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    Does the Rocky Desertification Control Project promote county economic development? An empirical analysis based on DID methods using 88 counties' panel data of Guangxi
    Juan PANG, Ruiping RAN
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 196-206.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.18
    Abstract593)   HTML38)    PDF (2976KB)(3552)      

    The Rocky Desertification Control Project (RDCP) has become a major ecological restoration and livelihood project in the karst areas of Southwest China, which could prevent soil erosion, restore ecological environment, promote social and economic development, and improve household's livelihood. The impact of the RDCP is a major issue worthy of attention. This study theoretically analyzed the influencing mechanism of the RDCP on the development of County economic and evaluated the RDCP's economic impact based on panel data collected from 88 counties of Guangxi province from 2006 to 2016, using the Difference-in-Difference (DID) method. We first estimated the average impact of the RDCP on county economic development. Then we evaluated the dynamic impact of the RDCP, using the panel fixed effect model. The results illustrate that RDCP has a sustainably positive and statistically significant impact on the county economic development. Regardless of whether other variables are controlled, the economic development level of the treat group is significantly higher than that of the control group. Furthermore, the longer the RDCP is implemented, the greater the impact is. It means that with the help of various favorable policy measures for the RDCP, the rocky desertification areas can continuously accumulate favorable factors for economic development and form a “cyclical accumulation. ” With conducting the robustness test, we found that the results of the empirical analysis are reliable. The DID method can indeed give a reasonable estimate of the causal effects of the RDCP and county economic development. The results confirm the positive impact of the first phase of RDCP on the economic development. RDCP will have an important policy implication for the second phase of the RDCP and the establishment of relevant policies.

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    Dynamic analysis of PM 2.5 spatial-temporal characteristics in China
    XIONG Huanhuan, LIANG Longwu, ZENG Zeng, WANG Zhenbo
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (1): 136-146.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.14
    Abstract551)   HTML23)    PDF (2633KB)(1611)      

    Based on PM2.5 concentration observation data for 2014 and 2015 from 190 medium and large cities in China we look at changes in PM2.5 concentration and trends in spatial agglomeration. We found that in 2015,the average PM2.5 concentrations in China decreased by 10% compared with 2014,the number of days of compliance enhanced by 4.4%,and the air quality improved obviously. Spring improved the most,followed by summer,autumn and winter. In December 2015,the pollution was worse than the same period in 2014. The other months were improved,with the largest decrease in June (21.48%),and a decline of less than 10% in February,August and September. In 2015,the pollution area of PM2.5 was less than that in 2014,and the pollution core area spread from Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei to the northwest and north of Henan. The areas where there were large declines in PM2.5 annual average concentration were mainly in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region,Yangtze River Delta,middle reaches and other urban agglomerations; cities with rapid growth in the average daily standard days were mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta,Pearl River Delta and Chengyu urban agglomerations. In contrast to PM2.5 in 2014,the concentration of PM2.5 was more obvious in 2015,the concentration of high-value areas decreased,and the hot spots were more densely distributed in the North China Region centered around the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. Hot agglomeration regions showed a multi-center cluster phenomenon. Based on the above situation,it is necessary to speed up the construction of institution-supported multi-center supervision and governance mode. In the North China Region we should build a management-supported multi-regional linkage governance mode,construct public environmental consciousness governance supported by environmental ethics,and incorporate these into the Chinese cultural rejuvenation system.

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    Impacts of industrial structural change on energy intensity in China
    Xiaowei MA, Xiuqing SHI, Yinghui WANG, Hua LIAO
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (12): 2299-2309.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.12.09
    Abstract337)   HTML15)    PDF (1089KB)(1360)      

    Since the reform and opening up, China’s total energy intensity has shown an overall downward trend. It will contribute to promote energy conservation and emission reduction if we determine the factors influencing total energy intensity. Here we decomposed energy intensity into structural effects and efficiency effects,and analyzed reasons causing the decline in China’s total energy intensity and industrial energy intensity from the angles of each industry and industrial sectors based on structural decomposition analysis(SDA). We found that the decrease in China’s energy intensity was mainly due to improvements in energy utilization efficiency of the three major industries. However,the change in industrial structure hindered the drop in total energy intensity before 2013 and played a weak positive role after 2013. From the impacts of four industries on total energy intensity,the structural factor of Industry,Construction and Tertiary Industry had a negative impact on total energy intensity,which was greater than the positive impact of the Primary Industry. While the efficiency factor of Industry,Construction and Tertiary Industry predominantly led to the fall of total energy intensity in China. The decline in industrial energy intensity was jointly driven by change in the internal structure of Industry and the improvement of industrial sectoral energy utilizing efficiency,among which the decrease in industrial sectoral energy intensity played a leading role. From impacts of industrial sectors on industrial energy intensity,the influence of the structural effect and efficiency effect of industrial sectors was focused on several sectors. Change in the structure and efficiency of key high energy-consumption industries played an important role in promoting the decrease in industrial energy intensity. The influence of structural and efficiency change in some industrial sectors on industrial energy intensity has become increasingly evident. These industrial sectors have a relatively rapid pace of development. Based on these findings,some suggestions are put forward to provide support for formulating energy-saving strategies.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    A review of resources and environment carrying capacity research since the 20 th Century:from theory to practice
    Zhiming FENG, Yanzhao YANG, Huimin YAN, Tao PAN, Peng LI
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (3): 379-395.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.03.01
    Abstract530)   HTML26)    PDF (837KB)(1258)      

    Carrying Capacity(CC)was first coined in biology and ecology in the 1920s,and later developed rapidly in related sciences such as natural resources science and environment science. The concept of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC),from theoretical investigation to practical implementation,has become an effective and operational tool to describe development restrictions and quantify regional sustainable development. RECC research has become a hot topic methodologically and theoretically in ecology,geography and natural resource and environment. It primarily focuses on the ultimate limit of population and economic development on earth. After briefly looking at the origin of the concept and early headway,we summarize RECC research from land resource carrying capacity,water resource carrying capacity,and environmental carrying capacity(environment capacity). The following evaluating methods,including ecological footprint and virtual land (or the biological productive land by ecological footprint),water footprint and virtual water (or the global flow of virtual water),emergy analysis and virtual energy(or energy equilibrium),are considered as important research progresses in the past century. However,there is still lack of a standard set of evaluation theories and methodologies for RECC research in China and globally,leading to much debate over the objectivity and comparability of resultant figures. Concerning this issue,we propose that RECC research in the future should pay more attention to enhancing exploratory studies in basic theories and carrying mechanisms,thresholds determination and synthetical calculation,technological standards/manuals setting,measurable assessment and systematical integration. More effort is needed to promote the standardization,digitalization and systematization of RECC research in China before according with national practical and operational demands.

