资源科学 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 815-822.

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东北黑土区小流域侵蚀产沙WaTEM/SEDEM模型模拟

盛美玲1,2(), 方海燕1(), 郭敏1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049;
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-15 修回日期:2015-03-06 出版日期:2015-04-15 发布日期:2015-04-15
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:盛美玲,女,山东曲阜人,硕士生,主要从事土壤侵蚀与水土保持研究。E-mail:shengml.12s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271305)

Modeling soil erosion and sediment yield using WaTEM/SEDEM model for the black soil region of Northeast China

SHENG Meiling1,2(), FANG Haiyan1(), GUO Min1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2014-07-15 Revised:2015-03-06 Online:2015-04-15 Published:2015-04-15

摘要:

东北黑土区是我国重要的商品粮基地。近年来,受自然因素及人类不合理活动的影响,土壤侵蚀严重。土壤侵蚀模型是预测侵蚀产沙的重要工具,WaTEM/SEDEM模型是一个分布式模型,本文以黑龙江省拜泉县25个水库控制流域为研究对象,采用WaTEM/SEDEM模型模拟小流域侵蚀产沙特征,得到如下结论:研究区模型泥沙输移系数KTC最佳组合为0.38和0.55;利用WaTEM/SEDEM模型模拟得到的产沙量(SY)与实际值相近,相关系数为0.95;产沙模数(SSY)的模拟值与实际值相关系数为0.34,相关程度相对较低,但均比回归方程模拟得到的产沙量和产沙模数相关程度高。流域泥沙输移比平均值为0.32。以齐心水库控制流域为例,模型模拟发现,流域平均侵蚀模数为351.2t/(km2·a) ,将齐心水库控制流域模拟结果与临近研究区的有关研究进行对比,证实WaTEM/SEDEM在黑土区模拟流域侵蚀产沙有很好的应用前景。该研究可为黑土区土壤侵蚀与水土保持措施实施提供科学依据。

关键词: 东北黑土区, 小流域, 侵蚀产沙, WaTEM/SEDEM, 齐心水库

Abstract:

The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important grain bases in China. In recent years,severe soil erosion in this region has been a threat to agricultural production. Soil and sediment transport models are important tools that predict soil erosion and sediment yield under different conditions. However,other models are rarely used except for the RUSLE and slope version WEPP models in the black soil region of Northeast China. The Water and Tillage Erosion Model and Sediment Delivery Model (WaTEM/SEDEM) was developed as a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model and is similar to the (R)USLE model. It can spatially model soil erosion and sediment deposition rates and soil redistribution patterns. In this study,the WaTEM/SEDEM model was applied to 25 dam-controlled catchments in Baiquan county in the black soil region. Transport capacity coefficients (KTC) in the model were first calibrated using sediment yield data of 14 dam-controlled catchments and validated using the remaining 11 dam-controlled catchments. Therefore the optimal KTC-values of the WaTEM/SEDEM model were 0.38 and 0.55. The correlation coefficient values of sediment yield(SY) and area specific sediment yield (SSY) between observed and predicted values were 0.95 and 0.34,respectively. The simulated results of sediment yield using the WaTEM/SEDEM model were good and the simulated mean sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for the 25 dam-controlled catchments was 0.32. Finally,the calibrated WaTEM/SEDEM was applied to the Qixin dam-controlled catchment. Simulated results showed that the mean soil erosion rate is 351.2t/(km2·a). Erosion rates vary with land use types and slops. Comparison of this study to published results demonstrates that WaTEM/SEDEM gives satisfactory result for the study region. This study provides a basis for the implementation of erosion control measurements in the black soil region,Northeast China.

Key words: black soil region of Northeast China, small catchment, soil erosion and sediment yield, WaTEM/SEDEM, Qixin dam