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    25 March 2023, Volume 45 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
    The paradigms and main content of land use conflict research
    TIAN Junfeng, WANG Binyan, WANG Shijun
    2023, 45 (3):  465-479.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.01
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    [Objective] Land use conflict, as the spatial manifestation of conflicting human-land relationships, has a profound impact on regional sustainable development. This study aimed to examine the paradigms and main content of land use conflict research and provide a theoretical and practical reference for scientific and effective management of land use conflict in the new era of China. [Methods] A series of achievements and progress of land use conflict research were systematically reviewed. [Results] There are some weaknesses in the current research of land use conflict in terms of the construction of basic theoretical system, the formation of scientific and systematic conflict evaluation system, the in-depth study of conflict evolution mechanism, the improvement of conflict simulation accuracy, and the formation of effective governance pathways. Future research on land use conflict should take “basic theory construction-conflict identification, evaluation, and evolution process analysis-mechanism analysis-effect and influence analysis-situation simulation and prediction-regulation pathway and feedback identification” as the basic framework. Based on the perspective of multidisciplinary integration, studies should focus on the construction and improvement of the basic theories of land use conflict according to the dynamic mechanism theory, the accurate identification and comprehensive evaluation of land use conflict based on multiple attribute characteristics, the spatial-temporal evolution process of land use conflict at typical scale and in typical areas, the evolution mechanism of land use conflict based on multi-scale and multi-dimensional interaction, and the recognition and evaluation of the comprehensive effect of land use conflict oriented to sustainable development, and carry out systematic research on land use conflict simulation and path optimization based on actor behavior. [Conclusion] It is of great theoretical and practical significance to construct a theoretical basis for multidisciplinary integration and carry out systematic research on the development of relevant methodologies and research paths, which will guide the deepening of land use conflict research and promote regional sustainable development.

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    Characteristics of LUCC patterns of the Lanzhou-Xining urban agglomeration:Based on an intensity analysis framework
    LI Shuaicheng, GONG Jian, YANG Jianxin, CHEN Guang, ZHANG Zhong, ZHANG Muqian
    2023, 45 (3):  480-493.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.02
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    [Objective] Based on the land use transition matrix, a criterion of land use types conversion trend in absolute quantity was established, and a land use/cover change (LUCC) intensity analysis framework was proposed to analyze the tendency and inhibition of the conversion trend between land use types and its impact on the land use/cover structure from the perspectives of absolute and relative intensity. [Methods] The LUCC intensity map was constructed to visually display the key LUCC modes. Taking the Lanzhou-Xining urban agglomeration as an example, this study carried out an empirical analysis. [Results] During 2010-2020, the conversion characteristics of different land use types are not completely the same in the Lanzhou-Xining urban agglomeration. The LUCC intensity map integrated absolute and relative intensity information, which could reflect the regional general patterns of LUCC, such as the tendency of the transition from cropland to construction land and the low intensity of the transition from water to forest. It can also reveal the specific change patterns of the Lanzhou-Xining urban agglomeration that is a key area of urbanization in the ecologically fragile western region of China. It showed a tendency of land transition from unused land to water, grassland to cropland, and construction land to unused land. However, under the influence of the melting of glaciers and snow, permafrost degradation, precipitation enhancement, the acquisition-compensation balancing policy, and the poor management and protection of land consolidation projects, the characteristics of systematic tendency, absolute tendency, and relative tendency can be observed respectively in the changes. Further comparison with the land use transition matrix and land use transition Sankey diagram shows that there is no direct correlation between absolute intensity and relative intensity, and the constructed intensity analysis framework and map are less affected by the proportion of land use types and the overall LUCC intensity of the region, which is more helpful to determine the conversion trend between land use types and its impact on the land use/cover structure. [Conclusion] The framework of intensity analysis proposed in this study is feasible and can provide a scientific support for identifying and analyzing the key patterns and modes of regional LUCC and optimizing land resource management policies.