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    Cited: CSCD(66)
    Evaluation and spatio-temporal analysis for agricultural water poverty in China
    Hua ZHANG, Lili WANG
    Resources Science    2019, 41 (1): 75-86.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.08
    Abstract287)   HTML18)    PDF (3293KB)(1249)      

    In this paper, the concept of "agricultural water poverty" is put forward under the guided by the idea of improving the efficiency of water use in agriculture. Based on the conceptual definition and evaluation index system of agricultural water poverty, the POME-two-level fuzzy pattern recognition model was used to evaluate the agricultural water poverty index of 30 provinces (cities) in China from 2000 to 2016 under the common constraints of existing water resource endowment, water supply facilities, water resource use, ecological environment and social economy, education and people's life. Then calculated by Exploratory Time-space Data Analysis (ESTDA) to analysis its dynamic spatial and temporal pattern from the perspective of time and space coupling. The results show that: Although China has a serious problem of agricultural water poverty, the degree of agricultural water poverty in most provinces (cities) is alleviating. The agricultural water poverty of provinces (cities) in most years has a significant spatial negative correlation, and the spatial difference is gradually expanding. Compared with the southwest region, south China and east China have more dynamic local spatial structure. The spatial and temporal dependence is weak in northeast and northwest China. The spatial pattern of agricultural water poverty has strong spatial integration, the provinces (cities) that showed the same trend increased are mainly distributed in East China and South China, and the provinces (cities) that showed the same trend decreased are mainly distributed in the northern regions. The local spatial linkage of agricultural water poverty in provinces (cities) is relatively weak, and the spatial clustering has relatively high path-locking characteristics. In addition, the countermeasures and suggestions for reducing agricultural water poverty are put forward to provide reference for China's agricultural water resources management and sustainable development.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Research progress of agricultural heritage in China based on literature statistics
    Yongxun ZHANG, Lulu HE, Qingwen MIN
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 175-187.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.01
    Abstract456)   HTML5)    PDF (1276KB)(1247)      

    Agricultural heritage systems have been attracting researchers across diverse subjects and the literature on agricultural heritage systems increased rapidly in the past decade. In the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database,513 published papers about agricultural heritage were screened from 2005 to 2015 using key words. Based on analysis of these papers,we found that research on agricultural heritage systems is still in a primary stage and that research is mainly concentrated on ecology,resources and agronomy. The institutes researching agricultural heritage are mainly distributed in Beijing. Northwest and northeast China have many GIAHS and China-NIAHS sites but hardly have any institutes. Most authors are young and with a high education degree and high professional title,thus is good for development of the subject. Studies are becoming more comprehensive due to more researcher participation from different subjects. Current studies are mainly qualitative,and quantitative studies using scientific experiments and field surveys are lacking. Even so,compared with other countries,China is a global leader in research on agricultural heritage,but some topics like the change in agricultural heritage systems lack depth. Several key research fields need be enhanced in the future:more researchers from other subjects and from institutes near to GIAHS and China-NIAHS sites to participate in different topics associated agricultural heritage;enhancing basic research on characteristics of agricultural heritage and scientific connotation;strengthening monitoring and estimation methods and practice measures; changes in designated agricultural heritage systems;and industrial development research in agricultural heritage sites.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    Land use patterns of the Xiongan New Area and comparison among potential choices of start zone
    Luguang JIANG, Peiyi LV, Zhiming FENG, Ye LIU
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (6): 991-998.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.06.01
    Abstract929)   HTML38)         

    China announced plans on 1 April 2017 to create the Xiongan New Area,a new economic zone about 110km southwest of Beijing. The new area covers the counties of Xiongxian,Rongcheng and Anxin in Hebei province,and is home to Baiyangdian,a major wetland in northern China. This is a new area of national significance. It will cover around 100km2 initially (termed as the start zone)and will be expanded to 200km2 in the mid-term and 2000km2 in the long term. It is important to reveal and analyze the land use pattern for planning and development. Based on remote sensing interpretation from Landsat OLI images,current land use features,potential of built-up land saving and intensive use,and spatial variation of arable land quality were analyzed. Three potential choices for the start zone are listed and compared. The results indicate that the proportion of arable land,built-up land and wetland are around 60%,20% and 10% respectively. The potential for rural built-up land savings and intensive use is large. The arable land quality and use intensity in Rongcheng and Anxin counties are much better than that of Xiongxian. Among three potential choices, the medium plot is the best suitable start zone. Policy recommendations on built-up land expansion,farmland saving and flood risk mitigation for the Xiongan New Area are discussed.

