2018. (2) “Mineral Resources”(1995), “Sustainable Development”(2002), “Mining Cities”(2004), “Resource-Based Cities”(2005) and “Recycling Economy”(2007) play an important role of transition in the formation of “urban mineral resources”(2010), which is related to the deepening of people’s understanding of urban mineral resources. (3) The research hotspots in this field are distinctive and clearly influenced by government policies in different time period, and incorporating social concerns is the future development trend. (4) Policy tools and technological advancement and innovation are the important topics for future research in this field. The analysis of change of urban mineral resources research based on literature mining can help researchers and decision makers to quickly understand and grasp the current status and trend of the research, and provide an important reference for the in-depth research and decision-making of urban mineral resource development.

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    A theoretical framework and empirical analysis of the formation mechanism of green agricultural industry cluster:A case study of the Shouguang vegetable industry cluster in Shandong Province
    YANG Yang, LI Erling
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 69-81.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.06
    Abstract145)   HTML6)    PDF (11046KB)(202)      

    Global agricultural development shows the trend of greening and spatial concentration. Developing green agriculture industrial cluster is a natural way to combine green development and spatial aggregation. Based on the relevant theory of agriculture industrial cluster, this study constructed an analytical framework of the formation mechanism of green agriculture industrial clusters, and took a representative green agricultural cluster in China Shandong Shouguang Vegetable Industry Cluster as an example, to analyze the formation process and conditions of green agriculture industrial cluster from the perspective of green network formation and organization. The results show that: (1) At the level of micro subjects, various agricultural subjects undergo green transformation under the role of green innovation and environmental regulation, forming green production subjects, green management subjects, green service subjects and green regulatory subjects; (2) At the level of meso network, green subjects interconnect under the role of knowledge spillover and specialized division of labor, forming green organizational network; (3) At the level of macro environment, green development environment is formed under the thrust of institutional innovation and scientific and technological innovation, binding force of environmental regulation and the pull of supportive policies and intermediary services. (4) The formation mechanism of green agro-industrial clusters is the flow and synergy of green innovation and environmental regulation in the value chain network, i.e., the normative green development environment and standardized agricultural production technology prompt the green transformation of the subjects within the cluster, and then the green agro-industrial clusters are formed by the green network organized by the specialized division of labor of green subjects under the external economic effect. The formation of green agro-industrial cluster is the greening of the whole industry chain within the cluster, the greening and synergy of green innovation and environmental regulation for each link, each behavior and each subject in the three levels.

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    Nexus between low-carbon energy and critical metals: Literature review and implications
    WANG Peng, WANG Qiaochu, HAN Ruru, TANG Linbin, LIU Yu, CAI Wenjia, CHEN Weiqiang
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 669-681.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.03
    Abstract203)   HTML10)    PDF (2948KB)(196)      

    There is a close interdependence between critical metals and low-carbon energy technologies. To improve the understanding of this relationship, this study made a comprehensive literature review (including about 200 papers published since 2000) to explore the objects, methods, and progress related to the research of the metal-energy nexus. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) The low-carbon energy transition has driven the rapid growth of the production and trade of critical metals, and led to serious environmental pollution and the intensified competitions globally; (2) The global low-carbon energy transition could be constrained by the potential supply risks of critical metals caused by insufficient reserves, fragile trade networks, unequal geographical distribution, and high environmental pollution; (3) China, as a major producer and consumer of various critical metals, has borne the huge resource and environmental costs to support the global low-carbon energy transition, and its supply risks of critical metals are also high to support domestic needs. Under the target of “carbon peak” and “carbon neutrality”, we highlight that higher attentions are needed from researchers and policymakers in China on the research of the metals-energy nexus, coordinated management of critical metals and low-carbon energy, assessment of the potential critical metals constraint on low-carbon energy transition, and the emerging geopolitical risks concerning critical metals.

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    Simulating China's carbon emission peak path under different scenarios based on RICE-LEAP model
    HONG Jingke, LI Yuanchao, CAI Weiguang
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 639-651.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.01
    Abstract497)   HTML30)    PDF (4170KB)(141)      

    As the world's largest carbon emitter and second largest economy, achieving the carbon emission peak is urgent for China to combat with global climate change. By coupling the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE) and Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, this study established a new energy-economy-environment integrated assessment model covering end-use economic sectors. Under the business-as-usual, carbon-constraint, and supply-side structural reform scenarios, China's carbon emission peak path and global climate change trend from 2020 to 2050 were systematically investigated. The results reveal that: (1) China's energy-related carbon emission trajectory presents an inverted U shape under the three dynamic scenarios. Under the supply-side structural reform scenario, carbon emissions peak earliest, with the lowest carbon emission peak in comparison to other scenarios. (2) China's energy-related carbon emissions mainly concentrate in end-use sectors such as industry and transportation, where carbon emissions contribute approximately 80% in a stable manner during the whole investigated period. In addition, carbon intensity in these carbon-intensive sectors drops relatively slowly. (3) Energy structure becomes more optimized and advanced under the supply-side structural reform scenario, where the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption has increased in all end-use sectors, with natural gas and non-fossil energy dominating in the commerce and service industry and households. Therefore, in order to achieve China's carbon emission peak the soonest, the central government should adopt policy-oriented “dual control” goals for the total energy consumption and energy intensity, and make great efforts to adjust industrial structure and optimize energy structure by taking the supply-side structural reform as the main line.