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    Research progress and hotspots of cultivated land use efficiency in China and internationally:Based on a bibliometric analysis
    LIU Ke, ZHANG Anlu
    2023, 45 (3):  494-511.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.03
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    [Objective] The research on cultivated land use efficiency has received widespread attention from scholars both in China and internationally. Exploring the research hotspots and development trends in the world will provide a new perspective and direction for future research of cultivated land use efficiency and land use practice. [Methods] Based on the relevant literature collected by the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science (WOS) databases, this study used the CiteSpace software to conduct visual analysis from the aspects of authors, research institutions, and keywords to systematically analyze the evolution and hotspots of the research on cultivated land use efficiency in China and internationally. [Results] The research results show that: (1) Research in China can be divided into initial exploration stage and stable development stage, while international research can be divided into initial exploration stage and rapid development stage. (2) Chinese researchers and institutions played a leading role in this research field, the overall international research capacity is weak, and cooperation across institutions needs to be strengthened. (3) International research mainly focuses on agriculture, land, and ecological environment, while Chinese research also involves resources and environment as well as arid areas. (4) International research topics can be divided into improving the cultivated land use efficiency and crop production, while Chinese research topics can be divided into specific regions and yields and efficiency of cultivated land use factors. (5) The main themes of relevant research is food security issues-evaluation of cultivated land use efficiency-research scale differences-investigation of constraints, and the research objectives and mechanisms of influence are diversified. [Conclusion] China’s research on cultivated land use efficiency should be strengthened, and the international academic community should pay more attention to the issue of cultivated land use efficiency in special areas or specific regions, and explore the influencing factors of cultivated land use efficiency from various aspects in the future.

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    Spatiotemporal characteristics and change of cultivated land pressure in Jiangsu Province
    ZHANG Zhongqi, SHEN Zhengping
    2023, 45 (3):  512-523.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.04
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    [Objective] Jiangsu Province is an important area for food production in the southeastern coastal provinces of China. [Methods] With the continuous development of industrialization and urbanization and potential population growth, the conflict between population and cultivated land in the province will become very tense. It is necessary to strengthen the research on cultivated land pressure. In this study, the cultivated land pressure index (CLPI) model, Thiel index, and grey model were used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics and influencing factors of cultivated land pressure in Jiangsu in five years since 2000, and to predict the situation for 2025 and 2030. [Results] The results show that: (1) The CLPI of the province is between 0.94 and 1.07, which is generally in the early-warning pressure level. The Theil index of the CLPI in the province showed an increasing trend, and the city-level variation of CLPI was increasing. There is a great imbalance between Southern, Central, and Northern Jiangsu, and the CLPI decreases rapidly from south to north. (2) Among the influencing factors of cultivated land pressure, per capita food production, per capita cultivated land, and grain yield per unit area have reached a very significant level, among which per capita food production played a decisive role in determining cultivated land pressure. It indicates that per capita food production is the key variable of grain production in Jiangsu Province under the condition that other factors are relatively stable. (3) Trend analysis showed that the CLPI of the whole province will slowly decrease but remain in the early-warning pressure area in 2025 and 2030. [Conclusion] The CLPI of Wuxi and Changzhou Cities will increase rapidly, and CLPI will decline to varying degrees in other cities.

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    Impact of digital economy development on energy mismatch:Empirical data from prefecture-level and above cities in China
    LUO Xiaoxiao, LIU Yong, LIAO Bin, WANG Jianlong
    2023, 45 (3):  524-535.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.05
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    [Objective] In the context of increasingly serious resources and environmental problems, improving the energy mismatch has an important role in promoting the supply-side reforms in China and achieving the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. [Methods] Based on the panel data of 284 prefecture-level and above cities in China from 2011 to 2019, the extension C-D function of the energy factors was used to calculate the degree of energy mismatch, and the digital economy development index was calculated using the entropy weight-TOPSIS dual method. This study also analyzed the linear and nonlinear correlations between the digital economic development and energy mismatch using the benchmark model, the threshold model, and the spatial econometric model. [Results] The results show that: (1) At the national level, the digital economy development index has a significant negative effect on the degree of local energy mismatch, and the results of heterogeneity tests by region are highly consistent with the benchmark regression results. Among them, the digital economy development in the central region of China can best improve the local energy mismatch, followed by the western region and the eastern region. (2) Under the condition of threshold constraints, urban spreads and foreign investment presented a significant single threshold feature, that is, in areas with higher urban spread and higher foreign investment, the more the digital economy development can improve the local energy mismatch. (3) In terms of spatial effects, the degree of energy mismatch is significantly positively correlated in space, and so is the digital economic development index. Due to the existence of spatial spillover effects, the digital economy development not only improved the local energy mismatch but also played an inhibitory role on the increase of the degree of energy mismatch factors in the surrounding areas. [Conclusion] When developing the digital economy in the future, we should not only adapt to local conditions, but also consider spatial correlations. Relevant recommendations were put forward in terms of strengthening infrastructure, improving regional linkages, and promoting the digital transformation of enterprises.

