资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1759-1771.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.09.02

• 碳排放 • 上一篇    下一篇

激励约束视角下中国碳市场的碳减排效应

张晗1(), 孟佶贤2()   

  1. 1.中共中央党校(国家行政学院)国际战略研究院,北京 100091
    2.北京林业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2022-06-07 修回日期:2022-08-31 出版日期:2022-09-25 发布日期:2022-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 孟佶贤,男,甘肃天水人,博士,讲师,研究方向为数量经济学。E-mail: mengjx@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张晗,女,吉林长春人,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为气候变化经济学。E-mail: zhanghan@nsd.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目(72101253)

Carbon emission abatement effect of China’s carbon market from the perspective of incentives and constraints

ZHANG Han1(), MENG Jixian2()   

  1. 1. Institute for International Strategic Studies, Party School of the Central Committee of C.P.C, Beijing 100091, China
    2. School of Economics and Management, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2022-06-07 Revised:2022-08-31 Online:2022-09-25 Published:2022-11-25

摘要:

碳排放权交易市场是中国实现碳达峰、碳中和的重要经济手段。为系统性探究碳市场的碳减排机制,本文聚焦于“两省五市”试点碳市场的政策差异性,利用2014—2020年市级数据,分别从激励机制和约束机制视角进行实证检验。研究表明:①就碳市场的激励机制而言,碳定价水平是影响碳市场碳减排效应的核心要素,碳市场的交易活动总体而言则没有显著影响;②然而,碳市场的交易活动对碳减排具有碳价格的门槛效应,当碳价达到一定水平后,碳价才会通过碳交易对碳减排发挥显著作用;③就碳市场的约束机制而言,约束性政策主要集中在碳市场的非交易环节,其中配额政策的碳减排效应显著,而监督、报告、核查政策(MRV)和惩罚政策尚未显现出对于碳减排的约束力。因此,为充分发挥碳市场的碳减排效应,建议引导碳市场形成能够反应碳减排成本的碳定价水平、尽快建立碳市场的最低限价制度、采取相对严格的碳配额核定方法等约束性政策。

关键词: 碳市场, 碳减排效应, 碳定价, 激励机制, 约束机制

Abstract:

The carbon emissions trading market is an important economic tool for China to achieve its carbon peaking and neutrality goals. To systematically explore the carbon market’s emission reduction mechanism, this study focused on the system differences between seven carbon markets located in two provinces and five cities in China. Using municipal data from 2014 to 2020, we empirically examined the incentive and constraint mechanisms of the carbon market. The results show that: (1) In terms of the incentives for emission trading systems, carbon price is the core element that affects the carbon abatement effect, while such effect does not mainly come from carbon allowance trading; (2) Carbon allowance trading has a carbon price threshold effect on carbon abatement; only when the carbon price reaches a certain level, it will reduce carbon emission through trading; (3) In terms of constraints, the binding policies mainly stay in the non-trading stages; quota allocation is the core policy in the process of decarbonization, while the constraints of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) and punishment policy are not apparent yet. In conclusion, we recommend that: First, carbon emission trading should be encouraged to form a reasonable carbon price that can reflect the gradually increasing reduction costs of participating parties; Second, a floor price for the carbon allowance needs to be taken into consideration; Third, a relatively strict carbon quota allocation policy needs to be formulated.

Key words: emission trading system, carbon abatement effect, carbon pricing, incentive mechanism, constraint mechanism