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    Cited: Baidu(3) CSCD(8)
    Land spatial development and suitability for city construction based on ecological-living-industrial space——take Ningbo City as an example
    WU Yanjuan,YANG Yanzhao,YANG Ling,ZHANG Chao,YOU Zhen
    Resources Science    2016, 38 (11): 2072-2081.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2016.11.06
    Abstract557)   HTML8)    PDF (3619KB)(1195)      

    The reasonable and orderly development of ecological-living-industrial spaces is of great significance for land function combination,ordering spatial development,guiding population resource environments and ensuring socio-economic sustainable development in urban areas. In this study,a set of frameworks for the suitability evaluation of spatial development suitability for city construction was built,from the perspective of the ecological-living-industrial function of land resources. The spatial suitability method was applied to evaluate spatial suitability for city construction in Ningbo city,using GIS technology with comprehensive territory spatial partition of ‘puff pastry’ means. The results show that in 2012,the ecological space of Ningbo covered 5872 km2,which accounted for 60.35% of the total area,and the distribution was mainly in Ningxiang in southern Ningbo. Industrial space covered an area of 2442km2,accounting for 25.10% of the total area,and the distribution was concentrated in central and northern plains in Ningbo. Living space covered an area of 1415.78km2,accounting for 14.55% of the total area and concentrated in six core areas of Ningbo. There was more unsuitable region for city construction space than other types in Ningbo in 2012;the unsuitable area was 5655km2 and the rate of ecological,industrial and living spaces was 34 9 1. The critical suitable space area was 2279km2,and the ecological and industrial space rate was 2 1. More suitable space was 1526km2,and the industrial and living space ratio was 1:2. Generally suitable space was last at 268km2. The development potential is larger in Yuci in the north and Ningxiang in the south. Even though the territory spatial development suitability for construction was better in the center,it has a long history of development and the development potential was limited. It would be appropriate to revitalize this stock and improve its efficiency.

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    Spatial distribution characteristics and mechanistic drivers of self-driving and RV camping in China
    Feng LI, Degen WANG, Changxue LIU, Feng SUN
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 288-302.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.11
    Abstract534)   HTML8)    PDF (2888KB)(1159)      

    With development of the social economy,self-driving tours,camping tourism,and outdoor adventures are on the rise. Self-driving and RV camp construction have become important ways to upgrade the infrastructure and develop the leisure economy. With the help of GIS technology,analyzing the overall characteristics of the distribution of national camps,a dendrogram shows the camp aggregation in ten plates,focusing on the driving mechanism for the development of self-driving and RV camp. From a national perspective,the distribution of camps is not in a state of equilibrium condensation (R = 0.588): the Bohai Rim,Yangtze River Delta,Pearl River Delta,Chengdu-Chongqing,Hunan and Hubei,central part of Inner Mongolia,the central and western part of Yunnan,Yanbian Jilin,west coast of Fujian Strait and northeastern Qinghai are the ten largest plates of camps. Camps tend to cluster in coastal areas,provincial cities and hot spots in central and western tourist cities. The future development of camps will be a new pattern of gathering-diffusion. From the perspective of spatial and temporal trends of self-driving and RV camping,market conditions,natural resources,transportation networks and the policy environment are the main factors affecting camp construction. Among them,the expansion of the consumer market,the increased marketing of camping products and concepts,the attraction of high endowment resources,the support of excellent ecological environments,the improvement of traffic levels and traffic line design,the use of landscape corridor spaces,the support and guidance of national policy and standards setting and planning of local policy are secondary elements that will promote the development of camps.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    The relationship between industrial land price and industrial structure change
    Jinsheng HUANG, Ligen CHEN, Yaoyu ZHANG, Aidong ZHAO
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (4): 585-596.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.04.01
    Abstract407)   HTML6)    PDF (1150KB)(1123)      

    Land resources are the basic carrier and the spatial constraint of industrial development, whereby its various functions support the continuous evolution of industrial structure. And the role of land played supports the change of the industrial structure, in turn, the industrial structure change also shape the demand of land factor. The industrial land price change is closely related to the industrial structure change. Therefore, the research on the interactive effect between the industrial land price change and industrial structure change has a positive consequence to promote the reform of land market and the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure. Based on the Chinese industrial land transaction database over the period 2007-2013, this paper constructs a PVAR model of linking industrial land price and the industrial structure change, and empirical analyzes the interactive effect between the change of industrial land price and industrial structure change and its regional heterogeneity. The results show that industrial land price change and industrial structure change could coordinates with each other but this relationship differs across regions. Specifically, in Eastern China, as the highly level of urban land marketization, the rising of industrial land price effective contributes to the industrial structure upgrading and optimization. In central China, an coordinated relationship between industrial land price and industrial upgrading has already exist, however, it's worth noting that high level of industrial land price is harmful to the industrial optimization in Central China. In western China, industrial land price increases are not only not conducive to the upgrading of industrial structure,but also not conducive to the optimization of industrial structure, but this interactive effect is not significant. The regional differences of the interactive effects between industrial land price change and industrial structure change are due to the significant differences in the level of economic development and land marketization in different regions. Evidence from this study suggests that the Eastern China should further advance the industrial land marketization to accommodate the regional industrial change; the central China should pay more attention to the coordination of industrial land marketization and industrial structure change and keep a relatively low level of land price; while the Western China should give the priority to the industrial marketization and then consider the regulation of land price level.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Assessment of the carbon footprint of rice production in China
    Xing WANG, Xin ZHAO, Yuqiao WANG, Jianfu XUE, Hailin ZHANG
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (4): 713-722.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.04.12
    Abstract609)   HTML7)    PDF (1830KB)(1104)      

    Global warming has raised public concern and reducing anthropogenic carbon emissions has become a heated issue. Agriculture plays an important role in greenhouse gas (GHG)emission and offsetting. Rice is one of China’s three major cereal crops and assessing the carbon footprint (CF)of rice production is a vital component of low-carbon goal in China’s agriculture. Data from China Agricultural Statistics from 2004 to 2014 were collected for estimating CF and its components in rice production. The results showed that GHG emissions and CF per area were observed an annual average increase rate of 2.12 billionkgCO2-eq,32.58kgCO2-eq/ha respectively,and annual reduction of CF per yield is -2.82kgCO2-eq/t. Results varied among provinces. For example,the average CF per unit area of rice was the highest in Jiangsu at 7411.91kgCO2-eq/ha and the least in Heilongjiang province at 4305.87kgCO2-eq/ha;average CF per unit of production was highest in Hainan at 2.36 times higher than Jilin Province (the lowest one). In the double cropping rice area of southern China(Guangxi,Guangdong and Fujian)and the double cropping rice area of central China (Jiangsu,Hunan and Jiangxi),the carbon footprints are higher than the national average. CH4 emissions were the largest component of CF,accounting for 85.05% of the total carbon emission following by agricultural inputs for 14.95%,and fertilizer inputs for 10.25% of the agricultural inputs. Strategies to reduce GHGs emissions and improve carbon efficiency in rice production depends on a combination of field operations such as intermittent irrigation,suitable usage of fertilization and other agricultural inputs,and improved mechanical efficiency.

