资源科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 805-814.

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基于生态约束与支撑作用的国家湿地公园生态可持续评估指标研究

刘红玉1(), 李兆富2, 李玉凤1, 林振山1   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院,南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-10 修回日期:2015-03-10 出版日期:2015-04-15 发布日期:2015-04-15
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘红玉,女,辽宁辽阳人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事湿地与景观生态学研究。E-mail:liuhongyu@njnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401205,40871084);江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20140921);江苏高校优势学科建设工程

Evaluation of sustainable capacity of national wetland park ecological analysis based on constraint and support function

LIU Hongyu1(), LI Zaofu2, LI Yufeng1, LIN Zhenshan1   

  1. 1. College of Geography,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210023,China
    2. College of Resources and Environmental Science,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095,China
  • Received:2015-02-10 Revised:2015-03-10 Online:2015-04-15 Published:2015-04-15

摘要:

根据资料统计,我国自2005年第一个国家湿地公园建设以来,到2014年3月,其试点总数已达429处。其中湖泊型湿地公园占总数43%;河流型占44%;沼泽型占10%;滨海型占3%。与湿地公园建设快速发展相比,理论和实践研究相对滞后。其中,如何科学评估湿地公园生态可持续发展能力,成为当前亟待解决的科学问题与关注的热点。研究显示,我国国家级湿地公园具有类型多样、生态系统敏感、脆弱、功能多样以及多尺度等特征。这些特征决定了湿地公园既有明显的生态支撑功能,能够提供各种服务,同时湿地公园景观结构以及周边环境与人类活动影响对公园也具有明显的生态约束作用。国家湿地公园能否健康与可持续发展,关键是如何协调不同空间尺度下的生态约束与生态支撑之间的矛盾关系。为此,本研究从公园内部景观尺度、生态系统尺度、周边区域尺度以及管理层面,通过对不同要素生态约束与支撑作用分析,构建了具有定量化评估湿地公园生态可持续发展能力的评估指标体系,为指导我国湿地公园规划与建设,以及科学评估其可持续发展能力提供科学依据。

关键词: 国家湿地公园, 指标体系, 可持续发展能力, 生态约束, 生态支撑

Abstract:

According to statistics, China's first national wetland park was constructed in 2005. But, the total number of China’s National Wetland Park pilot had reached 429 in March 2014. Among them,the number of lake-type,river-type,marsh-type and coastal-type National Wetland Parks accounted for 43%,44%,10% and 3% of total parks respectively. Compared to rapid wetland park construction practice,theoretical and practical research has lagged. How to evaluate the ability of the sustainable development of Wetland Parks has become a key scientific issue and needs solving. National Wetland Parks are a wetland ecosystem protection base area,but also provide appropriate scientific,educational and recreational services. National Wetland Parks in China are of type diversity,ecological integrity,ecosystem sensitivity and vulnerability,functional diversity and multi scale features. These characteristics determine whether the wetland park has significant ecological support functions,provides a variety of services,and whether the structure,surrounding environment and human activities act as ecological constraints and obviously affect the park. How to coordinate the contradictory relationship between ecological constraints and ecological support at different spatial scales remains critical. We analyzed the landscape scale,ecosystem scale of the interior park,surrounding area scale and management level to assess ecological constraints and supporting roles. We build an evaluation index system for the quantitative evaluation of the sustainable development of Wetland Parks.

Key words: national wetland park, index system, sustainable development ability, ecological constraint, ecgical support