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    Impact of domestic waste pollution perception and social capital on the farming households’ sorting of waste: Based on the survey of 1374 farming households in Shaanxi Province
    JIA Yajuan, ZHAO Minjuan
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2370-2381.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.09
    Abstract149)   HTML4)    PDF (3281KB)(133)      

    Farming households are the main agents of rural domestic waste sorting. Their level of sorting directly relates to the effectiveness of rural domestic waste sorting and the success or failure of beautiful countryside construction. Based on the micro-data of farmers’ waste sorting behavior, this study combined individual level and collective level factors to analyze the influencing mechanism of farmers’ domestic waste pollution perception and social capital on waste sorting, and used the ordered probit model to conduct an empirical test on the data from the survey of 1374 farming households in the rural areas of Shaanxi Province. The results show that the pollution perception of domestic waste at the individual level played obvious roles in improving waste sorting the stronger the farmers’ perceive the pollution and impacts caused by randomly stacked and unsorted domestic waste on the ecological environment, community environment, and physical and mental health, the higher the waste sorting levels. Social networks, trust on institutions, social participation, and social norms as social capital at the collective level had significant positive impacts on waste sorting, but interpersonal trust had no significant effect on the level of sorting, which indicates that the farmers who had higher frequency of social interactions, higher degree of trust in institutions, more active participation in the public affair of rural waste management, and believed that village waste management is satisfactory tend to exhibit a higher level of domestic waste sorting behavior. In addition, females had higher levels of domestic waste sorting than males, and low-income families had higher levels of waste sorting than high-income families. Therefore, to achieve sustainable sorting and treatment of rural domestic waste and the comprehensive construction of an ecologically livable new countryside, we need not only to promote waste sorting by strengthening farmers’ pollution perception, but also to build a good community environment. Through network communication and information sharing to strengthen farmers’ communication frequency, improve farmers’ trust in institutions and their participation in public affairs, and strengthen the community self-discipline mechanism, farmers’ domestic waste sorting levels can be improved.

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    Impacts of reclaimed water recharge to a river channel on ambient water bodies: A case study of the Chaobai River in Beijing
    JIANG Ruixue, HAN Dongmei, SONG Xianfang, YANG Lihu, LI Binghua
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2419-2433.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.13
    Abstract136)   HTML5)    PDF (12205KB)(116)      

    Reclaimed water is used primarily for replenishing rivers and lakes in Beijing, but the impact of reclaimed water on ambient water environment has also been a concern. This research monitored the water quality of the reclaimed water, surface water, and shallow groundwater in the Chaobai River in Beijing from 2015 to 2017. This study used mathematical statistics and hydrochemical analysis to investigate the characteristics of the ambient water bodies under long-term reclaimed water recharge to the river. The results show that the total nitrogen in surface water exceeded the quality standard at all monitoring points because the reclaimed water had a high nutrient content. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased and the pH value increased along the river, which was more significant in the summer. This is related to photosynthesis and denitrification. The surrounding shallow groundwater level showed seasonal variation only. The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater was mainly HCO3·Cl-Na·Ca type, which was similar to the reclaimed water. But the main ion concentrations in different water bodies were different due to cation exchange and absorption during the infiltration process and mixing. The maximum distance of the reclaimed water impact on shallow groundwater quality was about 425 m away from the center of the river course. Of the 140 water samples, 120 met the class Ⅱ to IV groundwater quality standard, and the groundwater quality tended to get better along the groundwater flow direction. The ammonia nitrogen concentration of 19 water samples exceeded the quality standard. It mainly occurred near the Henan Village dam. Nitrogen might have come from soil nitrogen, irrigation, and fertilization input in the surrounding agricultural and forestry lands. This study provided important references for improving the water quality of the ambient water bodies in the Chaobai River and increasing the utilization of reclaimed water.

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    Regional disparity and decoupling evolution of China’s carbon emissions by province
    HAN Mengyao, LIU Weidong, XIE Yitian, JIANG Wanbei
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 710-721.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.06
    Abstract208)   HTML10)    PDF (2396KB)(110)      

    The carbon emission reduction target of a country/region depends on the relationship between economic growth and carbon emission decline, and the relative decoupling between carbon emissions and economic development is an essential guarantee to achieve China’s carbon emission targets. Based on the Theil index and Tapio model, this work examined the relationship between China’s carbon emissions and economic development, and analyzed the regional disparity and decoupling evolution of carbon emissions by province during 2005 and 2017. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The carbon emissions and economic development of most regions in China kept increasing, while the carbon emission intensities kept decreasing; (2) Although the regional disparity in the economic development of China’s provinces narrowed, the carbon emission disparity, especially the cross-regional disparity expanded by year; (3) The decoupling status of most provinces changed from expansive negative decoupling, expansive coupling, to weak decoupling, but the decoupling stability of some provinces was relatively low; (4) Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Zhejiang, and Shandong were constantly approaching a strong decoupling status, however, the decoupling status in some other regions still alternated between expansive coupling and expansive negative decoupling. This study would be useful for identifying the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development in different regions and for implementing feasible low-carbon development strategies combined with different carbon emission and economic development levels, which are expected to provide practical implications to achieve the carbon peak and carbon neutral targets.

