• 专栏:澜沧江资源考察 • 上一篇    下一篇

橡胶种植对景洪市经济社会和生态环境的影响

刘立涛1, 沈镭1, 高天明2, 薛静静2   

  1. (1)中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101; (2)中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 出版日期:2012-07-15 发布日期:2012-07-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技部项目:“澜沧江与大香格里拉地区综合科学考察”部分成果(编号:088K0150AJ).

The Impacts of Rubber Plantation on Society, Economy and Eco-environment in Jinghong City

GAO Tianming, LIU Litao, SHEN Lei, XUE Jingjing   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Science. Beijing 100101, China;Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China;Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Science. Beijing 100101, China;Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Science. Beijing 100101, China;Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Rese
  • Online:2012-07-15 Published:2012-07-15

摘要: 特殊的地理条件、气候环境, 橡胶种植已成为景洪市的优势产业。改革开放以来, 景洪橡胶种植面积增长迅速, 橡胶种植改变了农业产业结构, 提高了农民的收入水平。农作物播种面积逐渐下降, 橡胶、茶叶种植呈现上升的趋势。以主要农作物种植面积为解释变量, 对农民人均纯收入进行了多重共线性回归, 结果显示:①橡胶种植面积与农民纯收入的回归拟合程度很高, 种植面积增加1万hm2时, 农民人均纯收入增加386元;占人均纯总收入增加额的75.94%。耐用消费品支出与橡胶种植面积也表现了较高的相关性, 耐用消费品支出和干胶产量的相关性为0.7045;②橡胶种植提高了人民的生活水平, 促进了交通、水利、教育事业等的发展, 也改变了少数民族传统的生计方式, 诱发了宗教行为世俗化的倾向。歌舞、民族服装、居住风格等民族文化特质正在逐渐消失;③森林变成橡胶林后减弱了调节气候的功能, 气候正从湿热向干热方向转变, 30年来年平均气温升高了0.8℃, 平均相对湿度降低了6%。也带来了生物多样性丧失, 物种丰富度下降了60%。橡胶林生态经济价值(3 8107元/(hm2·a))仅为热带雨林及次生植被价值量的56.74%。正确处理橡胶种植与经济发展、社会文化以及生态环境之间的关系, 当地可持续发展面临的重要问题。

关键词: 橡胶种植, 经济, 社会, 生态环境, 景洪

Abstract: The special geographical condition and climate have made rubber plantation become an advantage industry in Jinghong city. Since the reform and opening up, rubber planting area in Jinghong has been growing rapidly. Rubber cultivation has changed the agricultural industry structure and increased income level of farmers. Crop planting area decreases gradually, while rubber and tea cultivation show a rising trend. With the main crops cultivated area as the explanatory variable, we have conducted multiple linear regression analysis of the per capita net income, and concluded that regression fitting degree of rubber planting area and the farmers’net income is very high, with an increase of 10 000 hm2 in planting area adding 386 yuan to the per capita net income of farmers. The profit from tea cultivation is higher than that from rubber plantation, but because of soil, temperature, topography and other requirements, tea plant growth is significantly less than the rubber plantation. Per capita net income increase caused by rubber planting area increase accounts for 75.94% of the per capita net income increase since the reform and opening up. Spending on durable consumer goods shows higher correlation with rubber planting area, and its correlation with water output is 0.7045. The spending on consumer durables of townships with lower water output, such as Jingne, Mengwang, is also significantly lower than that of other villages and towns. Rubber plantation has improved people’s living standard, promoted development of transportation, water conservancy, education, expanded social communication range and changed the traditional means of livelihood, thus evoking secularization tendency of religious behavior. The change of forest into rubber plantation has weakened the function of climate regulation, and the climate in this area is changing from hot and humid to dry heat. During the past 30 years, the annual average temperature has risen by 0.8℃, and the average relative humidity has decreased by 6%. In addition, the necessary condition of biological survival has been destroyed and the biodiversity has lost, with species richness having declined by 60%. Ecological economic value of rubber forest(38 107 yuan/hm-2a-1)only accounts for 56.74% of the value of tropical rainforest and secondary vegetation. Correctly handling the relationship between rubber cultivation and economic development, social culture as well as ecological environment is an important issue for the sustainable development of minority nationality regions.

Key words: Rubber Plantation, Economy, Society, Ecological environment, Jinghong