资源科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (9): 1765-1773.

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1961-2012年中国降雪时空变化特征分析

张志富1(), 希爽2, 刘娜1, 余予1, 范邵华1, 冯明农1   

  1. 1. 国家气象信息中心,北京 100081
    2. 国家卫星气象中心,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-16 修回日期:2015-05-13 出版日期:2015-09-25 发布日期:2015-09-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张志富,男,河北唐山人,博士,从事气象资料处理分析研究。E-mail:zzfrain@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(973计划)(2010CB951600);中国气象局气象关键技术集成与应用项目(CMAGJ2014M69);财政部公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201106038);中国气象局气象新技术推广项目(CMATG2008Z12);中国气象局基建项目:“全国自动站实时资料质量控制与综合评估系统建设”

Snowfall change characteristics in China from 1961 to 2012

ZHANG Zhifu1(), XI Shuang2, LIU Na1, YU Yu1, FAN Shaohua1, FENG Mingnong1   

  1. 1. National Meteorological Information Center,Beijing 100081,China
    2. National Satellite Meteorological Center,Beijing 100081,China
  • Received:2015-01-16 Revised:2015-05-13 Online:2015-09-25 Published:2015-09-25

摘要:

利用1961-2012年中国有固态降水观测且序列完整的1 400多站逐日降水量和天气现象数据,建立了完整性较好的降雪序列,选取雪季长度、降雪量、降雪日数、降雪强度和最大降雪量5个指标,分区域研究了中国降雪的时空变化特征。结果表明:中国降雪在空间上主要分布在青藏高原地区、东北地区以及新疆天山以北地区;中国大部分地区降雪量以小雪等级占主要,华中地区以暴雪等级的降雪量占主要;5个区域的降雪日数均以小雪等级占主要,华中地区占65%,其余区域占84%左右;5个区域的雪季长度均为缩短趋势,新疆北部地区主要由于雪季开始期大幅滞后,青藏高原地区、华北地区和华中地区主要由于雪季结束期大幅提前,东北和内蒙古东北部雪季缩短的原因中,雪季开始期滞后和雪季结束期提前各占一半;在降雪的时间变化上,新疆北部地区,降雪量和降雪日数为增加趋势,大雪等级降雪显著增加,东北和内蒙古东北部地区的降雪量和降雪日数无显著变化,其余3个区域的降雪量和降雪日数均有显著减少趋势,其中青藏高原地区暴雪和小雪等级的降雪量显著减少,华北地区的小雪等级降雪量减少显著,华中地区大雪和小雪等级降雪量减少显著。

关键词: 雪季长度, 降雪量, 降雪日数, 趋势分析

Abstract:

The paper studies snowfall change characteristics in China using the relative index of snowfall from 1961 to 2012,based on daily precipitation and human observed weather phenomenon from 1400 stations. Results indicate that the distribution of snowfall is inhomogeneous spatially. The maximum snowfall season range,snowfall value and snowfall days were north of Sinkiang,northeast China and the Tibetan Plateau,respectively. The snowfall value of heavy snow is the chief class in Central China,and the snowfall value of light snow is the chief class in other regions. Snowfall days for light snow is the chief class in all five regions;it is 65% in the Central China and about 84% in other region. The snowfall season range is decreasing in all five regions,the snowfall season end date has evidently moved up in the Tibetan Plateau,North China Plain and Central China;the snowfall season origin date has been delayed north of Sinkiang. Changes are not evident in northeast China. In the time series trend analysis,the snowfall value and snowfall days are increasing north of Sinkiang because,its great snow is increasing. Snowfall days and snowfall value have no evident trend in the northeast of China. In the other regions,the snowfall value and snowfall days are decreasing;heavy snow and light snow are decreasing on the Tibetan Plateau; light snow is decreasing on the North China Plain;and great snow and light snow are decreasing in Central China.

Key words: snowfall season range, snowfall value, snowfall days, trend analysis