资源科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 620-633.doi: 10.18402/resci.2022.03.15

• 旅游资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

自然保护地旅游承载力多情景核算——以云南泸沽湖为例

李鹏1(), 李晨阳2, 沈梦婷1, 杨亚娜3, 赵敏2(), 杨桂华1   

  1. 1.云南大学工商管理与旅游管理学院,昆明 650504
    2.云南大学建筑与规划学院,昆明 650500
    3.云南旅游职业学院旅游管理学院,昆明 650221
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-20 修回日期:2021-11-16 出版日期:2022-03-25 发布日期:2022-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵敏,女,云南昆明人,副教授,研究方向为遗产保护、保护地与空间规划。E-mail: zhaomin@ynu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李鹏,男,湖南南县人,教授,研究方向为保护地与游憩、生态旅游。E-mail: leap@ynu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761111);国家自然科学基金项目(41361107)

Multi-scenario accounting of tourism carrying capacity in nature protected areas: Taking the Lugu Lake Nature Reserve in Yunnan as a case

LI Peng1(), LI Chenyang2, SHEN Mengting1, YANG Yana3, ZHAO Min2(), YANG Guihua1   

  1. 1. School of Business and Tourism Management, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, China
    2. School of Architecture and Planning, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
    3. Tourism Management College, Yunnan Tourism Vocational College, Kunming 650221, China
  • Received:2021-08-20 Revised:2021-11-16 Online:2022-03-25 Published:2022-05-25

摘要:

确定旅游承载力是处理自然保护地人地关系的重要手段,也是影响旅游地可持续发展的核心关键。以云南泸沽湖省级自然保护区为例,综合多源数据,利用“双评价”、容量转换等方法计算旅游承载力。结果发现:①泸沽湖具有“三区合一”的典型特征,由自然保护区、社区、景区3类空间叠加而成。自然保护区资源环境承载力等于社区人口负荷与景区旅游承载力之和。空间供给、资源消耗、设施提供和管理水平共同影响旅游承载力,其中空间供给是关键的制约因素;②依照“确定总量—减去存量—计算余量”的逻辑思路,计算出自然保护区适宜土地面积,获得特定建成情景下的资源环境承载力,减去社区人口负荷得到保护区承载力余量,可进一步转换为景区旅游承载力;③维持风景旅游型城镇建成环境条件下,泸沽湖高适宜的土地面积仅为298.54 hm2,占保护区总面积的3.67%;资源环境条件可支撑19920人,承载力余量为15918人,经过转换后可得旅游承载力为11938人/日;④针对短板的限制作用,提出采取倾斜木桶、延长长板等措施,为景区旅游承载力扩容提供思路。研究可为“三区合一”型自然保护地旅游承载力测算提供技术支撑,有利于保护地科学治理。

关键词: 自然保护地, 三区合一, 旅游承载力, 容量转换, 云南省, 泸沽湖省级自然保护区

Abstract:

Determining tourism carrying capacity is an important means to examine the relationship between people and land in nature reserves, which is a key to the sustainable development of tourism destinations. Taking the Yunnan Lugu Lake Provincial Nature Reserve as an example and based on multi-source data, this study calculated the tourism carrying capacity using methods such as “double evaluation” and capacity conversion. The results show that: (1) Lugu is a typical “three-functions-in-one area” where nature reserves, local communities, and scenic spots overlap. The resource and environmental carrying capacity of a nature reserve is equal to the sum of the community population load and the tourism carrying capacity of the scenic spot. Space supply, resource consumption, facility provision, and management level together affect tourism carrying capacity, and space supply is the key restricting factor. (2) By determining the total amount, subtracting the stock, and calculating the remaining capacity, this study calculated the suitable land area of the nature reserve, obtained the resource and environmental carrying capacity under specific development scenarios, and subtracted the community population load to obtain the carrying capacity of the reserve. It was further transformed into the tourism carrying capacity of the scenic spots. (3) Under the condition of maintaining the built-up environment of scenic and tourism-oriented towns, the area of land with high suitability in Lugu is only 298.54 hm2, accounting for 3.67% of the total area of the protected area; the resource and environmental conditions can support 19920 people, and the remaining carrying capacity is 15918 people. After the conversion, the available tourism carrying capacity is 11938 people/day. (4) In view of the limitation of short boards, measures such as tilting wooden barrels and extending long boards are proposed to provide ideas for the expansion of tourism carrying capacity of the scenic spots. The results of this research may provide some support for the calculation of the tourism carrying capacity of “three-functions-in-one area” nature reserve, which is beneficial to the management of protected areas.

Key words: nature protected area, three-functions-in-one area, tourism carrying capacity, capacity conversion, Yunnan Province, the Lugu Lake Provincial Nature Reserve