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    Research hotspots and prospects of homestead withdrawal and reuse
    ZHANG Bailin, ZHANG Fengrong, QU Yanbo, JIANG Guanghui, XIE Zhen, CAI Weimin
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (7): 1277-1292.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.01
    Abstract160)   HTML13)    PDF (8574KB)(99)      

    Exploring the separation of ownership, qualification right, and use right of homestead and promoting the withdrawal and reuse of idle homesteads is an important task for land system reform. In this study, CiteSpace and document analysis method were used for the bibliometric analysis to identify hotspots of homestead withdrawal and reuse research and analyze its progress. The results show that: (1) With the transfer of rural population to urban areas and village hollowing, the willingness and behavior of farmers’ homestead withdrawal became a hot research topic, and relevant studies gradually focus on the relationship between them and satisfaction of farmers in the process; the mechanism and models of withdrawal are the core of homestead withdrawal research. In existing research scholars have constructed the incentive and constraint mechanism of homestead withdrawal and income distribution and guarantee mechanism, and extracted and analyzed the homestead withdrawal models and their applicability in typical areas; the compensation of homestead withdrawal and farmers’ interest after withdrawal have also become the focus of research. (2) Under the background of “Separation of Three Rights”, research on the reuse of homesteads after withdrawal became the key and hotspots of reform of the homestead system, which focuses on the ways of reuse, models, and approaches. The ways of homestead reuse focus on reclamation for farmland and green land, and transfer to other farmers for the same use or as land for new industries and commercial activities; the models of homestead reuse can be divided into development model and organization mode; the approaches of homestead reuse include trading, leasing, equity, and joint operation. (3) In the future, the research of homestead withdrawal and reuse should aim at rural revitalization, focusing on homestead value evaluation, models of reuse, and benefits of reuse, promoting the reform of rural homestead “Separation of Rights”. Future research should also focus on sustainable livelihoods of farmers and rural social sustainability to improve the homestead withdrawal and reuse policy system, and promote land system reform.

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    Clean energy power generation potential and value in Qinghai Province
    MAO Aihan, LI Faxiang, YANG Siyuan, HUANG Ting, HAO Ruifang, LI Sihan, YU Deyong
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 104-121.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.09
    Abstract154)   HTML1)    PDF (10773KB)(97)      

    With the progress of science and technology, the development and use of clean energy resources have become an important way to alleviate the shortage of traditional energy resources and improve the ecological environment. Quantitative assessment of the potential of clean energy resources will help relevant government departments to make scientific decisions on their development and use. Based on model simulation and spatial analysis methods, this study evaluated the potential and value of five major clean energy resources including solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric potential energy, biomass energy, and geothermal energy in Qinghai Province, and obtained the spatial and temporal distribution pattern and the amount of the main clean energy resources in the province. The results show that: (1) Temporally, the power generation potential of clean energy was increasing year by year from 2000 to 2018. The spatial distribution pattern changed only slightly, and the power generation potential was stable. From a spatial point of view, the clean energy power generation potential in the west of Qinghai Province is relatively high, while that in the east is relatively low; on the prefectural (city) scale, Yushu Prefecture and Haixi Prefecture are in the high value area of clean energy power generation potential, while Xining City is in the low value area; on the scale of ecological function area, the Sanjiangyuan area is in the high value area of clean energy power generation potential, while the Qilian Mountains area is in the low value area. (2) From the perspective of clean energy structure, from 2000 to 2018, Qinghai Province has abundant hydropower resources, with an average power generation potential of 233.841 billion kWh, followed by biomass energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind energy, and the proportion of clean energy in energy consumption is gradually increasing in practical application. (3) The average value of clean energy potential in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2018 was 188.775 billion yuan. The economic value of clean energy obtained in the future will gradually increase with the development of China’s carbon market and the increase of clean energy development and use intensity. This study provided an important basis for Qinghai Province to understand the current status and future prospect of clean energy resource use in the province, as well as to formulate policies for the development and use of clean energy resources.

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    Analysis and enlightenment of knowledge map of marine resources research at home and abroad
    PENG Fei, FU Ningning, HU Wei, HU Jinlin
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (11): 2047-2061.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.01
    Abstract459)   HTML11)    PDF (12359KB)(94)      

    Marine economy has become an important engine of global economic development, the utilization of marine resources is related to the sustainable development of marine economy and the construction of maritime power. Using CiteSpace literature measurement method, and taking the marine resource literatures in CNKI and Web of Science databases research objects. Through the analysis of publishing institutions, publishing journals and keywords, this paper summarizes the general characteristics of marine resources research at home and abroad from 2000 to 2019. The results show that: (1) In the field of foreign marine resources research, the major countries (regions) that have published the largest number of articles and participated in more cooperation between countries (regions) are from Europe and North America. In China, the difference in scientific research output of various institutions is obvious, and the network of co-published articles presents a loose structure. (2) Foreign marine resources research mainly involves ecology, environmental science and oceanography, while domestic marine resources research is dominated by resources science, environmental science and human geography. (3) Foreign research tends to be mature with diversified research perspectives, paying more attention to issues such as integrated management of marine resources, marine resources and marine ecosystem, marine biological resources, sustainable development of marine resources and deep marine resources. Chinese research has great potential, and the phased research shows obvious policy guidance. Topics such as marine resources and marine economy, sustainable development of marine resources, marine resources and ecological environment, and governance of marine resources have become research hotspots in different periods. It is suggested that the development and utilization of marine resources should have the overall view and global vision, strengthen the basic research and practice of marine resources, transform the development mode of marine resources under the framework of human sea relationship, and strengthen the theory of marine resources.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors of water resources use in the Yellow River Basin
    SUN Siao, TANG Qiuhong
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2261-2273.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.01
    Abstract250)   HTML66)    PDF (8667KB)(86)      