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    Cited: CSCD(11)
    Spatial heterogeneity in factors affecting Chongqing housing prices
    Yingli LI, Yong LIU, Xiuhua LIU
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 335-345.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.15
    Abstract418)   HTML6)    PDF (1931KB)(1081)      

    Based on price data of 2,449 housing projects in the main district of Chongqing in 2015,we used hedonic price modeling,spatial expansion modeling and geographically weighted regression (GWR)modeling to simulate the spatial heterogeneity in impact factors of housing price for this polycentric mountainous city. After comparing the three models,we found that the spatial expansion model and the GWR model performed better than the hedonic price model,and the GWR model performed better than the spatial expansion model when considering effectiveness and accuracy. In addition,the GWR model proved to be an effective method to explore spatial heterogeneity,which can reflect the spatial patterns of heterogeneity visually. A few variables,such as building age,distance to city center,and distance to city subcenters,were the most important factors affecting housing prices. The variable of TPI had a significant effect on housing price. When the terrain was flatter,the price would get higher,too. The effect of each factor on housing price varied spatially and significantly. The spatial pattern of polycentric cities such as Chongqing was more complex than for monocentric cities. The complexity was mainly considered to be closely related to the constraints of natural barriers and strategies of polycentric urban development in Chongqing. Polycentric development broke the monopoly of the housing submarket and increased the effective supply of housing in limited spaces of Chongqing. However,high-profile houses are still concentrated in the narrow valley floors between Zhongliang and the Tongluo Mountains where high-quality public facilities are located. Considering the lag in supply of public facilities in suburbs,substantial funds are needed to improve the accessibility of suburban housing to better public facilities.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    Chinese national park system pilot:establishing path and research issues
    ZHONG Linsheng, XIAO Lianlian
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.01
    Abstract438)   HTML22)    PDF (1036KB)(1067)      

    National park systems are spreading widely around the world and aim to protect natural and cultural heritage owned by all people. In 2015,the Chinese government announced its pilot work in building national parks in 12 provinces,and the country has began to explore new approaches in protected area management. Under a framework of ecological civilization construction,the goals of China’s national park system include:establish a rational national park system that is unified and efficient for protected area management;build a replicable and propagable national park management model;promote optimization of China’s current protected area system;and reinforce the construction of ecological civilization system. Here we explore the identification and substantive characteristics of national parks that makes them different from other types of protected areas in China. Creating a national park system is an important step in the process of ecological civilization and governance innovation according to sustainable development theory,new public service theory,and adaptive governance theory. We then present a route for creating a national park system,including highlighting ecological protection in the first place,conducting unified and standardized management,clarifying natural resource property rights,innovating operation and management,and promoting community development. Several safeguard mechanisms to ensure success of the pilot,including sector coordination,planning,fund safeguarding,and public participation are needed. Ten issues for future research into national parks in China are proposed, covering issues such as resource management,organizational construction,rules formulation and community management.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    The study on the impact of industrial structure upgrading on energy efficiency in China based on the data from 1978 to 2013
    LV Mingyuan,CHEN Weixuan
    Resources Science    2016, 38 (7): 1350-1362.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2016.07.15
    Abstract386)   HTML6)    PDF (1311KB)(1056)      

    The difference in the contribution of industrial structural upgrading to energy efficiency needs to be studied from the structural evolution direction as different directions have different influences on energy efficiency. We decomposed the structural evolution direction into two dimensions of industrial structure rationalization and industrial structure optimization,rebuilt the industrial structural upgrading evaluation index on the basis of factor productivity of labor and capital,and analyzed the effects of industrial structural upgrading on energy efficiency and its growth rate using regular,growth and elastic models. We found that the industrial structural evolution direction has a significant influence on energy efficiency and its growth rate;the improvement in energy efficiency is mainly because of optimization of industrial structure,while a decrease in rationalization level inhibits improvements in energy efficiency and its growth rate. The expansion of the gap between the two directions of industrial structural rationalization and industrial structural optimization is likely to lead to further negative effects to energy efficiency and its growth rate. The rise in the proportion of clean energy in energy consumption structure has a positive effect on improving energy efficiency and its growth rate. Therefore,we believe that the future trend of industrial policy should be to change the status of irrational industrial structure,reduce its inhibitory effect on energy efficiency,and narrow the gap between industrial structural rationalization and optimization. The tendency of future energy policy should improve the proportion of clean energy consumption and substitute energy inputs from natural and other clean energy sources to promote energy efficiency and its growth.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Review and prospects of national metal resource security
    Chang WANG, Huiling SONG, Lvshui ZUO, Jianbai HUANG
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (5): 805-817.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.01
    Abstract436)   HTML14)    PDF (809KB)(1049)      

    Metal resources are critical materials for Chinese economic development,and their security is closely related to national security. Here we systemically review the connotation and mechanisms,driving factors,evaluation methods,national strategies and policies of national metal resource security(NMRS). The content of NMRS covers the security of supply,price and environment. The key factors that influence the security status of NMRS are resource endowment,economic development,technical progress,and ecological environment. In principle,existing studies apply three approaches to assess the criticality of metals,criticality matrices,criticality indices and quantitative future supply and demand analysis. The most used approaches in metal demand forecasting are the trend extrapolation method,bottom-up approach and mathematical statistics. The market power and pricing of metals are estimated by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index,Lerner index,and equilibrium game models. Different strategies and policy tools for metal security are adopted by countries or regions depending on their national circumstances. Based on these findings and the needs of social development,future study in NMRS should focus mainly on the following four areas:(1)comprehensive research on the mechanism of NMRS;(2)the influence of new technological revolution on NMRS;(3)impacts of changing international trade rules and pricing mechanism on NMRS;and (4)evaluation of the impact of international significant strategies on NMRS.