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    The impact of digital transition on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises
    YOU Biying, ZHENG Minggui, HU Zhiliang, WANG Xinyue
    2023, 45 (3):  536-548.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.06
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    [Objective] As an important measure to stimulate traditional development drivers, the role of digital transition in promoting resource-based enterprises to achieve high-quality economic development needs to be examined. [Methods] This study used the sample data of Chinese resource-based enterprises from 2011 to 2019 and text analysis techniques to depict digital transition, and empirically examined the impact of digital transition on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises and mechanism based on panel models and threshold models. [Results] The research found that: (1) Digital transition significantly improved total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises in the four aspects of mining, production and manufacturing, business management, and raw material transportation, and this conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests. (2) Digital transition had a positive impact on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises by promoting specialized division of labor. Digital transition promoted specialized division of labor within the enterprises to maximize the comparative advantages of various production factors and improve the total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises. It also broke through time and space constraints from outside the enterprises, reduced transaction costs and search costs, encouraged more enterprises to participate in specialized division of labor, and further promoted the growth of total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises. (3) The promoting effect of digital transition on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises presented a dynamic nonlinear trend of increasing marginal effect. Under the threshold of specialized division of labor, digital transition had a more significant promoting effect on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises, indicating that specialized division of labor can strengthen this effect and accelerate the improvement of total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises. (4) The impact of digital transition on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises was heterogeneous due to differences in external transaction costs. For example, in environments with high asset specificity and low marketization levels, digital transition had a more significant impact on total factor productivity of resource-based enterprises. Therefore when resource-based enterprises face severe challenges of high external costs, it is wise to improve total factor productivity through digital transition. [Conclusion] In the future, we should actively guide the digital transition of resource-based enterprises, deepen the division of labor, and provide a supportive institutional environment for resource-based enterprises to promote the development of digital transition and reduce external transaction costs.

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    The carbon emission effects of cross-regional cooperation under multiple objective constraints in China
    ZENG Weikang, WAN Wei, MA Lili
    2023, 45 (3):  549-563.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.07
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    [Objective] Accelerating the construction of low-carbon energy system and efficient industrial system is the key to converting driving force of China’s economic growth and constructing green and low-carbon circular economic development system. [Methods] This paper decomposes the carbon emission effect through the Kaya identity, meanwhile, it takes several policy objectives in the different provinces’ development plans as constraints and uses the multi-objective planning model to analyze the characteristics of the local energy structure, industrial structure, carbon dioxide emissions, etc. [Results] The results show that under the current energy structure and industrial structure, it is difficult to keep a balance between economic growth and energy-conservation and emission-reduction,through interregional energy allocation and industrial transfer, the emission reduction potential is greater under the synergistic optimization strategy, which is 780.829×106 tons; Energy structure, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic development level will significantly affect the carbon dioxide emissions of different provinces and energy intensity is the dominant factor affecting carbon emissions at this stage. The industrial transference has two sides, while adjusting the industrial structure in different regions, industrial transfer may lead to the increase of carbon dioxide emission in the regions where industrial transfer in, attention should be paid to the level raise of carbon dioxide emissions that lead by industry transfer; With sufficient energy allocation and industrial transfer, the GDP of 30 provinces increases significantly, with growth rates of 7.98% on average. Meanwhile, the economic structure of these provinces is further optimized, and the industrial development highlights the regional characteristics, breaking the dilemma of industrial isomorphism between regions to a certain extent. [Conclusion] By considering the carbon emission effect of regional differentiated development strategy under the constraints of multiple objectives. It is confirmed that the synergistic optimization strategy under the constraint of multiple objectives produces less carbon dioxide emissions, while adopting collaborative optimization strategies, carbon dioxide emissions from energy allocation and industrial transfer should be reduced. This paper provides some enlightenment for the construction of green and low-carbon circular economic development system.

