资源科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (9): 1834-1847.

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1978-2011年重庆市种植业变化及其政策启示

信桂新(), 魏朝富(), 杨朝现, 邓华   

  1. 西南大学资源环境学院,重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-14 修回日期:2015-05-29 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:信桂新,男,山东邹平人,博士生,研究方向为土地利用变化与生态过程。E-mail:sith123@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAJ11B02)

Changes of crop farming and policy implications in Chongqing Municipality from 1978 to 2011

XIN Guixin(), WEI Chaofu(), YANG Chaoxian, DENG Hua   

  1. School of Resources and Environment,Southwest University,Chongqing 400715,China
  • Received:2014-11-14 Revised:2015-05-29 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25

摘要:

在粮食连年增收的同时,粮食产销平衡区却成为中国粮食安全战略的软肋。本文以粮食产销平衡区重庆市为研究区,利用统计数据和半结构访谈信息,构建种植业变化影响因素灰色关联多维分析模型,研究了1978-2011年重庆市种植业的变化及其政策启示。结果表明,①1978-2011年重庆市种植业变化呈现粮食作物收缩、菜瓜果作物扩张的竞争态势,区域种植模式从“以粮为主”转变为“粮菜兼顾”,实现了转型增效;②重庆市种植业变化特征是各类因素综合作用的结果,是以农户经营自主权放开为起点、各类因素诱致的环境变化为条件、作物的不同特性为依据发展演化而致的;③划定粮食生产红线、转变粮食作物种植模式、加快菜瓜果作物生产机械化、设施化、专业化步伐,是重庆市缓解粮食作物与菜瓜果作物竞争态势,保障粮食自给率稳定和菜瓜果产量、品质持续提升的有效途径和办法。基于重庆的经验,研究认为,粮食产销平衡区的农业政策方向有必要从“一个专注”(专注于粮食生产)向“两个结合”过渡,将合理引导农业劳动力转移与推广节约劳动的资本化农业相结合、稳定粮食生产与促进农业资源优势发挥和多元化发展相结合作为着力点,推动耕地资源集约高效利用。

关键词: 种植业, 粮食产销平衡区, 影响因素, 多维分析, 重庆市

Abstract:

Based on Chongqing Municipality,a grain production and marketing balance area in China,we used statistical data and semi-structured interviews to study changes,reasons of crop farming and policy implications over the last 30 years (1978-2011). The results indicate that during the last 30 years changes in crop farming were a kind of competitive situation with contraction of grain and expansion of vegetables and fruits;regional planting patterns changed from ‘dominated by grain’ to ‘give consideration to both grain and vegetables,fruits’;and crop farming realized efficiency. Changes in crop farming in Chongqing Municipality were a result of the combined action of various factors. For the whole process,the starting point of changes was from the liberation of farmer autonomy,the change condition was environmental change induced by all kinds of factors,and the basis of change was from different characteristics of crops. To ease the competitive situation,safeguard the self-sufficiency rate of grain,and improve the yield and quality of vegetables and fruits,methods include defining the redline of the grain sown area,shifting the planting patterns of grain,speeding up mechanization and installation,and the specialization of vegetables and fruits. To improve cultivated land use efficiency,based on Chongqing’s experience we suggest agricultural policies in grain production and marketing balance areas that transform the direction of agricultural policy from ‘One Focus’ (focusing on the grain production)to ‘Two Combinations’. One combination is the transfer of agricultural labor force and the capitalized agriculture of labor-saving,and the other is to maintain grain output stabilization and develop agricultural resource advantages and diversification.

Key words: crop farming, grain production and marketing balance area, influential factors, multi- dimensional analysis, Chongqing Municipality.