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    Cited: Baidu(3) CSCD(9)
    Drivers of regional agricultural land changes based on spatial autocorrelation in the Pearl River Delta,China
    CAO Qiwen,WU Jiansheng,TONG De,ZHANG Xiaona,LU Zhiqiang,SI Menglin
    Resources Science    2016, 38 (4): 714-727.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2016.04.13
    Abstract364)   HTML4)    PDF (956KB)(1048)      

    Land use/cover change(LUCC)is at the core of global change and agricultural land change is important in the study of LUCC. With socio-economic development,pressure on agri-cultural land protection has been increasing in China. To develop sustainable land use policy, we need to understand regional agricultural land changes and driving forces. Using land use monitoring data,basic geographic spatial data and statistical yearbooks,we analyzed characteristic of agricultural land change in the Pearl River Delta Area,China. Traditional Logistic modeling and AutoLogistic modeling which bring in spatial autocorrelation were compared to investigate the drivers of agricultural land change at regional scale from the perspectives of natural,socio-economic,spatial distance and spatial autocorrelation of land use characteristics. We found that cultivated land and forest in this region decreased from 2000 to 2010,leading to further fragmentation. Cultivated land has become a main source of expansion of construction land. And,both spatial autocorrelation of agricultural land property and land development intensity are important driving forces of agricultural land change. As for other driving forces,cultivated land change was mainly affected by factors such as ‘change of per kilometer GDP',‘distance to nearest railway',‘change of total population density',‘tendency rate of annual sunshine hours'. Forest changes were mainly affected by ‘change of per kilometer GDP',‘change of total population density',‘slope' and ‘distance to nearest road'. Compared with traditional Logistic modeling,the AutoLogistic model is more suited to study driving forces of regional agricultural land change.

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    Spatial analysis of the relationship between urban land price and urbanization rate:an empirical study of 80 counties in Hubei
    Shengfu YANG, Shougeng HU, Shijin QU
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 325-334.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.14
    Abstract448)   HTML7)    PDF (4855KB)(1045)      

    This paper aims to study the spatial distribution characteristics between urbanization and land value. This work will help promote rational land price competition for adjacent towns and coordinate the development of regional urbanization. We discussed the spatial characteristics of commercial,residential and industrial land price of 80 cities in Hubei,China,which is functioned by the coordinated development of the Wuhan urban agglomeration. Geographically weighted regression (GWR)analysis was conducted. The relationship between urbanization rate and land price was explored in detail. The result showed that the distribution of commercial and residential land prices has spatial differences and weak concentration,but the differences are relatively small and weakly discrete for the industrial land price. Instead of showing a consistent relationship among different cities and corresponding relationships with the economy,the regional distribution of relationships between urbanization and land price shows obvious spatial differentiation. The positive influences of urbanization on commercial land price in a descending order were: central Hubei, east Hubei and west Hubei. Urbanization had a positive influence on residential land price in the east Hubei than west Hubei,but a significantly negative influence occurred in west Hubei. The positive influence degree of urbanization on industrial land price was the east Hubei, central Hubei and west Hubei. Therefore,under the background of rapid urbanization,government regulators should strengthen cohesion between central cities and surrounding areas to guide the agglomeration and distribution of population, which will improve the coordinated development of urbanization between the Wuhan megalopolis and eco-tourism and cultural circles in Western Hubei. Furthermore, on account of the regional disparity of east, central and west Hubei, we should attach great importance to the leverage of land price during urbanization, regulate and control precisely in different land use types and curb improper competition in land price.

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    Provincial animal husbandry carbon emissions in China and temporal-spatial evolution mechanism
    Chengsheng YAO, Shuangshuang QIAN, Zhengtong LI, Longwu LIANG
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (4): 698-712.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.04.11
    Abstract348)   HTML12)    PDF (3545KB)(1022)      

    Using life cycle assessment (LCA)methods,animal husbandry carbon emissions in 31 provinces of China from 2000-2014 were measured and spatial and temporal characteristics revealed. Using dynamic panel data model (GMM),the interaction mechanisms between animal husbandry carbon emissions,per capita net income of rural residents (PCNIRR),per capita disposable income of urban residents (PCDIUR)and urbanization were also analyzed. We found that from 2000 to 2014,the total amount of animal husbandry carbon emissions in China increased from 126.936 million tons to 131.335 million tons,with average annual growth rate of 0.244%,of which gastrointestinal fermentation of livestock and manure management systems carbon emissions were the two main sources,accounting for 74.14%~79.67% of total animal husbandry carbon emissions. During the study period,China's high and low animal husbandry carbon emissions areas were relatively stable,while slightly high and moderate animal husbandry carbon emission areas showed clear dynamic evolution. High animal husbandry carbon emissions areas were mostly located in prairie areas or major grain producing areas of China,and the top 10 animal husbandry carbon emissions provinces accounted for 57.50% of the total animal husbandry carbon emissions in China. During 2000-2007,prairie pastoral areas were increasingly the center of animal husbandry carbon emissions,however this shifted to farming pastoral areas from 2007-2014. The coefficients of PCNIRR,PCDIUR and urbanization to animal husbandry carbon emission were 0.078,0.127 and -0.145,respectively,meaning that interactions between these three factors will determine future temporal and spatial evolution patterns of animal husbandry carbon emission growth in China.

