资源科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 1322-1331.

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中国核心生态空间的现状、变化及其保护研究

许尔琪(), 张红旗()   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-18 修回日期:2015-06-20 出版日期:2015-07-20 发布日期:2015-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:许尔琪,男,广东汕头人,博士,主要从事土地利用及空间格局、生态环境效应研究。E-mail:xuerqi@gmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    “国土生态安全和优化水土资源配置与空间格局研究”

Land use structure and change of important ecological space in China and protection research

XU Erqi(), ZHANG Hongqi()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2015-05-18 Revised:2015-06-20 Online:2015-07-20 Published:2015-07-20

摘要:

本文综合中国目前的国土区划和生态工程,提取包括水源涵养区、土壤保持区、防风固沙带、洪水调蓄区、河岸防护带和生物多样性保护区等6类国家核心生态空间,划定维护国土安全的生态红线。结果表明,中国核心生态空间面积为339.77万km2,主要分布在中西部地区。核心生态空间内的土地利用构成以林地、草地和湿地为主,耕地和城乡工矿建设用地等比重较低。1980-2008年近30年间,发挥重要生态功能的用地呈减少趋势,而以生产、生活功能为主的用地呈增加态势,区域生态调节、防护和屏障功能削弱。因此,核心生态空间内应严格控制耕地、建设用地的增长,采取有效措施使其“零增长”乃至“负增长”,强调生态红线内林地、草地和湿地的绝对保护。

关键词: 生态空间, 生态红线, 土地利用, 中国

Abstract:

Rapid social and economic development brings a series of serious ecological and environmental problems in China. It calls for overall spatial planning and layout for national security that can coordinate the relationship between social and economic development and ecological protection. Based on national zone planning and ecological engineering,six ecological regulation and protection regions were extracted as national important ecological space in China. The national ecological space includes the water conservation region,soil conservation region,wind-breaking and sand-fixing district,flood regulation region,riparian zone protection district and biodiversity conservation region. The boundary of the important ecological space forms the ecological limit line for maintaining national ecological safety. The important ecological space has a total area of 3 397 700km2 and is mainly located in central and western China. The land use structure has significant differences cross the six regions,indicating some special ecological service values for corresponding regions. The woodland,grassland,wetland and glacier,which play a significantly higher role in ecological regulation and protection,have a higher proportion of total land use structure. In contrast,the farmland,urban,rural construction land and industrial land,which bear the major production and living function,has a lower proportion of land use. In the past 30 years,woodland,grassland,wetland and glaciers have decreased but land with production and living function increased. This increasing human disturbance causes larger burdens for the resource and environment,which weakens ecological regulation,protection and barrier function of China’s important ecological space. We suggest that the growth of arable land and construction land should be strictly controlled and capped. There should also be a strong emphasis on absolute protection of woodland,grassland and wetland.

Key words: ecological space, ecological limit line, land use, China