    Along with the rapid population growth and socioeconomic development, the Yellow River Basin (YRB) in China is facing water scarcity. Given limited water resources availability in the YRB in the semi-arid and arid regions, water resources management on the demand side is essential for sustainable development in the region. Previous studies on driving forces of water use were mostly based on administrative units. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and change of water use in the YRB in 2003-2015 at the second-order basin scale. In addition, we examined the main influencing factors that drive the temporal and spatial changes of water use using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) method. The results indicated that the total water use in the YRB represented 8.0%~9.3% of the total water use in China. The total water use in the YRB exhibited an increasing trend, while water use per capita showed a decreasing trend. The main driving factors for the spatial evolution of water use in different second-order basins were different. The increasing water uses in the second-order YRBs were mainly attributed to population growth and per capita GDP increase, whereas water use efficiency improvement and industrial structure upgrading contributed to offsetting increasing water use. Per capita water uses in the second-order basins showed large spatial heterogeneity. The spatial LMDI results showd that water use intensity was the largest contributor to the spatial difference of per capita water uses. The effects of all the contributing factors to the spatial differences of per capita water use tended to decrease with time. The results are useful in informing relevant policies towards sustainable water use and management in the YRB.

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    Perspective on the development of Hainan Free Trade Zone (Port) from a political geography approach
    LIU Yungang, LIU Xuanyu
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 209-216.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.01
    Abstract377)   HTML14)    PDF (1112KB)(73)      

    The current situation in China and internationally is undergoing profound and complex changes, under which China needs to actively participate in and promote the process of economic globalization and the development of a higher level of open economy. Based on the political geography theories, this article discussed the theoretical basis of the establishment of a free trade port (FTP), used the concept of island to explore the geographical nature, situation, and extension of the construction of the Hainan FTP, and gave a preliminary consideration to the development prospect of the Hainan FTP. The research results show that the Hainan FTP has three goals and strategies: economic integration, regional influence, and global geopolitical competition, and its development processes reflect the integration of geopolitics and geostrategy. The Hainan FTP is a new development in the economic field of hierarchical sovereign management policies, as well as a conscious and proactive national re-scaling spatial development strategy in China, which has the dual processes of removing/reexpanding sideways. At the local level, the construction of the free trade port is an opportunity for Hainan Province to realize the spatial governance of urban areas in the future. At the national level, the Hainan FTP is an important strategic fulcrum for China to implement the “Belt and Road” initiative. Finally, the importance of the concepts of scale and island meta-geography to the study of island economy is reiterated.

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    Characteristics of the impact of corporate average fuel consumption-new energy vehicle credits (CAFC-NEV) mandate on the new energy vehicle industry: From the perspective of business and environmental performances
    LI Xu, XIONG Yongqing
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.01
    Abstract228)   HTML14)    PDF (3685KB)(67)      

    To promote the synchronous growth of business performance and environmental performance, the corporate average fuel consumption-new energy vehicle credits (CAFC-NEV) mandate was implemented in the new energy vehicle industry. The implementation can be divided into two stages: the “brewing period” (2014-2016) and the implementation period (2017-2018). Using new energy passenger vehicles as examples, this study examined the dynamic change of business performance and environmental performance of new energy vehicle enterprises from three dimensions significance, agility, and stability. The results show that: (1) The CAFC-NEV mandate had shown its positive effects during the brewing period, in which environmental performance growth was more significant and stable, and business performance responded more quickly to the policy; (2) The positive effects of the brewing period were further enhanced in the implementation period. The growth of business performance is more significant, and the environmental performance policy response is more agile and the growth is more stable. Accordingly, the CAFC-NEV mandate needs to further improve its adaptability, coverage, and precision and control the pace and strength of implementation by taking advantage of the policy signal release mechanism.

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    Resources Science    2021, 43 (7): 1275-1276.  
    Abstract111)   HTML28)    PDF (960KB)(65)      
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    Spatiotemporal change of urban green development efficiency in the Yellow River Basin and influencing factors
    YUE Li, XUE Dan
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (12): 2274-2284.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.12.02
    Abstract189)   HTML54)    PDF (5839KB)(64)      

