资源科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (9): 1825-1833.

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农户自主发展能力研究——以东北粮食主产区为例

黄鑫鑫(), 安萍莉(), 蔡璐佳, 汪芳甜, 李胜, 李学敏   

  1. 中国农业大学土地资源管理系,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-24 修回日期:2015-05-19 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:黄鑫鑫,男,甘肃平凉市人,硕士生,主要研究方向为土地利用规划和可持续利用。E-mail:1510734273@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    农业部2014年度农用地质量等级更新调查评价与监测项目(2014-02-02-06);国家自然科学基金项目(41271110);国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAD09B02);国家重大基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2012CB956204)

Self-development abilities of farmers in the northeast grain production area of China

HUANG Xinxin(), AN Pingli(), CAI Lujia, WANG Fangtian, LI Sheng, LI Xueming   

  1. Department of Land Resources Management,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100193,China
  • Received:2015-03-24 Revised:2015-05-19 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25

摘要:

农户自主发展能力对于保障粮食安全和“三农问题”的研究具有重要意义。本文发展了农户自主发展能力概念,提出农户自主发展能力应分意愿、行为和业绩3个层次研究,并建立了包括信息获取能力、风险应对能力、资源利用能力和环境支撑能力4个层面的指标模型。并选取东北粮食主产区进行实证分析,结果表明:东北粮食主产区农户信息获取能力仅为中等偏下水平,信息获取渠道窄、获取手段落后是导致农户信息获取能力低下的主要原因;农户面对干旱等灾害的风险应对能力偏低,表现在抗灾程度不高,灾后产量稳定性较低;农户的资源利用能力处于中等水平,但还需提高农户资源利用的意愿,提高资源经营潜力。总的来看,农户自主发展能力偏低,劳动力不足和老龄化严重以及知识水平低是限制农户自主发展能力的主要因素,进而限制了农户增收和农村经济的发展。而提高农户自主发展能力应该从提高农户整体素能和提高耕地生产效率两方面出发。

关键词: 农户自主发展能力, 信息, 风险, 资源, 环境, 东北粮食主产区

Abstract:

The self-development ability of farmers is vital to ensure food security and to understanding three dimensional rural issues. Here,we developed the concept of farmer self-development ability and proposed a study at three levels:intention layer,behavior layer and the performance layer. An evaluation index system of farmer self-development ability was established and includes four basic methods:the ability to obtain information,ability to manage risk,ability to use resources and supporting ability of the environment. We studied farmer self-development ability in the northeast grain main production area of China. We found that the ability of farmers to obtain information in the northeast grain main production area is below average;the main reason is narrow information channels. In the face of disasters like drought,the ability to manage risk is low. Farmers’ performance in the disaster is insufficient,and low yield stability after a disaster is common. The ability of farmers to use resources is located at a mid-level,but their intention to use resources needs to be improved to improve potential resource utilization. In general,farmers’ self-development ability is low. The shortage and aging of agricultural labor and a low level of knowledge are the main factors limiting self-development abilities. The government has to pay attention to farmer characteristics and arable land use efficiency in order to improve self-development capacity in the farming community.

Key words: farmers, self-development ability, information, risk, resource, environment, northeast grain main production area of China