Resources Science ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 1293-1306.doi: 10.18402/resci.2021.07.02

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Archetype analysis of rural homestead withdrawal patterns based on the framework of “diagnosis-design-outcome”

QU Yanbo1(), CHAI Yifan1, ZHU Weiya2(), PING Zongli2, ZONG Haining1, WANG Sen2   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration and Policy, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Jinan 250014, China
    2. Shandong Territorial and Spatial Planning Institute, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2021-02-23 Revised:2021-04-17 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-08-27
  • Contact: ZHU Weiya


Rural homestead withdrawal is a breakthrough in the reform of rural land system. It is essential to scientifically design homestead withdrawal models and effectively identify its operating mechanisms, in order to stimulate the vitality of rural development and optimize the allocation of urban and rural elements. Taking Shandong Province as an example and based on system theory to design four homestead withdrawal patterns, this study initially conceptualized the action for rural homestead withdrawal as the specific process by which diagnostic attributes, design attributes, and outcomes interact with each other. Therefore, a code-book was formed based on the diagnosis-design-outcome (DDO) framework. Second, the archetype analysis method was used to identify the action logic and operating mechanisms of different homestead withdrawal patterns. Finally, the applicable conditions of different withdrawal patterns were clarified according to some elements characterized by human-land relationship. The results show that: (1) The four homestead withdrawal models of asset exchange, monetary compensation, exchanging old-age service with homestead, and equity participation with homestead comprehensively consider the improvement of the rural living environment and the multi-level demands of farming households, and are characterized by the core-periphery spatial pattern, adapting to the needs of rural development in different regions. (2) The essence of different homestead withdrawal patterns is to guide farmers to exit in an orderly manner through a diversified incentive mechanism, showing many kinds of archetypes, such as the incentive of asset exchange under the guidance of the government, economic compensation incentive under the cooperation between the government and rural collectives, the incentive for exchanging old-age service with homestead under the cooperation of the government and enterprises, as well as the incentive for equity participation with homesteads under the collaboration of rural collectives and enterprises, and so on. Different homestead withdrawal patterns have differentiated operational processes and specific applicable conditions. Affected by differences in regional environments, policy-driven transformations, and the upgrading of farming households’ demand level, the withdrawal patterns of homesteads will be more diversified. In the process of dissemination and application, the models should be adjusted properly according to the differences and changes of system conditions, so as to meet the needs of rural homestead management and rural development in different areas.

Key words: diagnosis-design-outcome framework, rural homestead withdrawal, archetype analysis, pattern comparison, Shandong Province