The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the disciplinary knowledge base of China’s territorial consolidation and rehabilitation research over the years, reveal the research status, explore the deficiencies of existing research, and propose future research directions in this field. First, the word cloud of research hotspots was obtained by using high-frequency keywords and it indicates that this field is composed of seven thematic modules: concept evolution and stage division, development strategy research, consolidation plan, potential analysis, performance evaluation, willingness research, and project types and measures. Second, through content analysis of highly cited literature, the study found that: (1) Existing research mainly focuses on engineering measures and performance evaluation, and does not pay enough attention to the ecological restoration of territorial space, lacks empirical studies on comprehensive land improvement in the whole area, and most of their conclusions are relevant to the typical project areas but the mathematical model and evaluation system obtained have a narrow scope of application. (2) Existing research mainly focuses on the project scale and the administrative units. The focus is often on the comparative analysis of the horizontal data of the land surface. The selected time points are few, and the research scale is relatively simple. (3) Existing work overemphasizes empirical research, and at the same time pays insufficient attention to the field of humanities and social sciences in territorial consolidation and rehabilitation. When examining the prospects of such research, research themes, research scales, and research methods were considered: (1) Emphasize ecological protection, restoration, and management work, actively explore the regional unified quantitative reference system, improve theoretical research, and build a complete knowledge system. (2) Pay attention to the dynamic development in the vertical direction, explore new research perspectives, and carry out long time series and multi-dimensional spatial scale research. (3) Pay more attention to the integration of engineering technology and humanistic management, and adopt qualitative and quantitative research methods to deepen the research on the benefits after consolidation and rehabilitation. Finally, regarding the development of territorial consolidation and rehabilitation in the future, we recommend to strengthen the application of information engineering and technology, enhance the legal status of territorial consolidation and rehabilitation, broaden multiple financing channels, integrate key technologies and operational guidelines, and carry out special technical research on landscape ecology. This research can provide a useful reference for grasping the hotspots and development status of China’s territorial consolidation and rehabilitation research.