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    Performance evaluation and regional disparities of inclusive green growth in the Yellow River Basin: An empirical study based on the dual goals of pollution and carbon reduction and common prosperity
    CHEN Minghua, XIE Linxiao, LI Qian, WANG Zhe
    2023, 45 (3):  564-578.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.08
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    [Objective] The objective of this study was to promote the coordinated improvement of inclusive green growth performance in the Yellow River Basin against the background of coordinated promotion of pollution reduction and carbon reduction in the new development stage and realization of common prosperity. [Methods] Based on the analytical framework of economy-environment-society, an input-output indicator system for inclusive green growth performance was constructed. Using the global-Luenberger index of the Epsilon-based measure (EBM) model, the performance of inclusive green growth in cities of the Yellow River Basin from 2007 to 2019 was evaluated. Using the Theil index and variance decomposition, the sources of regional disparities in inclusive green growth performance were analyzed from both spatial and structural perspectives, respectively. Using geographical detectors, the driving factors for the performance gap in inclusive green growth in the Yellow River Basin were revealed from both endogenous and exogenous perspectives. [Results] During the sample investigation period, the inclusive green growth performance of the Yellow River basin showed a fluctuating upward trend, with a regional imbalance characteristic of downstream > upstream > middle reaches. Intraregional disparities were the main source of spatial disparities in the performance of inclusive green growth in the basin. Reducing internal disparities in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin is a key direction for improving the performance of inclusive green growth in the future. The technological progress gap and the input factor productivity gap were the main sources of the performance structure gap of inclusive green growth in the Yellow River Basin, while the effect intensity of labor input productivity, energy input productivity, and water input productivity gaps decreased in turn. Among the internal factors, technological progress and undesired output productivity gaps had always been the most decisive factors for the performance gap of inclusive green growth in the basin. External factors such as industrial structure, scientific and technological innovation, and opening up to the outside world are the key to the synergistic improvement of inclusive green growth performance in the basin. [Conclusion] The explanatory power of the interaction of impact factors on the performance of inclusive green growth in the Yellow River basin is far greater than that of individual factors, indicating that the region should pay attention to the matching degree of internal and external drivers, and give full play to the interaction of factors in order to achieve coordinated development of inclusive green growth.

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    Effects on efficiency improvement and poverty reduction of conservation tillage technology adoption by farming households in the Loess Plateau area
    GAO Tianzhi, FENG Hui, LU Qian
    2023, 45 (3):  579-592.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.09
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    [Objective] Conservation tillage technology, as a comprehensive technology beneficial to ecology, environment, and soil health of farmland, is an important tool to improve the quality of arable land and is related to sustainable agricultural development. [Methods] Based on 1268 questionnaires from maize farmers in the Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia regions of the Loess Plateau, after measuring agricultural production efficiency using a stochastic frontier (SFA) model, we used the endogenous transformation regression model (ESRM) to test the effect of farming households’ conservation tillage technology adoption on agricultural production efficiency and the inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) model to estimate the effect of farming households’ conservation tillage technology adoption on income generation and poverty reduction. [Results] The results indicate that: (1) The adoption of conservation tillage technology can significantly improve the agricultural production efficiency of farm households, and on the basis of considering the counterfactual situation, the production efficiency of the farmers who adopted conservation tillage technology increased by 2.9% compared with those of the non-adopted farmer households. (2) Conservation tillage technology adoption had a robust positive contribution to the poverty reduction effect of farm household income increase, with a significant increase of 8.9% in per capita net household income for conservation tillage technology adopters compared to non-adopters, and the validity and reliability of the results were further verified using different matching methods of the propensity matching score (PSM). (3) Compared with the adoption of a single conservation tillage technology, the increase in productivity of farmers’ multiple combinations of conservation tillage technology adoption is more significant; compared with Gansu Province and Ningxia Province, farmers in Shaanxi Province have a more significant effect on increasing income and reducing poverty by adopting conservation tillage technology. [Conclusion] Arable land is the key to food production, and the government actively promotes conservation tillage technology and motivates farmers to adopt it, which not only helps to improve crop yields, save labor, increase agricultural productivity, improve economic benefits, and reduce poverty incidence, but also preserves water and fertilizer, improves soil structure, and protects the environment, which is an important guiding reference for the further promotion of conservation tillage technology.