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    Cited: Baidu(5) CSCD(5)
    Effects of fertilization on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy fields in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River based on Meta-analysis
    ZHU Liqun, WANG Chunjie, YANG Manjun, LI Jing, CHEN Ligen
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (1): 105-115.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.11
    Abstract390)   HTML7)    PDF (1941KB)(991)      
    Agricultural greenhouse emissions are an important source of emissions responsible for climate warming. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of fertilization management (Inorganic nitrogen fertilization(N),Inorganic nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilization (NPK),Inorganic and organic fertilization(OF))on greenhouse emissions,net emission reduction potential and greenhouse gas intensity we used 40 documents on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy fields in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River and 339 sets of data. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of the three fertilization modes on CH 4 and N 2O emissions,fertilization times and fertilization application. The results showed that the effects sizes of N,NPK and OF on annual CH 4 emissions were 0.24,0.27 and 0.63,respectively. While the effect sizes of N,NPK and OF on annual N 2O emissions were 1.25,1.26 and 1.41,respectively. The effect sizes of N,NPK and OF on CH 4 and N 2O emissions increased with increasing fertilization time. The effects size of OF on CH 4 and N 2O emissions showed an increase and then decrease with increasing fertilization;the N and NPK showed an increasing and decreasing tread respectively. In addition,the net warming potential of fertilization was OF > NPK > N,and CH 4 emissions were a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The greenhouse gas intensity was OF > NPK > N. From the point of view of higher yields and greenhouse gas emission reduction,NPK is more appropriate than the other two fertilization modes in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Analysis of willingness to pay for ecosystem services and influence factors based on the TPB
    Qin GAO, Changlin AO, Biqi MAO, Yuxuan LU
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (5): 893-901.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.05.09
    Abstract439)   HTML6)    PDF (776KB)(988)      

    Ecosystem service assessment is the basis of decision making for environmental management policy. The validity and reliability of the Choice Experiment method for evaluating non-market items by acquiring individual's payment will be a very important issue for scholars. Taking the Sanjiang Plain Wetland as an example,we built a method to evaluate willingness to pay for wetland ecosystem services based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore potential motives for willing to pay for wetland ecosystem services. This method improves the reliability and scientificity of traditional Choice Experiments which only contain socioeconomic information parameters. By fitting multi-Logit models chosen according to the utility function of wetland ecosystem services,we empirically analyzed respondent willingness to pay for wetland ecosystem services and influence factors. The wetland ecosystem service function is mainly reflected by the four ecosystem service properties:wetland area,biodiversity,water conservation and natural landscape. We found that residents’ preferences for wetland ecosystem services from high to low respectively are water conservation,wetland area,natural landscape and biodiversity. Model test results show that fitting the multi-logit model introduces behavioral attitudes,subjective norms and perceived behavior as control variables is better and explains the choices of consumer payments. The marginal prices of ecosystem service function properties are prefixed targets in order to realize Sanjiang Plain Wetlands ecosystem service function in the future:willingness to pay for improving water conservation 98.92 CNY;the willingness to pay for maintaining the existing wetland area is 58.90 CNY;the willingness to pay to improve the natural landscape is 54.09 CNY;and the willingness to pay to improve the biodiversity is 46.06 CNY.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Spatial structure analysis of tourism resource attraction in Chengdu
    Fengrui JING, Hu SUN, Chao YUAN
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 303-313.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.12
    Abstract405)   HTML8)    PDF (2263KB)(981)      

    Tourism resource attraction can reflect the characteristics of urban tourism spatial structure characteristics. Taking Chengdu as an example,we establish a tourism resource attraction evaluation system based on multivariate data,and evaluate the attraction of its tourism resources. We discuss the characteristics of tourism attraction spatial structure and reveal influencing factors via kernel density estimation and spatial autocorrelation. Some suggestions are proposed for optimizing the tourism spatial structure in Chengdu from the perspective of tourism attraction. We found that the overall tourism attraction pattern in Chengdu follows the city center > whole city > rest of the city,and there are obvious differences between different tourism resources. Tourism attraction density is uneven;the main urban area and Dujiangyan are high-value regions while other places are opposite. There are spatial agglomeration phenomena between different tourism resource points and different districts. Tourism resource attraction is significantly related with regional population density,resource density and other factors. According to our results we put forward some suggestions for tourism resource development in Chengdu across two aspects:core-periphery geographical theory and growth pole theory. Suggestions are simple but practical. First,related management organization ought to develop new natural,human and leisure tourism resources with high quality in densely populated areas because population factors are a key index that influences regional tourism resource attraction. Second,in order to improve agglomeration effects and achieve centralized development,it would be better to increase the density of tourism resources in some areas. Third,related organizations are supposed to develop new centers of tourism resource attraction. New attraction centers have improved effects on local economies,culture,environment and infrastructure.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Assessment and spatial differentiation of China’s marine economic system stability
    Zeyu WANG, Han LU, Caizhi SUN, Zenglin HAN, Kang SUN, Xiaofei Dong
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (3): 566-576.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.03.18
    Abstract279)   HTML5)    PDF (754KB)(980)      

    A complicated international environment,arduous domestic reform,development tasks and pressure to stabilize growth during the 13th Five Year Plan,China’s marine economy needs to resist disturbances and maintain stability and development. Based on marine system economic stability,an evaluation index system was established at two levels:immunity and resilience. The stability index of the marine economic system in 11 provinces along the east coast (excluding Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan)calculated by means of comprehensive evaluation modeling. We found that the stability index of China’s marine economic system between 2011 and 2013 changed slightly,while variation around 2003 and 2009 was obvious. Local differences in China’s marine economic systematic stability is significant. Systematic stability in Guangdong and Shandong is stable while those in Hainan and Guangxi are the least stable. The system in Shanghai and Zhejiang has higher stability; that in Liaoning and Hebei shows lower stability. Systematic stability in Tianjin,Fujian and Jiangsu is moderate. There is a close positive correlation between the stability of China’s marine economic system and marine developing levels. An obstacle degree model was introduced to analyze obstruction factors affecting the stability of China’s marine economic system quantitatively. Pertinent directions for marine economic development are discussed.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Resource utilization under global change: challenges and outlook
    Lei SHEN, Shuai ZHONG, Shuhan HU
    Resources Science    2018, 40 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2018.01.01
    Abstract517)   HTML5)    PDF (4447KB)(971)      