    The Yellow River Basin plays an important role in the economic development and ecological security in China. Based on the panel data of 57 cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2005 to 2017, this study calculated the urban green development efficiency of the basin using the super-SBM (slacks-based measure) model, and constructed a Tobit model to empirically analyze the influencing factors of the green development efficiency of the basin. The results of this paper were as follows: (1) The overall green development efficiency of the basin is fluctuating and rising, with the highest in the upper reaches, followed by the lower reaches and the lowest is found in the middle reaches. The high efficiency values are concentrated in provincial capital cities such as Xining, Zhengzhou, Xi’an, and Taiyuan, and regional central cities such as Zhongwei, Wuwei, and Ordos. (2) Economic development and industrial structure upgrading can significantly improve the green development efficiency of the basin. The impact of urbanization on the green development efficiency of the basin presents a U-shaped curve. The use of foreign capital and science and technology development level have a negative impact on the green development efficiency of the basin. The impact of environmental regulations on the green development efficiency is not obvious. (3) The science and technology level and FDI have no significant impact on the green development efficiency of the upper reaches. The level of economic development has limited impact on the middle reaches, while upgrading industrial structure has negative impact on the green development efficiency of the middle reaches, and the impact of FDI on the the green development efficiency of the lower reaches is not significant. This study is of significance for improving the green development level of the Yellow River Basin and boosting the high-quality development of the region.

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    Spatial pattern and accessibility of Russian ski resorts
    LIU Chuanying, HUANG Jixia, WANG Li, YANG Linsheng, GE Quansheng
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 197-208.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.16
    Abstract542)   HTML5)    PDF (11033KB)(62)      

    The development of the Russian ski tourism industry has been relatively mature. Diversification of tourism and the opportunity to build the Polar Silk Road have brought great potential for the growth of the ice-snow tourism market in China and Russia. In this study, the spatial distribution characteristics of tourist ski resorts in Russia were quantified and examined with spatial analysis methods, which result in an index to evaluate the accessibility of ski resorts. There are three major findings. First, the ski resorts in Russia are dense in the west and sparse in the east, and their distribution is concentrated in six regions. Second, ski resorts in Russia can be reached within 15 hours on average. The areas of high accessibility, with travel time less than 6 hours, account for 40% of the total area of Russia. These regions with better accessibility are located in the mountainous areas of the East European Plain and the southern West Siberia, and tend to cluster along the main traffic lines. Finally, the federal districts surrounding Moscow have more geographical advantages with an ice-snow tourism industry of the largest scale and strength. Federations on both sides of the Ural Mountains have close relationship to the ski resorts. This article summarized the spatial distribution pattern as well as the advantages and disadvantages of Russia’s ski resorts with regard to their spatial layout. Key development recommendations were also put forward in this article to provide practical advices for China’s ice-snow tourism industry.

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    Implications of international experiences for the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port
    MENG Guangwen
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 217-228.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.02
    Abstract230)   HTML7)    PDF (1466KB)(61)      

    The planning and development of Hainan pilot free trade zone and Free Trade Port is not only out of the needs of Hainan’s development, but also an important measure and a strategic step for China to deepen reforms, expand opening up, achieve economic transformation, and respond to international competitions and challenges. The current research focuses on the theoretical basis, planning sce-narios, management mode, legal issues, and value and effect of Hainan free trade zone and domestic and international cases, but there is a lack of systematic and in-depth research on the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port. This study examined the types and functions, industrial development, spatial structure, policy and supervision, business environment, and risk prevention of Hainan Free Trade Port in an attempt to spur further debates among the policymakers and aca-demic community. Hainan Free Trade Port should become a pilot zone of the “double circulation” strategy, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and China-EU Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI), a complex and comprehensive free trade zone, which should take shipping logistics and international trade, and tourism and service trade as leading sectors, and research and development, manufacturing, and modern agriculture as auxiliary sectors. It should take the main island as the key platform, the outlying islands as the auxiliary, and various types of parks as the focus of development. On the basis of the management of the island’s customs zone, it should implement the management mode of “zones in free trade port”, and speed up the legislation of the Basic Law of Hainan Free Trade Port, which should be enacted to facilitate the free flow of goods, investments, capital, personnel, and information, and implement low tax policies, simplify the form and content of laws and regulations. In order to achieve sustainable development, Hainan should gradually improve the living environment and enhance the comprehensive transportation level, prevent economic and political risks, establish a coastal defense center and an illegal immigrant deporting center, and limit the development intensity of land and coastal zone and population size and density. This study has both theoretical and practical significance for enriching the academic research on free trade zones and the planning and development of Hainan Free Trade Port.

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    Implementation monitoring of territorial and spatial planning in metropolitan areas from the perspective of intercity functional linkages
    NIU Xinyi, LI Kaike
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 380-389.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.15
    Abstract160)   HTML0)    PDF (10275KB)(60)      

    Mobile positioning big data can play an important role in the implementation monitoring of territorial and spatial planning. Based on the theory of “space of flows”, the functional integration of metropolitan area is represented by intercity functional linkages in the area. The two intercity functional linkages of living-working and working-working are the signs of the functional integration of a metropolitan area. This study took Shanghai metropolitan area as an example, and proposed a set of methods for monitoring the functional integration of the metropolitan area with mobile positioning big data. First, mobile positioning big data can effectively quantify intercity functional linkages from intercity travels. Second, there are three application areas of mobile positioning big data in the implementation monitoring of territorial and spatial planning. The first is to delineate the scope of close connection in the metropolitan area using intercity functional linkages. The second is to describe and quantify the functional flow of resources brought by the industrial division in the metropolitan area. The third is to monitor the performance of transportation infrastructure in the metropolitan area. Finally, with functional integration as the goal, the spatial planning of the metropolitan area needs to be guided by a spatial system that supports intercity functional linkages. The system of “flow space” with intercity functional linkages should be one of the important contents of planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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    Spatiotemporal change of fractional vegetation cover in the Yellow River Basin during 2000-2019
    ZHANG Zhiqiang, LIU Huan, ZUO Qiting, YU Jintao, LI Yang
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 849-858.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.18
    Abstract212)   HTML7)    PDF (4914KB)(60)      