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    Spatial effect of digital inclusive finance on agricultural carbon emission intensity and mechanism
    SU Peitian, WANG Lei
    2023, 45 (3):  593-608.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.10
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    [Objective] With the deepening of the digital economy, digital inclusive finance has become an important path for reducing the carbon emission intensity of agriculture. This study explored the relationship between digital inclusive finance and the carbon emission intensity of agriculture. [Methods] Starting from the spatial effects and influencing mechanisms, this study used digital inclusive finance and agricultural carbon emission intensity data from 31 provinces in China from 2011 to 2020 and kernel density estimation and spatial autocorrelation analysis of the characteristics of agricultural carbon emission intensity, the dynamic spatial Durbin model, and mediation effect models to analyze the impact of digital inclusive finance on agricultural carbon emission intensity. [Results] The results show that: (1) The level of agricultural carbon emission intensity was continuously decreasing, with strong spatial heterogeneity and clear agglomeration characteristics, while the spatial pattern of digital inclusive finance and agricultural carbon emission intensity exhibited certain mismatch in their development. (2) Digital inclusive finance had a significant negative effect on agricultural carbon emission intensity, and the conclusion is robust based on endogeneity tests, sample exclusions, and policy effect tests. Broader coverage and higher level of digitalization of digital inclusive finance can significantly inhibit agricultural carbon emission intensity. (3) Digital inclusive finance affects the level of agricultural carbon emissions by influencing the level of agricultural technology innovation and entrepreneurial activities, and urbanization and marketization levels have significant moderating effects that can strengthen the carbon reduction effect of digital finance. [Conclusion] It is recommended to further optimize the organizational model of digital inclusive finance to support low-carbon agricultural development, strengthen the construction of digital infrastructure to stimulate agricultural innovation and entrepreneurship, and thus promote the development of low-carbon agriculture.

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    Spatial heterogeneity of green total factor productivity of China’s marine economy from a multidimensional perspective
    ZHAO Xin, JIA Zaixun, DING Lili
    2023, 45 (3):  609-622.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.11
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    [Objective] While China’s marine economy has maintained a stable development, there still exist problems of unbalanced, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development. Therefore, it is of great significance to scientifically measure the green total factor productivity (GTFP) of China’s marine economy and conduct in-depth research and analysis of its spatial heterogeneity based on a multidimensional perspective, so as to promote the spatial expansion of blue economy under the land-sea integrated development strategy. [Methods] In this study, the non-radial directionality function model of global reference and the global Malmquist-Luenberger index were used to measure the green total factor productivity of China’s marine economy from 2007 to 2018. Then from the two dimensions of time and space, spatial heterogeneity was examined by using the Dagum Gini coefficient, Kernel density method, and Markov chain method, and α convergence and β convergence tests were used to explore its convergence. [Results] The results show that: (1) From 2007 to 2018, the GTFP of marine economy in all coastal provinces and cities in China had improved, showing obvious regional characteristics and significant spatial imbalance. (2) The overall spatial differences of GTFP in China’s marine economy showed an upward trend and fluctuated with an increasing-decreasing-increasing pattern. (3) Temporally, China’s marine economy GTFP had steadily improved, showing the characteristics of gradual development with a two-level differentiation that first intensified and then improved, and the spatial heterogeneity had changed significantly. (4) In the whole country and the three major marine economic zones, GTFP showed phased convergence and divergence characteristics, diverging in the 11th Five-Year Plan and the 13th Five-Year Plan periods and converging in the 12th Five-Year Plan period; The GTFP of the marine economy in the three major marine economic zones showed absolute convergence, but there was no significant absolute convergence in the country as a whole; The GTFP of the marine economy showed conditional convergence in the whole country and the three major marine economic zones, with the eastern marine economic zone having the fastest convergence speed, followed by the north and the south. [Conclusion] This paper argues that during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, we should focus on optimizing the spatial layout of the green development of China’s marine economy and promoting the coordinated and sustainable development of regional marine economy.