    In the last decade, global change has become a leading research area in geoscience, ecological science and environmental science. Tools such as geodesign, big data, cloud computing, material flow and resource flow analysis, resource metabolism and industrial ecology have been applied to global change. The study of resource utilization requires continual innovation to create new perspectives, methodologies and approaches. This study illustrates the diversity and complexity of global change, analyzes the overall challenge of resource utilization, and presents an outlook on China’s coping strategies and prospects. First, global change not only indicates climate change but also covers the changes in earth systems caused by natural and humanistic elements at a global scale. Second, resource and environment systems are an important component of earth life-supporting systems, it is implied that the impacts at the global scale have been changed from a single economic level to the multi-levels involving economic, social, political, resource, environmental and technological factors, with interactive processes, and these processes have been shaped with more complex characteristics in speed, span, depth and strength. Third, it is widely believed that seven common challenges occurred in resource utilization would lead to a new pattern of global resource governance, even though different resources (mining, energy, water, grain) have different challenges with various features. Fourth, China should implement a two-pronged strategy targeting both external and internal objectives: external objective should be the Belt and Road Initiative to establish a new system of global resource governance for guaranteeing resource supply security; the internal objective should rely on the innovation-driven strategy of the 13th Five-Year Plan to guarantee resource demand security.

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    Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(8)
    Complex land use changes simulation in Ezhou City using cellular automata based on least squares support vector machine
    YANG Jianxin,GONG Jian,LI Jiangfeng
    Resources Science    2016, 38 (8): 1525-1537.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2016.08.11
    Abstract317)   HTML4)    PDF (1331KB)(967)      

    Here we validate the feasibility of gaining transformation rules for cellular automata modeling using Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM)methods,and apply it to the simulation and prediction of complex land use change. We took land use change information from 1991 to 2004 for Ezhou,Hubei as training data. With the application of LSSVM and Logistic Regression methods,we obtained two sets of transformation rules respectively. Comparison and analysis were made between them with the help of an enhanced ROC method. We then simulated land use scenarios for 2013 using a united LSSVM-CA model and predictions to 2020 and 2030. The results show that the LSSVM method has a better output than the Logistic Regression method in simulating the spatial distribution of land use types that have a large area and a complex change process,such as cultivated land,construction land,aquaculture land and other land. Compared with the actual land use scenarios in 2013,the precision of simulation output derived from the LSSVM-CA model is 0.80. The Kappa coefficient is 0.73,which is at a high level of consistency and better than the simulation results gained from Logistic-CA model. In the future,some districts will have a large demand of construction land and a large number of cultivated land will be occupied. Farmland in the eastern and southern low-hilly area will transform into forest land in a big way. We conclude that the LSSVM method can be used to obtain transformation rules in a cellular automata model and can gain a good result in simulating land use changes. The simulation results provide meaningful decision-making reference points for the study area in land planning,farmland protection and ecological environmental protection.

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    Variation in soil water content along different altitude gradients in the Qinghai Lake Watershed
    Lei LIU, Xiaoyan LI, Zhiyun JIANG, Junqi WEI, Mujia NAN
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 263-275.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.09
    Abstract508)   HTML4)    PDF (2010KB)(958)      

    Understanding soil water content variation at different altitudes is fundamental to identifying spatial variation in water resources across a watershed,especially under a changing climate. Here,we evaluated spatial and temporal variation in soil water content along different altitude gradients in the Qinghai Lake watershed. With the integrative consideration of temperature,precipitation,evapotranspiration and the normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI)during the growth season,water deficits of areas at different altitudes were explored. We found that the average soil water content(ASWC)during the middle of the growing season was the maximum(28.79%),higher than the beginning and end of the growing season in 2015,22.81% and 22.91,respectively. ASWC increased with altitude during the growing season,and there was a positive correlation between them,particularly in the middle of the growing season(P < 0.01). The analysis of water budget indicated that regions with altitudes of 3200~3300m were water deficit regions in the watershed,with a decrease of 1.24% in soil water after a growing season. Water budgets in regions with altitudes of 3300~3400m and 3400~3600m were almost balanced,which increases of 0.54% and -0.57%,respectively; an increase of 3.69% was identified in regions with altitudes of 3600~3800m. Regions with altitudes higher than 3800m were considered as water supply regions in the Qinghai Lake watershed. However,the water supply regions have been highly vulnerable to climate change and will decrease sharply if climate warming continues. This will influence water resources deeply in the watershed and have critical effects on the basin and its society and ecosystems.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Embodied energy and carbon emissions transferred in international trade using a MRIO model
    WEI Tao, PENG Shuijun
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (1): 94-104.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.01.10
    Abstract387)   HTML6)    PDF (2576KB)(957)      

    With the formation of global production chains as well as cross-border separated in production and consumption in the world, the rapid development of international trade has an important impact on both embodied energy and transfer emissions of trade. We estimated the different energy consumption and emissions embodied in international trade in 1995-2009 with the MRIO model. The results showed that:(1)China belongs to a net exporter of embodied energy in international trade except for new energy sources and gas during the study period; increase of production-based emissions far exceeds the consumption-based emissions in China, and 40% of the former is satisfied by the demands of foreign countries, then only 16% of consumption-based emissions increase is derived from the increase of imports;(2)The production-based energy and carbon emissions of the major developed economies were almost unchanged during the study period, but the consumption-based energy and carbon emissions were gradually increasing, then they were net importers of embodied energy and emissions in international trade; the production-based and consumption-based energy of emerging economies increased by 81.7% and 81.3% respectively, and the embodied energy and emissions of developed economies transferred into emerging economies is much greater than the embodied energy and emissions of emerging economies transferred into developed economies; (3)The per capita consumption-based embodied energy and emissions in developed economies are much higher than in emerging economies; while the per capita embodied energy and emissions are in a low level in China.

