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土壤类型对三江平原土地利用/覆被变化的影响

金翠, 李方, 刘殿伟, 宋开山, 王宗明, 杨婷, 张柏, 张树清   

  1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130012
  • 出版日期:2008-05-15 发布日期:2008-05-15
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(编号:KZCX3-SW-356)。

Impact of Soil Type on Land Use/Cover Change in Sanjiang Plain

JIN Cui, LI Fang, LIU Dian-wei, SONG Kai-shan, WANG Zong-ming, YANG Ting, ZHANG Bai, ZHANG Shu-qing   

  • Online:2008-05-15 Published:2008-05-15

摘要: 作为我国重要的粮食生产基地和淡水湿地集中分布区,三江平原对于保障国家粮食安全和区域生态安全具有举足轻重的地位。由于人类活动的剧烈影响,过去50年期间,三江平原土地利用/覆被发生了显著变化。本文在分析1954年~2005年三江平原土地利用/覆被变化过程的基础上,深入探索了土壤类型对土地利用/覆被变化过程的影响。结果表明,过去50余年中,三江平原土地利用/覆被变化剧烈,其中耕地增加了2.25倍,增加面积为385.55×104hm2。与耕地面积相对应的是湿地、林地和草地的大幅度减少,减少面积分别为256.72×104hm2、66.92×104hm2和57.65×104hm2。草甸土、白浆土、沼泽土、暗棕壤和黑土为土地利用变化最为剧烈的几种土壤类型,农业开垦活动和耕地面积的增加是研究区土地利用变化的主要特征和主导因素,湿地、林地和草地减少区域的土壤类型与耕地增加区域的主要土壤类型一致。三江平原耕地开垦对土壤类型的选择顺序为:草甸土、白浆土→沼泽土→暗棕壤。这一现象表明耕地开垦首先从自然条件相对优良的土壤资源草甸土、白浆土进行开发;随着草甸土和白浆土面积的迅速减少,沼泽土于1986年~1995年和1995年~2000年期间成为耕地开发最多的土壤类型;随着以上3种土壤类型中可开垦的土地资源减少,暗棕壤于2000年~2005年期间成为耕地开发最多的土壤类型。

关键词: 土地利用/覆被变化, 遥感, 土壤类型, 三江平原

Abstract: As an area recognized for grain production and abundant wetlands, the Sanjiang plain plays an important role in safeguarding national grain security and regional ecological security. Due to the impacts of intensive human activity, land use/cover in this region changed remarkably during the past five decades. This paper analyzes land use/cover change during 1954~2005 and explores the impact of soil type on land use and land cover change processes. During the past five decades, land use in the Sanjiang Plain changed substantially, with cropland area increasing by 2.25 times (385.56×104hm2). Meanwhile, wetland, woodland and grassland area decreased by 256.72×104hm2, 66.92×104hm2 and 57.65×104hm2. Meadow soil, bleached soil, marsh soil, dark brown soil and black soil were the soil types with the largest area of land use change. Agricultural reclamation and increasing cropland area are the main processes behind regional land use change. There was consistency between soil types where wetland, woodland and grassland decreased and soil types where cropland increased. The sequence of preferred soil type for cropland reclamation is: meadow soil, bleached soil, marsh soil and dark brown soil. Cropland reclamation began with meadow soils and bleached soils, which have relatively good natural conditions. As the availability of these soil types decreased, marsh soil became the soil type where most agricultural reclamation activities happened during 1986~1995 and 1995~2000. Later, dark brown soil was the soil type where most cropland reclamation activities occurred during 2000~2005, due to the reduced availability of land in the other preferred soil types.

Key words: Land use/cover change, Remote sensing, Soil type, Sanjiang Plain