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    Influence of environmental regulation on residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior: Based on the moderating effect of face concern
    JIA Yajuan, FAN Zijun
    2023, 45 (3):  623-636.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.12
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    [Objective] The green and low-carbon living of residents is one of the key contents of ecological civilization construction and realizing the sustainable development goals. [Methods] Based on the micro-survey data of 902 respondents, this study examined the effects of guidance-oriented environmental regulation, constraint-oriented environmental regulation, and incentive-oriented environmental regulation on residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior through the Tobit model, and further used hierarchical regression to explore the moderating effect of “face” concern in the relationship between the three types of environmental regulation and residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior. [Results] The results show that: (1) The three types of environmental regulation all played a significant role in promoting residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior, and the guidance-oriented environmental regulation played the greatest role; (2) The concern of saving face had a positive moderating effect in the relationship between guidance-oriented environmental regulation-residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior and incentive-oriented environmental regulation-residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior, and had a negative moderating effect in the relationship between constraint-oriented environmental regulation-residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior; (3) Age, education level, family size, and environmental perception had a significant effect on residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior, while income had a negative impact on residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior; (4) The degree of impact of environmental regulation and face concern on residents’ green and low-carbon living behavior also differed between urban and rural residents. [Conclusion] Therefore, through a variety of practical activities, science publicity, moderate rewards and punishments, the role of the three environmental regulations is brought into play, and the education level and environmental awareness of residents are improved, the government can effectively promote the adoption of a green, low-carbon, circular, and sustainable lifestyle by rural and urban residents.

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    Systemic risk spillover of China’s energy industry based on the perspective of volatility decomposition
    ZHAO Shuran, ZHANG Jie, LI Jinchen, REN Peimin
    2023, 45 (3):  637-651.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.13
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    [Objective] The energy industry is closely related to national security and economic development, and its systemic risks cannot be ignored. This study explored the industry-level volatility interconnections and examined the direction and characteristics of systemic risk spillover from the normal and extreme energy market states. It provides a new perspective and technical support for systemic risk management in the energy industry. [Methods] Based on the volatility decomposition approach, we decomposed the volatility risk of each energy industry into continuity and jump components, and then constructed the connection matrix and spillover indicators between these components through the generalized variance decomposition method of the vector autoregressive model. Subsequently, the systemic risk spillover effects in China’s energy industries were analyzed from static and dynamic perspectives. [Results] The empirical results suggest that: (1) There are obvious jump fluctuations in the energy industry, and the accumulation of jump risk in the energy industry will lead to an increasing systemic risk; (2) The systemic risk spillover in the energy industry is significantly time variant. The risk tends to spread outside the industry during fluctuation periods and shifts to the intra-industry contagion during the stable periods; (3) Either within or between industries, volatility risks tend to be transferred within the same type of volatility components, and the net spillover direction between two components is along the continuity-to-jump path; (4) The coal industry is the largest sender of the continuity risk, the electricity industry is the only sender of the jump risk, and the new energy industry is the largest receiver of external risk in the form of volatility jumps. [Conclusion] The government should pay more attention to both cross-industry and cross-component spillovers during turbulent periods while paying attention to the self-feedback spillover within industries during stable periods, so as to prevent local risk from accumulating and spreading to the whole energy system.