    A scientific understanding of the spatiotemporal change of the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) is of great significance for understanding the change of ecological environment quality and controlling soil erosion comprehensively. In this study, the MOD13Q1 data product and precipitation data from national meteorological stations during 2000-2019 were used to investigate the spatial pattern, temporal change, and future tendency of FVC in the YRB based on dimidiate pixel mode, simple linear regression model, and Hurst index. The results show that: (1) The FVC of the YRB shows an obvious rising tendency during 2000-2019, with a growth rate of 0.0603/10 a. Inter-monthly variation of the FVC presents a change process of increasing first and then decreasing, and the FVC reaches its peak (0.672) in August. (2) Spatially, the vegetational cover in the middle part of the YRB improved significantly during 2000-2019, while that in the northwest and west remained relatively low. (3) The FVC presents a step-like increase from northwest to southeast, and Henan Province has the best vegetation coverage among the nine provinces in the YRB. (4) Precipitation is a decisive factor in determining the spatial distribution of the FVC, but it has little influence on the inter-annual change of the FVC, and the influence degree on the middle reaches of the YRB is obviously greater than on the upper reaches. (5) Vegetational cover in the YRB will develop well, and the area with rising tendency of vegetation coverage accounts for 64.51% of the YRB. The research results provide some data support and scientific guidance for the formulation of ecological protection programs in the YRB.

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    Research progress on farmland ecological compensation mechanism based on ecosystem service evaluation
    LI Shuang, NIE Xin, ZHANG Anlu
    Resources Science    2020, 42 (11): 2251-2260.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2020.11.16
    Abstract197)   HTML2)    PDF (4101KB)(60)      

    In order to promote the ecological protection and restoration, the Party Central Committee has put forward new guidelines for the construction of ecological compensation system, and has carried out practice in key areas. However, the misalignment of supply and demand of ecosystem service leads to the uncertain participants and the inconsistent ecological compensation standards hinder the stable operation of the mechanism, which affects the implementation effect of the ecological compensation mechanism. Therefore, this paper analyzes the concept of ecosystem service supply and demand, summarizes the relationship between them, analyzes the definition and transport process of ecosystem service flow, introduces the main modeling methods of ecosystem service, and summarizes the current situation of farmland ecological compensation mechanism, compensation standards and identification of participants. Based on these, the shortcomings and future directions of ecosystem services assessment are pointed out, and the development trend of modeling methods of ecosystem services is summarized. Furthermore, this paper proposes feasible directions and ideas for the design and improvement of agricultural land ecological compensation mechanisms. According to the analysis, the main research progress is as follows: (1) The current ecosystem service assessment focuses on the function and potential, and ignores the intermediate process of ecosystem service delivery; (2) The modeling methods of ecosystem services are constantly improved, the technical threshold is raising, and more attention is paid to the integration of diversification and cross-discipline; (3) The scheme design of farmland ecological compensation mechanism needs to be improved in combination with spatial flow attributes. Therefore, to reasonably improve the agricultural land ecological compensation mechanism, the ecological compensation standard can be measured according to the spatial flow distribution of the agricultural land ecosystem service flow, and the participants can be determined by identifying the recipients of the ecosystem service benefits.

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    Resource endowment, economic foundation, and the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port
    CHENG Yeqing, ZHANG Jinping, CHEN Yan
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 229-240.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.03
    Abstract230)   HTML2)    PDF (4001KB)(59)      

    The construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port is a momentous measure of China’s reform and opening up and a major strategic decision scientifically planned by The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, which has great significance for China’s in-depth reform and innovation, establishing a new high-level open and modern economic system, supporting economic globalization, and building a community with a shared future for mankind. Facing the overall goals and practical needs of the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and from the perspective of comprehensive geographical research based on the policy interpretation and theoretical analysis of the overall plan of the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, this study analyzed the resource endowment, economic foundation, industrial transformation, and the existing problems in the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, and discussed the optimal allocation of resources and economic transformation path in response to regional changes, resource constraints, and economic globalization, aiming at providing a scientific basis and practical reference for promoting the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port. The study concluded that: (1) Hainan has superior geographical conditions and abundant natural resources, which can provide resource support for the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port, but it faces a number of resource constraints such as poor geographic proximity to major economic centers, insufficient reserve land resources, and shortage of high-end human resources. (2) Since the establishment of Hainan Province and the special economic zone, the economic scale of the region has continued to grow, the industrial structure has been continuously optimized, the level of industrial specialization has been improved, and the supporting capabilities of key industries have been enhanced, but there still exist outstanding problems such as relatively poor quality of economic growth, weak advantages of dominant industries, low degree of industrial specialization, and suboptimal industrial spatial layout. (3) We should pay more attention to the limitation of geographical location, shortcomings of resource and quality of economic growth of Hainan, and strengthen the construction of transport infrastructure and economic cooperation with the Chinese hinterland and the international market, optimize the allocation of natural and social resources, accelerate economic transformation and industrial upgrading, and promote its economic location advantages, resource guarantee capabilities, and economic quality and competitiveness, so as to promote the institutional reform and innovation, the construction of modern industrial systems, and the construction process of the Hainan Free Trade Port effectively and achieve the development goal of a high-level free trade port.