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    Cited: Baidu(5) CSCD(6)
    Acreage estimation of mango orchards using object-oriented classification and remote sensing
    Chuanshuai REN, Huichun YE, Bei CUI, Wenjiang HUANG
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (8): 1584-1591.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.08.14
    Abstract339)   HTML4)    PDF (1430KB)(953)      

    China has the second largest mango acreage in the word,and the planting area of mangos has followed a trend of sustained growth. Remote sensing has proved very useful in collecting information about the area of cereals and forest,but has rarely been applied to mango orchards. To utilize remote sensing in mango data collection,we attempted to estimate the acreage of mango orchards in China. Data from SPOT-6 and ASTER GDEM covering the study area was used. The boundary mask and sample points were used for acreage estimation. Vegetation coverage (FVC)and SLOPE factors were used to extract information about mango orchards using the object-oriented method. We found that mango orchard producer’s accuracy obtained by object-oriented classification and FVC and SLOPE data segmentation is as high as 92.81%;user accuracy is as high as 97.19%. Compared with maximum-likelihood classification and object-oriented classifi-cation without FVC and SLOPE data segmentation,object-oriented classification with FVC and SLOPE data segmentation has a higher accuracy for mango orchard extraction:producer accuracy increased by 19.28% and 3.62%,and user accuracy increased by 8.62% and 3.86%,respectively. Therefore,object-oriented classification with auxiliary data improves the accuracy of mango orchard extraction and this method provides an effective technical reference for other artificial orchards.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Simulation of spatio-temporal changes in evapotranspiration in typical mountains
    Feiyu WANG, Chesheng ZHAN, Shi HU, Yangwen JIA, Cunwen NIU, Jing ZOU
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 276-287.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.10
    Abstract403)   HTML8)    PDF (5336KB)(945)      

    Based on a new land surface model CLM_CERES,spatio-temporal changes in evapotranspiration(ET)in three typical mountains of China (Taihang Mountain,Hengduan Mountain,and Qiangui Karst Mountain) in baseline of 1951-2005 and estimation period of 2006-2060 were simulated. The CLM_CERES model was constructed by considering the scheme of water exploitation and utilization,and coupled with the crop growth and development model CERES. This new land surface model was driven by the atmosphere external forcing data of multi-model ensemble data of CMIP5. The simulated results were validated with a data-driven estimate of global land evapotranspiration (MTE data)derived from observations from a global network of micrometeorological tower sites(FLUXNET). The results showed that ET simulated by CLM_CERES was consistent with the MTE data among all three regions at a monthly scale (R2= 0.76~0.88). From 1951 to 2060,the total ET increased significantly with linear trends of 0.981 and 0.757 mm/a (P < 0.001)over Taihang Mountain and Hengduan Mountain,of which vegetation ET dominated. However,the total ET increased insignificantly over Qiangui Karst Mountain,of which soil evaporation dominated. Intra-annual variation of ET in all three regions from 1951 to 2060 showed unimodal curves with a peak region from May to September. The spatial distribution of ET was mainly influenced by climate change and topographic factors over Taihang Mountain and Hengduan Mountain. The spatial distribution of ET over Qiangui Karst Mountain was more complex due to the particularity of dualistic structure between surface and ground water.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Spatiotemporal patterns of urban land use transition in the middle Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Shijin QU, Shougeng HU, Luyi TONG, Quanfeng LI
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 240-251.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.07
    Abstract440)   HTML6)    PDF (5393KB)(933)      

    Measurements of urban land transition with multiple perspectives and multi-time are essential to identifying inherent driving forces of urban land transition, urban land transition control and neo-urbanization construction in China. Here,based on the definition of urban land transition a characterization framework was built. The characteristics of urban land transition,including amplitude,speed and equilibrium were analyzed using transition degree,transition dynamic degree,Lorentz curve and coefficient of variation in the Middle Yangtze River Economic Belt from 1990 to 2015. We found that the internal structure of urban land sources has changed markedly. The proportion of cultivated land in new urban land continuously decreased,while the proportion of forest and other construction land gradually increased. An indirect way that cultivated land is converted to urban land was found whereby cultivated land is firstly converted to other land then to urban land. From 1990 to 2015 a rapid and unbalanced transition process occurred in the Middle Yangtze River Economic Belt:urban land area increased 153.34%,the transition degree was 0.62,and the Gini coefficient of the new urban land area was 0.53. At the same time,the trend in increment,degree and dynamic degree of urban land transition underwent decrease-increase-decrease. A two horizontal lines and three vertical lines region with high transition degree was highlighted and formed by counties along main roads and railways. The distribution pattern of counties with high transition dynamic degree appeared as a H shape,with counties mainly located in marginal areas of the Belt. The transition degree decreased with an increase in elevation,the dynamic degree was increased at first and then decreased. Compared to non-metropolitan areas,the transition degree for metropolitan areas was higher,but the dynamic degree was lower.

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    Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(12)
    View of tourism space image of Nanchang City on network virtual community
    Yongwen ZOU, Fengjun TIAN
    Resources Science    2017, 39 (2): 314-324.   DOI: 10.18402/resci.2017.02.13
    Abstract343)   HTML5)    PDF (1304KB)(922)      

    The popularization and application of network media not only expands the perception of urban tourism spatial images,but also impacts on the construction of urban tourism space images. Chinese research on urban tourism space images concentrates on the real space level and not enough on network text space. Here,we chose Chinese comments on Nanchang Tourism on the Honeycomb travel network as research material. Our method combined content analysis and semantic network analysis to analyze network text Nanchang travel space images and presentation elements. We found that from the aspect of evaluation of tourism space images,the ‘square’ is the most important scenic spot tourism image,‘August 1st’ is the most important cultural tourism image,‘tickets’ and ‘night’ are core keywords closely associated with unique tourist attraction images,and ‘urban landscape style’ is the theme of tourism in Nanchang city environment image most preferred by internet commentators. Emotional evaluation images of Nanchang Tourism are totally positive and active. From the aspect of structural tourism space images,Nanchang core tourism Cognitive Image is ‘square’. Autumn water Square and Bayi Square are central recreation and business districts respectively in the new and old downtowns. The pattern of Nanchang tourism space image extends from Bayi Square to Pavilion of Prince Teng and the autumn square area,which form three important tourism image areas:Bayi Square,Pavilion of Prince Teng and Autumn water Square. Image elements show the characteristics of a centralized distribution downtown and a dispersed distribution in peripheral areas.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
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