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    Quantitative evaluation of pilot low-carbon policies based on text mining
    DENG Xiang, PENG Jie
    2023, 45 (3):  652-667.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.14
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    [Objective] This study conducted a multidimensional quantitative evaluation of pilot low-carbon policies to provide a more effective basis for the formulation and optimization of such policies, and help achieve the dual carbon goals. [Methods] Based on the policy text, text mining was used to obtain low-carbon pilot keywords, and then the PMC index model was constructed to conduct a multidimensional quantitative evaluation of 128 pilot low-carbon policies in China. [Results] The results show that: (1) The overall design of pilot low-carbon policies was good, and the average PMC index was 5.69, which belongs to the good level. The average values of the PMC index and policy response strength index showed an increasing trend from 2010 to 2018. (2) There were great differences in the design level of different pilot policies, as shown by the standard deviation of PMC index was 1.89. The proportion of non-excellent policies was as high as 57.03%, and there were some prominent problems involving lack of long-term planning, low policy level and effectiveness level, insufficient incentive guarantee, and insufficient attention to science and technology. (3) The average PMC index values of pilot low-carbon policies developed by the central government was higher than that of local policies. Most of the central policies were good, but the response intensity index values of local policies were higher than that of the central policies, and excellent policies were dominated by local policies. Both the policy quality and response intensity index of acceptable policies need to be improved. (4) The average PMC index values of the policies of important pilot cities was higher than that of the whole sample and local policies,because the participants of important pilot city policies were clearer, the policy functions were more perfect, and the incentive guarantee system was more sound. The policies of important pilot cities provide a guidance for other cities to optimize the pilot policies. [Conclusion] In the future, pilot low-carbon policies should be optimized and promoted by clarifying participants, improving policy functions and incentive guarantees, enhancing policy timeliness, and promoting the construction of low-carbon legal system.

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    The evolution of spatial patterns of university-industry collaborative innovation in the Yangtze River Delta
    YANG Fan, DU Debin, DUAN Dezhong, SHI Wentian
    2023, 45 (3):  668-682.  doi: 10.18402/resci.2023.03.15
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    [Objective] The objective of this study was to reveal the multi-scale spatial patterns, organization, and evolution of university-industry (U-I) collaborative innovation in the Yangtze River Delta region, and propose policy recommendations for the spatial optimization of regional U-I integration in China’s new development stage. [Methods] Based on the patent data from 2001 to 2020 and the diversified cooperation models, the spatial information of U-I linkages were explored, and the urban development and regional synergy models were identified by measuring the strength and centrality indicators. [Results] (1) As the output of U-I collaborative innovation continued to grow, intercity cooperation was becoming more frequent, and the scale and scope were gradually expanding. Although most small and medium-sized cities preferred intra-regional cooperation, its proportion showed a downward trend because the core cities preferred inter-regional cooperation. (2) With the improvement of the U-I collaborative innovation capabilities of small and medium-sized cities, regional development had changed from relying on the core cities to urban agglomerations for coordinated development, while the spatial imbalance of the internal network of the Yangtze River Delta had been declining. Under the strong influence of Beijing, cooperation outside the region became further agglomerated. In general, the U-I integration had evolved into a single-center, hub-and-spoke, and multi-level structure at the network level, strong administrative barriers existed, the connection between regional subnetworks was not close enough, and the leading function of the core cities such as Shanghai needed to be enhanced. (3) The Yangtze River Delta cities are promoting multi-scale U-I cooperation. Especially under the influence of regional integration policies, most cities tend to strengthen local and regional cooperation compared with cooperation outside the region. The evolution of the urban development models has driven the flattening of the regional hierarchical system and is also conducive to regional coordination and integrated development. To a certain extent, universities play a more critical “gatekeeping” role than enterprises in the multi-scale U-I integration. [Conclusion] Compared with the local and national scales, U-I collaborative innovation within the Yangtze River Delta has great development potential, and it is necessary to strengthen the effective flows of university and industry resources, and attach importance to their functional positioning differences in the regional integration and collaboration.

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