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    Change and ecological restoration of the dike-pond system in the Pearl River Delta: A case study of four villages in Foshan City
    CHEN Caixia, HUANG Guangqing, YE Yuyao, ZHAO Lingling, JIN Lixia, LIU Xulong
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 328-340.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.11
    Abstract152)   HTML4)    PDF (20895KB)(58)      

    The dike-pond system (DPS) has been recognized as a China Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems site. Its macro pattern changes have been widely concerned, but the micro village level research has not been paid enough attention. This study constructed an analytical framework for the qualitative analysis of change of the DPS. Taking Xiqiao, Nanjin, Qingtian, and Shiban Villages in Foshan City as examples, field research and semistructured interviews were used to analyze the process, characteristics, and mechanism of change of the DPS. The results show that the DPS has changed from the original combination of planting and breeding to a high density pond system. However, the DPS was closely combined with the living space of the nearby village settlements, forming ecological landscape pond, vegetable dike-fish pond, and so on. Under the background of urbanization and industrialization, the operation and management of rural collective economic organizations and farmers that prioritize economic benefits is the internal driver of the DPS change. Changing the operation mode of the DPS, giving full play to the comprehensive benefits of the system, reasonably managing the interface between DPS and urban-rural space, and combining with the conservation of agricultural and cultural heritage and rural culture of DPS are crucial for realizing the ecological restoration of the DPS in the Pearl River Delta. This study can provide some theoretical basis for the the sustainable development of agriculture and territorial spatial planning of the Pearl River Delta.

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    Carbon emissions of China’s nonferrous metal industry from the view of industrial chain and provincial differences
    QU Qiushi, WANG Limao, WANG Bo, XIANG Ning
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 756-763.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.10
    Abstract163)   HTML10)    PDF (2553KB)(58)      

    Nonferrous metal industry is one of the high energy consumption and emission sectors, also an important part of the realization of China’s 2030 carbon emission reduction target. Reducing carbon emissions is the key to develop the nonferrous metal industry sustainably. From the perspective of different sectors in the nonferrous metal industry, this study chose carbon emissions and carbon intensity to reveal the spatial and temporal differences in different sectors of the industry. The super efficiency slack-based measure-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model was built to evaluate the scale of carbon emission reduction. The research results show that: (1) From 2006 to 2016, the CO2 emissions of non-ferrous metal mining, smelting and processing industries were all increasing, and the carbon emission intensity was stable with a decrease.Nonferrous metal smelting and processing industry is the key sector of the nonferrous metal industry to achieve the carbon emission reduction target, with a total emission reduction scale of about 71.43 MtCO2, accounting for more than 90% of the total carbon emission reduction of nonferrous metal industry. (2) Due to the different geographical environment and production conditions, different provinces face different levels of carbon emission reduction. In the mining sector, Sichuan Province has a carbon emission reduction scale of about 0.97 MtCO2 and needs to be paid more attention. In the smelting and processing sector, Guangxi province has high carbon emissions and carbon intensity. While Shandong and Henan Provinces own more carbon emission reduction potential, with a carbon emission reduction scale of about 11.21 MtCO2 and 11.22 MtCO2, respectively, together accounting for 31% of the total carbon emission reduction scale in this sector. (3) Above all, Inner Mongolia, Henan, and Shandong play more important role in the carbon emission reduction of the nonferrous metal industry in China. The nonferrous metal smelting and processing industry is important for reducing the carbon emissions in those provinces. The quantitative assessment of carbon emission reduction potential in different production sectors and regions of non-ferrous metals can not only provide a basis for the formulation of carbon emission reduction policies, but also provide a reference for the formulation of carbon emission reduction policies to provinces.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution of China’s high quality economic development and its driving mechanism of scientific and technological innovation
    SUN Yixuan, CHENG Yu, LIU Na
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (1): 82-93.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.01.07
    Abstract168)   HTML7)    PDF (4052KB)(58)      

    Scientific and technological innovation plays an important role in the transformation of regional economic development model. It also has an important impact on the improvement of high quality economic development. This study was conducted in 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) of China. The super-efficiency slack-based measurement (Super-SBM) model was used to calculate the high quality development efficiency of China’s economy from 2000 to 2017 and analyze its temporal and spatial evolution characteristics. The spatial panel data regression model was used to explore the driving mechanism of technological innovation on high quality economic development. The conclusions are as following: (1) As a whole, the efficiency of high quality economic development has been on the rise, with the average value changed from 0.18 in 2000 to 0.44 in 2017. Spatially, there is a decline from the east coast to the central and western parts of the country. (2) From the overall regression results, the factors of scientific and technological innovation (the number of patents authorized, the proportion of R&D expenditure in GDP, and the full-time equivalent of R&D personnel) have a great driving effect on high quality economic development. Among the control variables, urbanization level and marketization degree also have a positive driving effect on high quality economic development, while industrial structure and environmental regulation show a inhibiting effect. (3) The regression results of the four regions show that high quality economic development in different regions is greatly driven by various factors of scientific and technological innovation. The eastern region is strongly driven by the number of patents authorized and the proportion of R&D expenditure in GDP. The number of patents authorized, the proportion of R&D expenditure in GDP, and the full-time equivalent of R&D personnel all have a positive driving effect on the western region. However, the central region and the northeast region are driven by the number of patents authorized and the full-time equivalent of R&D personnel respectively.This study provides an important reference for countries and regions to improve the level of scientific and technological innovation and economic development.

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    Evaluation of harmonious development of economy-population-resource-environment in the lower reaches of the Yellow River
    LIU Jianhua, HUANG Liangchao, ZUO Qiting
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (2): 412-422.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.02.18
    Abstract192)   HTML4)    PDF (5786KB)(57)      

    With the rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization, the relationship between the economy, population, resources, and environment of the lower reaches of the Yellow River became increasingly complicated with clear conflicts. Quantitative assessment of their harmonious development level is of great significance for the high-quality development of the lower Yellow River Basin. This study constructed a harmonious development level evaluation index system from four aspects: economy, population, resources, and environment, adopting a single indicator quantification-multiple indicator synthesis-multiple criteria integration evaluation method to evaluate the harmonious development level of the economy, population, resources, and environment in 17 cities in the lower reaches of the Yellow River in Henan and Shandong Provinces from 2010 to 2018. Radar chart and boxplot were used to analyze the time-varying process, and Kriging interpolation was used to analyze the spatial change process. The results show that: (1) The overall degree of harmony in the lower reaches of the Yellow River is only moderate, but it has been steadily increasing year by year. The economic subsystem shows the highest development level, followed by the environmental subsystem, and the population and resources subsystems show a lower development level; (2) In terms of spatial distribution, the level of harmonious development presents a high-level cluster centered on Zhengzhou and Jinan, and low-level clusters in the peripheral cities of the two provinces. Finally, based on the characteristics of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the advantages and disadvantages of the harmonious development process were analyzed by different urban agglomerations, and suggestions for promoting the harmonious development of the lower reaches of the Yellow River were proposed from the perspective of structural adjustment. This study aimed to provide data support and policy recommendations for the harmonious development of the lower reaches of the Yellow River by quantifying the level of the harmonious development of economy, population, resources, and environment.

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    China’s carbon emission responsibility and image from the perspective of global supply chain
    LIU Hongda, ZHANG Jijian, ZHANG Xi
    Resources Science    2021, 43 (4): 652-668.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2021.04.02
    Abstract213)   HTML7)    PDF (6233KB)(56)      

    Under the goal of carbon neutrality, adjusting the carbon emission relationship between countries based on the supply chain and clarifying China’s carbon emission responsibilities and image is of great significance for China to deepen green development and realize low-carbon transformation. Based on the perspective of global supply chain, introduce carbon emission issues in production and trade, and build a carbon supply chain measurement and analysis model. Based on the data of 43 countries in the WIOD database from 2008 to 2014, this paper first clarifies China’s domestic production length and foreign production length at the production end of the carbon supply chain, as well as China’s carbon export and carbon import scale at the trade end of the carbon supply chain; second, summary It also measures the net carbon exports and domestic carbon emissions of 19 major countries in the world, including China and the United States, and compares and analyzes the carbon leakage and carbon emission reductions of the above-mentioned countries, so as to analyze and characterize China’s carbon emissions responsibility and image. Finally, based on the production and trade end of the carbon supply chains of 19 major countries in the world, we summarize the domestic and foreign conditions of the carbon supply chains of each country, and further explore China’s carbon emission responsibility and image adjustment direction from the perspective of the global supply chain. The results show that: (1) China’s domestic production length presents the characteristics of secondary, tertiary, and first industrial cascading attenuation, and foreign production lengths are obviously decreasing, and key industries such as energy and electrical are in a low-end lock-in dilemma; (2) China’s annual average carbon exports and carbon imports are respectively The carbon scale reached 880.375 MT and 401.328 MT, ranking the top in the world; (3) China contributed 41.21% of the net carbon export share, and the US, Britain and Japan rules formed a carbon leakage gap of 686.511 MT. China is the world’s largest net carbon exporter in the world. The supply chain system assumes active carbon emission responsibilities; The carbon emissions in China, the United States and Russia have reached more than 1000 MT, but China’s carbon emission reduction rate has reached 3.79%, which is significantly higher than the United States’ 2.07% and Russia’s -1.05%. Utilization rate presents the image of carbon emission reduction; (4) China’s domestic and foreign carbon supply chains are in a state of “wild boar”, and the quality of carbon supply chains needs to be improved; developed countries mostly appear in the state of “buffalo” in domestic carbon supply chains, with a shrinking economy Reduced production capacity and carbon emissions; in foreign carbon supply chains, most developed countries have a “turtle-like” characteristic, with weak carbon emission reductions and shirk responsibility for carbon emissions. Therefore, China must adjust its industrial structure for production links, get rid of industrial dependence, continue to uphold the responsibility of a major country in reducing carbon emissions, and present a positive image of carbon emissions.

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